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author:("Li, wangfang")
1.  Dynamical modeling of drug effect using hybrid systems 
Drug discovery today is a complex, expensive, and time-consuming process with high attrition rate. A more systematic approach is needed to combine innovative approaches in order to lead to more effective and efficient drug development. This article provides systematic mathematical analysis and dynamical modeling of drug effect under gene regulatory network contexts. A hybrid systems model, which merges together discrete and continuous dynamics into a single dynamical model, is proposed to study dynamics of the underlying regulatory network under drug perturbations. The major goal is to understand how the system changes when perturbed by drugs and give suggestions for better therapeutic interventions. A realistic periodic drug intake scenario is considered, drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics information being taken into account in the proposed hybrid systems model. Simulations are performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK to corroborate the analytical results.
doi:10.1186/1687-4153-2012-19
PMCID: PMC3639233  PMID: 23268741
Drug effect; Hybrid systems; PK/PD; Gene regulatory network (GRN); Dosing regimens
2.  Assessing the efficacy of molecularly targeted agents on cell line-based platforms by using system identification 
BMC Genomics  2012;13(Suppl 6):S11.
Background
Molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) are increasingly used for cancer treatment, the goal being to improve the efficacy and selectivity of cancer treatment by developing agents that block the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis and tumor growth. This approach differs from traditional cytotoxic anticancer drugs. The lack of specificity of cytotoxic drugs allows a relatively straightforward approach in preclinical and clinical studies, where the optimal dose has usually been defined as the "maximum tolerated dose" (MTD). This toxicity-based dosing approach is founded on the assumption that the therapeutic anticancer effect and toxic effects of the drug increase in parallel as the dose is escalated. On the contrary, most MTAs are expected to be more selective and less toxic than cytotoxic drugs. Consequently, the maximum therapeutic effect may be achieved at a "biologically effective dose" (BED) well below the MTD. Hence, dosing study for MTAs should be different from cytotoxic drugs. Enhanced efforts to molecularly characterize the drug efficacy for MTAs in preclinical models will be valuable for successfully designing dosing regimens for clinical trials.
Results
A novel preclinical model combining experimental methods and theoretical analysis is proposed to investigate the mechanism of action and identify pharmacodynamic characteristics of the drug. Instead of fixed time point analysis of the drug exposure to drug effect, the time course of drug effect for different doses is quantitatively studied on cell line-based platforms using system identification, where tumor cells' responses to drugs through the use of fluorescent reporters are sampled over a time course. Results show that drug effect is time-varying and higher dosages induce faster and stronger responses as expected. However, the drug efficacy change along different dosages is not linear; on the contrary, there exist certain thresholds. This kind of preclinical study can provide valuable suggestions about dosing regimens for the in vivo experimental stage to increase productivity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-S6-S11
PMCID: PMC3481481  PMID: 23134733
3.  A Systems Biology Approach in Therapeutic Response Study for Different Dosing Regimens—a Modeling Study of Drug Effects on Tumor Growth using Hybrid Systems 
Cancer Informatics  2012;11:41-60.
Motivated by the frustration of translation of research advances in the molecular and cellular biology of cancer into treatment, this study calls for cross-disciplinary efforts and proposes a methodology of incorporating drug pharmacology information into drug therapeutic response modeling using a computational systems biology approach. The objectives are two fold. The first one is to involve effective mathematical modeling in the drug development stage to incorporate preclinical and clinical data in order to decrease costs of drug development and increase pipeline productivity, since it is extremely expensive and difficult to get the optimal compromise of dosage and schedule through empirical testing. The second objective is to provide valuable suggestions to adjust individual drug dosing regimens to improve therapeutic effects considering most anticancer agents have wide inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability and a narrow therapeutic index. A dynamic hybrid systems model is proposed to study drug antitumor effect from the perspective of tumor growth dynamics, specifically the dosing and schedule of the periodic drug intake, and a drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics information are linked together in the proposed model using a state-space approach. It is proved analytically that there exists an optimal drug dosage and interval administration point, and demonstrated through simulation study.
doi:10.4137/CIN.S8185
PMCID: PMC3298374  PMID: 22442626
drug effect; drug efficacy region; dosing regimens; hybrid systems; systems biology; tumor growth

Results 1-3 (3)