Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) circulates systemically in over 50% of periodontal disease (PD) patients and is associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. We hypothesized that low systemic Pg-LPS would stimulate an inflammatory response in the left ventricle (LV) through MMP-9, leading to a decrease in cardiac function. Wild type (WT) and MMP-9 Null mice (4-7 months old) were exposed for 1 or 28 days to low dose Pg-LPS or saline (n≥6/group). MMP-9 significantly increased in WT LV at 1 and 28 days of exposure, compared to control (p<0.05 for both). Fractional shortening decreased subtly yet significantly in WT by d28 (31±1%) compared to control (35±1%; p<0.05), and this decrease was attenuated in Null (34±1%). Plasma cardiac troponin I levels were elevated in WT mice at d28. Macrophage related factors increased over 2-fold in WT plasma and LV after d1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-5, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1γ, stem cell factor, Ccl12, Ccl9, Il8rb, Icam1, Itgb2, and Spp1; all p<0.05), indicating a moderate inflammatory response. Levels returned to baseline by d28, suggesting tolerance to Pg-LPS. In contrast, macrophage related factors remained elevated in d28 Null, indicating a sustained defense against Pg-LPS stimulation. Consistent with these findings, LV macrophage numbers increased in both groups at d1 and returned to baseline by d28 in the WT only. Major histocompatibility complex (MCH) II remained elevated in the Null group at d28, confirming Pg-tolerance in the WT. Interestingly Il-1α, a regulator of macrophage immunosuppression, increased in the plasma of WT only at d28, suggesting Il-1α plays a role in tolerance in a MMP-9 dependent manner. In conclusion, circulating Pg-LPS induced tolerance in WT, resulting in significant LV changes and subtle cardiac dysfunction. MMP-9 played a major role in the regulation of chronic systemic inflammation and associated cardiac dysfunction.
Matrix metalloproteinase-9; cardiac function; periodontal disease; inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis
The left ventricle (LV) responds to a myocardial infarction (MI) with an orchestrated sequence of events that results in fundamental changes to both the structure and function of the myocardium. This collection of responses is termed LV remodeling. Myocardial ischemia resulting in necrosis is the initiating event that culminates in the formation of an extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich infarct scar that replaces necrotic myocytes. While the cardiomyocyte is the major cell type that responds to ischemia, infiltrating leukocytes and cardiac fibroblasts coordinate the subsequent wound healing response. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of enzymes regulates the inflammatory and ECM responses that modulate scar formation. Matridomics is the proteomic evaluation focused on ECM, while degradomics is the proteomic evaluation of proteases as well as their inhibitors and substrates. This review will summarize the use of proteomics to better understand MMP roles in post-MI LV remodeling.
matridomics; degradomics; matrix metalloproteinases; myocardial infarction; proteomics
myocardial infarction; left ventricular remodeling; extracellular matrix; matrix metalloproteinases
Adverse cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) remains a significant cause of congestive heart failure. Additional and novel strategies that improve our ability to predict, diagnose, or treat remodeling are needed. Numerous groups have explored single and multiple biomarker strategies to identify diagnostic prognosticators of remodeling progression, which will improve our ability to promptly and accurately identify high-risk individuals. The identification of better clinical indicators should further lead to more effective prediction and timely treatment.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) is one potential biomarker for cardiac remodeling, as demonstrated by both animal models and clinical studies. In animal MI models, MMP-9 expression significantly increases and is linked with inflammation, diabetic microvascular complications, extracellular matrix degradation and synthesis, and cardiac dysfunction. Clinical studies have also established a relationship between MMP-9 and post-MI remodeling and mortality, making MMP-9 a viable candidate to add to the multiple biomarker list.
By definition, a proximal biomarker shows a close relationship with its target disease, whereas a distal biomarker exhibits non-targeted disease modifying outcomes. In this review, we explore the ability of MMP-9 to serve as a proximal biomarker for cardiac remodeling and a distal biomarker for inflammation. We summarize the current molecular basis and clinical platform that allow us to include MMP-9 as a biomarker in both categories.
biomarker; cardiovascular; congestive heart failure; inflammation; MMP-9; myocardial infarction
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a collagen-binding matricellular protein, has been implicated in procollagen processing and deposition. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and SPARC-dependent changes in protein composition of the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM). We studied 6 groups of mice (n = 4/group): young (4-5 months old), middle-aged (11-12 m.o.), and old (18–29 m.o.) C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and SPARC null. The left ventricle (LV) was decellularized to enrich for ECM proteins. Protein extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in-gel, and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Relative quantification was performed by spectral counting, and changes in specific proteins were validated by immunoblotting. We identified 321 proteins, of which 44 proteins were extracellular proteins. Of these proteins, collagen III levels were lower in the old null mice compared to WT, suggestive of a role for SPARC in collagen deposition. Additionally, fibrillin showed a significant increase in the null middle-aged group, suggestive of increased microfibril deposition in the absence of SPARC. Collagen VI increased with age in both genotypes (>3-fold), while collagen IV showed increased age-associated levels only in the WT animals (4-fold, P < 0.05). These changes may explain the previously reported age-associated increases in LV stiffness. In summary, our data suggest SPARC is a possible therapeutic target for aging induced LV dysfunction.
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rapid advances in the treatment of acute MI have significantly improved short-term outcomes in patient, due in large part to successes in preventing myocardial cell death and limiting infarct area during the time of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) play key roles in post-MI cardiac remodeling and in the development of adverse outcomes. This review highlights the importance of MMPs in the injury and remodeling response of the left ventricle and also discusses their potential as therapeutic targets Additional pre-clinical and clinical research is needed to further investigate and understand the cardioprotective effects of MMPs inhibitors.
myocardial infarction; left ventricle; extracellular matrix; matrix metalloproteinases; left ventricle remodeling
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-28 regulates the inflammatory and extracellular matrix (ECM) responses in cardiac aging, but the roles of MMP-28 after myocardial infarction (MI) have not been explored.
To determine the impact of MMP-28 deletion on post-MI remodeling of the left ventricle (LV)
Methods and Results
Adult C57BL/6J wild type (WT, n=76) and MMP null (MMP-28−/−, n=86) mice of both sexes were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation to create MI. MMP-28 expression decreased post-MI, and its cell source shifted from myocytes to macrophages. MMP-28 deletion increased day 7 mortality as a result of increased cardiac rupture post-MI. MMP-28−/− mice exhibited larger LV volumes, worse LV dysfunction, a worse LV remodeling index, and increased lung edema. Plasma MMP-9 levels were unchanged in the MMP-28−/− mice but increased in WT mice at day 7 post-MI. The mRNA levels of inflammatory and ECM proteins were attenuated in the infarct regions of MMP-28−/− mice, indicating reduced inflammatory and ECM responses. M2 macrophage activation was impaired when MMP-28 was absent. MMP-28 deletion also led to decreased collagen deposition and fewer myofibroblasts. Collagen cross-linking was impaired, due to decreased expression and activation of lysyl oxidase in the infarcts of MMP-28−/− mice. The LV tensile strength at day 3 post-MI, however, was similar between the two genotypes
MMP-28 deletion aggravated MI induced LV dysfunction and rupture, due to defective inflammatory response and scar formation by suppressing M2 macrophage activation.
Myocardial infarction; MMP-28; fibroblast; macrophage phenotype; inflammation
The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural support by serving as a scaffold for cells, and as such the ECM maintains normal tissue homeostasis and mediates the repair response following injury. In response to myocardial infarction (MI), ECM expression is generally upregulated in the left ventricle (LV), which regulates LV remodeling by modulating scar formation. The ECM directly affects scar formation by regulating growth factor release and cell adhesion, and indirectly affects scar formation by regulating the inflammatory, angiogenic, and fibroblast responses. This review summarizes the current literature on ECM expression patterns and fibroblast mechanisms in the myocardium, focusing on the ECM response to MI. In addition, we discuss future research areas that are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms of ECM action, both in general and as a means to optimize infarct healing.
extracellular matrix; myocardial infarction; fibroblasts; cardiac myocytes; cell-ECM communication; proteomics
Following myocardial infarction (MI), activated macrophages infiltrate into the necrotic myocardium as part of a robust pro-inflammatory response and secrete matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Macrophage activation, in turn, modulates the fibrotic response, in part by stimulating fibroblast extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. We hypothesized that overexpression of human MMP-9 in mouse macrophages would amplify the inflammatory and fibrotic responses to exacerbate left ventricular dysfunction. Unexpectedly, at day 5 post-MI, ejection fraction was improved in transgenic (TG) mice (25±2%) compared to the wild type (WT) mice (18±2%; p<0.05). By gene expression profiling, 23 of 84 inflammatory genes were decreased in the left ventricle infarct (LVI) region from the TG compared to WT mice (all p<0.05). Concomitantly, TG macrophages isolated from the LVI, as well as TG peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS, showed decreased inflammatory marker expression compared to WT macrophages. In agreement with attenuated inflammation, only 7 of 84 cell adhesion and ECM genes were increased in the TG LVI compared to WT LVI, while 43 genes were decreased (all p<0.05). These results reveal a novel role for macrophage-derived MMP-9 in blunting the inflammatory response and limiting ECM synthesis to improve left ventricular function post-MI.
myocardial infarction; matrix metalloproteinase-9; extracellular matrix; inflammation; cardiac remodeling; mice; macrophage
Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) circulates systemically in over 50% of periodontal disease (PD) patients and is associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. We hypothesized that low systemic Pg-LPS would stimulate an inflammatory response in the left ventricle (LV) through MMP-9, leading to a decrease in cardiac function. Wild-type (WT) and MMP-9 null mice (4–7 months old) were exposed for 1 or 28 days to low dose Pg-LPS or saline (n ≥ 6/group). MMP-9 significantly increased in WT mice LV at 1 and 28 days of exposure, compared to control (P < 0.05 for both). Fractional shortening decreased subtly yet significantly in WT mice by day 28 (31 ± 1%) compared to control (35 ± 1%; P < 0.05), and this decrease was attenuated in null (34 ± 1%) mice. Plasma cardiac troponin I levels were elevated in WT mice at day 28. Macrophage-related factors increased over twofold in WT plasma and LV after day 1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-5, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1γ, stem cell factor, Ccl12, Ccl9, Il8rb, Icam1, Itgb2, and Spp1; all P < 0.05), indicating a moderate inflammatory response. Levels returned to baseline by day 28, suggesting tolerance to Pg-LPS. In contrast, macrophage-related factors remained elevated in day 28 null mice, indicating a sustained defense against Pg-LPS stimulation. Consistent with these findings, LV macrophage numbers increased in both groups at day 1 and returned to baseline by day 28 in the WT mice only. Major histocompatibility complex (MCH) II remained elevated in the null group at day 28, confirming Pg-tolerance in the WT. Interestingly Il-1α, a regulator of macrophage immunosuppression, increased in the plasma of WT mice only on day 28, suggesting that Il-1α plays a role in tolerance in a MMP-9-dependent manner. In conclusion, circulating Pg-LPS induced tolerance in WT mice, resulting in significant LV changes and subtle cardiac dysfunction. MMP-9 played a major role in the regulation of chronic systemic inflammation and associated cardiac dysfunction.
Cardiac function; inflammation; matrix metalloproteinase-9; periodontal disease; Porphyromonas gingivalis; proteomics
Editorial; Extracellular Matrix Proteomics; Extracellular Matrix; Ischemia-Reperfusion; Proteomics
Survival following myocardial infarction (MI) has improved substantially over the last 40 years; however, the incidence of subsequent congestive heart failure has dramatically increased as a consequence. Discovering plasma markers that signify adverse cardiac remodeling may allow high-risk patients to be recognized earlier and may provide an improved way to assess treatment efficacy. Alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulate cardiac remodeling following MI and potentially provide a large array of candidate indicators.
The field of cardiac proteomics has progressed rapidly over the past 20 years, since publication of the first two-dimensional electrophoretic gels of left ventricle proteins. Proteomic approaches are now routinely utilized to better understand how the left ventricle responds to injury.
In this review, we will discuss how methods have developed to allow comprehensive evaluation of the ECM proteome. We will explain how ECM proteomic data can be used to predict adverse remodeling for an individual patient and highlight future directions. Although this review will focus on the use of ECM proteomics to better understand post-MI remodeling responses, these approaches have applicability to a wide-range of cardiac pathologies, including pressure overload hypertrophy, viral myocarditis, and non-ischemic heart failure.
proteomics; remodeling; myocardial infarction; biomarker; MMP
Aims: Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are mitochondrial flavoenzymes responsible for neurotransmitter and biogenic amines catabolism. MAO-A contributes to heart failure progression via enhanced norepinephrine catabolism and oxidative stress. The potential pathogenetic role of the isoenzyme MAO-B in cardiac diseases is currently unknown. Moreover, it is has not been determined yet whether MAO activation can directly affect mitochondrial function. Results: In wild type mice, pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) resulted in enhanced dopamine catabolism, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and dysfunction. Conversely, mice lacking MAO-B (MAO-B−/−) subjected to TAC maintained concentric hypertrophy accompanied by extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation, and preserved LV function, both at early (3 weeks) and late stages (9 weeks). Enhanced MAO activation triggered oxidative stress, and dropped mitochondrial membrane potential in the presence of ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin both in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes. The MAO-B inhibitor pargyline completely offset this change, suggesting that MAO activation induces a latent mitochondrial dysfunction, causing these organelles to hydrolyze ATP. Moreover, MAO-dependent aldehyde formation due to inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity also contributed to alter mitochondrial bioenergetics. Innovation: Our study unravels a novel role for MAO-B in the pathogenesis of heart failure, showing that both MAO-driven reactive oxygen species production and impaired aldehyde metabolism affect mitochondrial function. Conclusion: Under conditions of chronic hemodynamic stress, enhanced MAO-B activity is a major determinant of cardiac structural and functional disarrangement. Both increased oxidative stress and the accumulation of aldehyde intermediates are likely liable for these adverse morphological and mechanical changes by directly targeting mitochondria. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 267–280.
We have previously shown that cardiac sarcopenia occurs with age in C57/BL6J mice. However, underlying mechanisms and plasma biomarkers of cardiac aging have not been identified. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify and evaluate plasma biomarkers that reflect cardiac aging phenotypes.
Methods and Results
Plasma from adult (7.5±0.5 months old, n=27) and senescent (31.7±0.5 months old, n=25) C57/BL6J mice was collected and levels of 69 markers were measured by multi-analyte profiling. Of these, 26 analytes were significantly increased and 3 were significantly decreased in the senescent group compared to the adult group. The majority of analytes that increased in the senescent group were inflammatory markers associated with macrophage functions, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL-2). Immunoblotting (n=12/ group) showed higher MMP-9 and MCP-1 levels in the left ventricle (LV) of senescent mice (p<0.05), and their expression levels in the LV correlated with plasma levels (rho=0.50 for MMP-9 and rho=0.62 for MCP1, p<0.05). Further, increased plasma MCP-1 and MMP-9 levels correlated with the increase in end diastolic dimensions that occurs with senescence. Immunohistochemistry (n=3/ group) for Mac-3, a macrophage marker, showed increased macrophage densities in the senescent LV; and dual labeling immunohistochemistry of Mac-3 and MMP-9 revealed robust co-localization of MMP-9 to the macrophages in the senescent LV sections, indicating that the macrophage is a major contributor of MMP-9 in the senescent LV.
Our results suggest that MCP-1 and MMP-9 are potential plasma markers for cardiac aging and that augmented MCP-1 and MMP-9 levels and macrophage content in the LV could provide an underlying inflammatory mechanism of cardiac aging.
aging; biomarker; macrophage; metalloproteinase; myocardium
Following myocardial infarction (MI), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels increase, and MMP-9 deletion improves post-MI remodeling of the left ventricle (LV). We provide here a technical report on plasma-analysis from wild type (WT) and MMP-9 null mice using fractionation and mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in male WT and MMP-9 null mice (4–8 months old; n = 3/genotype). Plasma was collected on days 0 (pre-) and 1 post-MI. Plasma proteins were fractionated and proteins in the lowest (fraction 1) and highest (fraction 12) molecular weight fractions were separated by 1-D SDS-PAGE, digested in-gel with trypsin and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS on an Orbitrap Velos. We tried five different fractionation protocols, before reaching an optimized protocol that allowed us to identify over 100 proteins. Serum amyloid A substantially increased post-MI in both genotypes, while alpha-2 macroglobulin increased only in the null samples. In fraction 12, extracellular matrix proteins were observed only post-MI. Interestingly, fibronectin-1, a substrate of MMP-9, was identified at both day 0 and day 1 post-MI in the MMP-9 null mice but was only identified post-MI in the WT mice. In conclusion, plasma fractionation offers an improved depletion-free method to evaluate plasma changes following MI.
Inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling are important components regulating the response of the left ventricle (LV) to myocardial infarction (MI). Significant cellular and molecular level contributors can be identified by analyzing data acquired through high-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies that provide expression levels for thousands of genes and proteins. Large scale data provide both temporal and spatial information that need to be analyzed and interpreted using systems biology approaches in order to integrate this information into dynamic models that predict and explain mechanisms of cardiac healing post-MI. In this review, we summarize the systems biology approaches needed to computationally simulate post-MI remodeling, including data acquisition, data analysis for biomarker classification and identification, data integration to build dynamic models, and data interpretation for biological functions. An example for applying a systems biology approach to ECM remodeling is presented as a reference illustration.
mathematical modeling; differential equations; biclustering; myocardial infarction; matrix metalloproteinase; LV remodeling; review
Negative elongation factor (NELF) is known to enforce promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), a pervasive phenomenon observed across multicellular genomes. However, the physiological impact of NELF on tissue homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we show that whole-body conditional deletion of the B subunit of NELF (NELF-B) in adult mice results in cardiomyopathy and impaired response to cardiac stress. Tissue-specific knockout of NELF-B confirms its cell-autonomous function in cardiomyocytes. NELF directly supports transcription of those genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. NELF also shares extensively transcriptional target genes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of energy metabolism in the myocardium. Mechanistically, NELF helps stabilize the transcription initiation complex at the metabolism-related genes. Our findings strongly indicate that NELF is part of the PPARα-mediated transcription regulatory network that maintains metabolic homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.
The cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a platform for cells to maintain structure and function, which in turn maintains tissue function. In response to injury, the ECM undergoes remodeling that involves synthesis, incorporation, and degradation of matrix proteins, with the net outcome determined by the balance of these processes. The major goals of this review are a) to serve as an initial resource for students and investigators new to the cardiac ECM remodeling field, and b) to highlight a few of the key exciting avenues and methodologies that have recently been explored. While we focus on cardiac injury and responses of the left ventricle (LV), the mechanisms reviewed here have pathways in common with other wound healing models.
extracellular matrix; left ventricular remodeling; matrix metalloproteinases; inflammation; fibrosis; review
Exercise has been shown to improve function of the left ventricle (LV) following myocardial infarction (MI). The mechanisms to explain this benefit have not been fully delineated, but may involve improved mechanics resulting in unloading effects and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels.[1, 2] Accordingly, the goal of this study was to determine how the LV infarct proteome is altered by a post-MI exercise regimen. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ligation of the left descending coronary artery to induce MI. Exercise training was initiated four weeks post-MI and continued for 8 weeks in n=12 rats. Compared with the sedentary MI group (n=10), the infarct region of rats receiving exercise showed 20 protein spots with altered intensities in two-dimensional gels (15 increased and 5 decreased; p<0.05). Of 52 proteins identified in 20 spots, decreased levels of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 2 and increased levels of glutathione perioxidase and manganese superoxide were confirmed by immunoblotting. Cardiac function was preserved in rats receiving exercise training, and the beneficial effect was linked with changes in these 3 proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that post-MI exercise training increases anti-oxidant levels and decreases ion channel levels, which may explain, in part, the improved cardiac function seen with exercise.
myocardial infarction; exercise; proteomics; anti-oxidant; two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; left ventricular remodeling
MMP-9 deletion has been shown to improve remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) post-myocardial infarction (MI), but the mechanisms to explain this improvement have not been fully elucidated. MMP-9 has a broad range of in vitro substrates, but relevant in vivo substrates are incompletely defined. Accordingly, we evaluated the infarct regions of wild-type (wt) and MMP-9 null (null) mice using a proteomic strategy. Wt and null groups showed similar infarct sizes (48±3 in wt and 45±3% in null), indicating that both groups received an equal injury stimulus. LV infarct tissue was homogenized and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of 31 spot intensity differences, the intensities of 9 spots were higher and 22 spots were lower in null mice compared to wt (all p<0.05). Several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were identified in these spots by mass spectrometry, including fibronectin, tenascin-C, thrombospondin-1, and laminin. Fibronectin was observed on the gels at a lower than expected molecular weight in the wt group, which suggested substrate cleavage, and the lower molecular weight spot was observed at lower intensity in the MMP-9 null group, which suggested cleavage by MMP-9. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of fibronectin cleavage products in the wt samples and lower levels in the absence of MMP-9. In conclusion, examining infarct tissue from wt and MMP-9 null mice by proteomic analysis provides a powerful and unique method to identify in vivo candidate MMP substrates.
cardiac remodeling; MMP-9; extracellular matrix; mice; proteomics; myocardial infarction
The concept that extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover occurs during cardiac remodeling is a well-accepted paradigm. To date, a multitude of studies document that remodeling is accompanied by increases in the synthesis and deposition of ECM components as well as increases in extracellular proteases, especially matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which break down ECM components. Further, soluble ECM fragments generated from enzymatic action serve to stimulate cell behavior and have been proposed as candidate plasma biomarkers of cardiac remodeling. This review briefly summarizes our current knowledge base on cardiac ECM turnover following myocardial infarction (MI), but more importantly extends discussion by defining avenues that remain to be explored to drive the ECM remodeling field forward. Specifically, this review will discuss cause and effect roles for the ECM changes observed following MI and the potential role of the ECM changes that may serve as trigger points to regulate remodeling. While the pattern of remodeling following MI is qualititatively similar but quantitively different from various types of injury, the basic theme in remodeling is repeated. Therefore, while we use the MI model as the prototype injury model, the themes discussed here are also relevant to cardiac remodeling due to other types of injury.