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1.  C2Maps: a network pharmacology database with comprehensive disease-gene-drug connectivity relationships 
BMC Genomics  2012;13(Suppl 6):S17.
Background
Network pharmacology has emerged as a new topic of study in recent years. It aims to study the myriad relationships among proteins, drugs, and disease phenotypes. The concept of molecular connectivity maps has been proposed to establish comprehensive knowledge links between molecules of interest in a given biological context. Molecular connectivity maps between drugs and genes/proteins in specific disease contexts can be particularly valuable, since the functional approach with these maps helps researchers gain global perspectives on both the therapeutic profiles and toxicological profiles of candidate drugs.
Methods
To assess drug pharmacological effect, we assume that "ideal" drugs for a patient can treat or prevent the disease by modulating gene expression profiles of this patient to the similar level with those in healthy people. Starting from this hypothesis, we build comprehensive disease-gene-drug connectivity relationships with drug-protein directionality (inhibit/activate) information based on a computational connectivity maps (C2Maps) platform. An interactive interface for directionality annotation of drug-protein pairs with literature evidences from PubMed has been added to the new version of C2Maps. We also upload the curated directionality information of drug-protein pairs specific for three complex diseases - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and Alzheimer disease.
Results
For relevant drug-protein pairs with directionality information, we use breast cancer as a case study to demonstrate the functionality of disease-specific searching. Based on the results obtained from searching, we perform pharmacological effect evaluation for two important breast cancer drugs on treating patients diagnosed with different breast cancer subtypes. The evaluation is performed on a well-studied breast cancer gene expression microarray dataset to portray how useful the updated C2Maps is in assessing drug efficacy and toxicity information.
Conclusions
The C2Maps platform is an online bioinformatics resource that provides biologists with directional relationships between drugs and genes/proteins in specific disease contexts based on network mining, literature mining, and drug effect annotating. A new insight to assess overall drug efficacy and toxicity can be provided by using the C2Maps platform to identify disease relevant proteins and drugs. The case study on breast cancer correlates very well with the existing pharmacology of the two breast cancer drugs and highlights the significance of C2Maps database.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-S6-S17
PMCID: PMC3481399  PMID: 23134618
2.  PAGED: a pathway and gene-set enrichment database to enable molecular phenotype discoveries 
BMC Bioinformatics  2012;13(Suppl 15):S2.
Background
Over the past decade, pathway and gene-set enrichment analysis has evolved into the study of high-throughput functional genomics. Owing to poorly annotated and incomplete pathway data, researchers have begun to combine pathway and gene-set enrichment analysis as well as network module-based approaches to identify crucial relationships between different molecular mechanisms.
Methods
To meet the new challenge of molecular phenotype discovery, in this work, we have developed an integrated online database, the Pathway And Gene Enrichment Database (PAGED), to enable comprehensive searches for disease-specific pathways, gene signatures, microRNA targets, and network modules by integrating gene-set-based prior knowledge as molecular patterns from multiple levels: the genome, transcriptome, post-transcriptome, and proteome.
Results
The online database we developed, PAGED http://bio.informatics.iupui.edu/PAGED is by far the most comprehensive public compilation of gene sets. In its current release, PAGED contains a total of 25,242 gene sets, 61,413 genes, 20 organisms, and 1,275,560 records from five major categories. Beyond its size, the advantage of PAGED lies in the explorations of relationships between gene sets as gene-set association networks (GSANs). Using colorectal cancer expression data analysis as a case study, we demonstrate how to query this database resource to discover crucial pathways, gene signatures, and gene network modules specific to colorectal cancer functional genomics.
Conclusions
This integrated online database lays a foundation for developing tools beyond third-generation pathway analysis approaches on for discovering molecular phenotypes, especially for disease-associated pathway/gene-set enrichment analysis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-13-S15-S2
PMCID: PMC3439733  PMID: 23046413
3.  Reordering based integrative expression profiling for microarray classification 
BMC Bioinformatics  2012;13(Suppl 2):S1.
Background
Current network-based microarray analysis uses the information of interactions among concerned genes/gene products, but still considers each gene expression individually. We propose an organized knowledge-supervised approach - Integrative eXpression Profiling (IXP), to improve microarray classification accuracy, and help discover groups of genes that have been too weak to detect individually by traditional ways. To implement IXP, ant colony optimization reordering (ACOR) algorithm is used to group functionally related genes in an ordered way.
Results
Using Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an example, we demonstrate how to apply ACOR-based IXP approach into microarray classifications. Using a microarray dataset - GSE1297 with 31 samples as training set, the result for the blinded classification on another microarray dataset - GSE5281 with 151 samples, shows that our approach can improve accuracy from 74.83% to 82.78%. A recently-published 1372-probe signature for AD can only achieve 61.59% accuracy in the same condition. The ACOR-based IXP approach also has better performance than the IXP approach based on classic network ranking, graph clustering, and random-ordering methods in an overall classification performance comparison.
Conclusions
The ACOR-based IXP approach can serve as a knowledge-supervised feature transformation approach to increase classification accuracy dramatically, by transforming each gene expression profile to an integrated expression files as features inputting into standard classifiers. The IXP approach integrates both gene expression information and organized knowledge - disease gene/protein network topology information, which is represented as both network node weights (local topological properties) and network node orders (global topological characteristics).
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-13-S2-S1
PMCID: PMC3583189  PMID: 22536860
4.  HPD: an online integrated human pathway database enabling systems biology studies 
BMC Bioinformatics  2009;10(Suppl 11):S5.
Background
Pathway-oriented experimental and computational studies have led to a significant accumulation of biological knowledge concerning three major types of biological pathway events: molecular signaling events, gene regulation events, and metabolic reaction events. A pathway consists of a series of molecular pathway events that link molecular entities such as proteins, genes, and metabolites. There are approximately 300 biological pathway resources as of April 2009 according to the Pathguide database; however, these pathway databases generally have poor coverage or poor quality, and are difficult to integrate, due to syntactic-level and semantic-level data incompatibilities.
Results
We developed the Human Pathway Database (HPD) by integrating heterogeneous human pathway data that are either curated at the NCI Pathway Interaction Database (PID), Reactome, BioCarta, KEGG or indexed from the Protein Lounge Web sites. Integration of pathway data at syntactic, semantic, and schematic levels was based on a unified pathway data model and data warehousing-based integration techniques. HPD provides a comprehensive online view that connects human proteins, genes, RNA transcripts, enzymes, signaling events, metabolic reaction events, and gene regulatory events. At the time of this writing HPD includes 999 human pathways and more than 59,341 human molecular entities. The HPD software provides both a user-friendly Web interface for online use and a robust relational database backend for advanced pathway querying. This pathway tool enables users to 1) search for human pathways from different resources by simply entering genes/proteins involved in pathways or words appearing in pathway names, 2) analyze pathway-protein association, 3) study pathway-pathway similarity, and 4) build integrated pathway networks. We demonstrated the usage and characteristics of the new HPD through three breast cancer case studies.
Conclusion
HPD http://bio.informatics.iupui.edu/HPD is a new resource for searching, managing, and studying human biological pathways. Users of HPD can search against large collections of human biological pathways, compare related pathways and their molecular entity compositions, and build high-quality, expanded-scope disease pathway models. The current HPD software can help users address a wide range of pathway-related questions in human disease biology studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-S11-S5
PMCID: PMC3226194  PMID: 19811689

Results 1-4 (4)