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1.  Spectral Analysis on Time-Course Expression Data: Detecting Periodic Genes Using a Real-Valued Iterative Adaptive Approach 
Advances in Bioinformatics  2013;2013:171530.
Time-course expression profiles and methods for spectrum analysis have been applied for detecting transcriptional periodicities, which are valuable patterns to unravel genes associated with cell cycle and circadian rhythm regulation. However, most of the proposed methods suffer from restrictions and large false positives to a certain extent. Additionally, in some experiments, arbitrarily irregular sampling times as well as the presence of high noise and small sample sizes make accurate detection a challenging task. A novel scheme for detecting periodicities in time-course expression data is proposed, in which a real-valued iterative adaptive approach (RIAA), originally proposed for signal processing, is applied for periodogram estimation. The inferred spectrum is then analyzed using Fisher's hypothesis test. With a proper p-value threshold, periodic genes can be detected. A periodic signal, two nonperiodic signals, and four sampling strategies were considered in the simulations, including both bursts and drops. In addition, two yeast real datasets were applied for validation. The simulations and real data analysis reveal that RIAA can perform competitively with the existing algorithms. The advantage of RIAA is manifested when the expression data are highly irregularly sampled, and when the number of cycles covered by the sampling time points is very reduced.
PMCID: PMC3600260  PMID: 23533399
2.  Reducing confounding and suppression effects in TCGA data: an integrated analysis of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer 
BMC Genomics  2012;13(Suppl 6):S13.
Despite initial response in adjuvant chemotherapy, ovarian cancer patients treated with the combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin frequently suffer from recurrence after few cycles of treatment, and the underlying mechanisms causing the chemoresistance remain unclear. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) research network concluded an ovarian cancer study and released the dataset to the public. The TCGA dataset possesses large sample size, comprehensive molecular profiles, and clinical outcome information; however, because of the unknown molecular subtypes in ovarian cancer and the great diversity of adjuvant treatments TCGA patients went through, studying chemotherapeutic response using the TCGA data is difficult. Additionally, factors such as sample batches, patient ages, and tumor stages further confound or suppress the identification of relevant genes, and thus the biological functions and disease mechanisms.
To address these issues, herein we propose an analysis procedure designed to reduce suppression effect by focusing on a specific chemotherapeutic treatment, and to remove confounding effects such as batch effect, patient's age, and tumor stages. The proposed procedure starts with a batch effect adjustment, followed by a rigorous sample selection process. Then, the gene expression, copy number, and methylation profiles from the TCGA ovarian cancer dataset are analyzed using a semi-supervised clustering method combined with a novel scoring function. As a result, two molecular classifications, one with poor copy number profiles and one with poor methylation profiles, enriched with unfavorable scores are identified. Compared with the samples enriched with favorable scores, these two classifications exhibit poor progression-free survival (PFS) and might be associated with poor chemotherapy response specifically to the combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin. Significant genes and biological processes are detected subsequently using classical statistical approaches and enrichment analysis.
The proposed procedure for the reduction of confounding and suppression effects and the semi-supervised clustering method are essential steps to identify genes associated with the chemotherapeutic response.
PMCID: PMC3481440  PMID: 23134756
3.  A model-based circular binary segmentation algorithm for the analysis of array CGH data 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:394.
Circular Binary Segmentation (CBS) is a permutation-based algorithm for array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) data analysis. CBS accurately segments data by detecting change-points using a maximal-t test; but extensive computational burden is involved for evaluating the significance of change-points using permutations. A recent implementation utilizing a hybrid method and early stopping rules (hybrid CBS) to improve the performance in speed was subsequently proposed. However, a time analysis revealed that a major portion of computation time of the hybrid CBS was still spent on permutation. In addition, what the hybrid method provides is an approximation of the significance upper bound or lower bound, not an approximation of the significance of change-points itself.
We developed a novel model-based algorithm, extreme-value based CBS (eCBS), which limits permutations and provides robust results without loss of accuracy. Thousands of aCGH data under null hypothesis were simulated in advance based on a variety of non-normal assumptions, and the corresponding maximal-t distribution was modeled by the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The modeling results, which associate characteristics of aCGH data to the GEV parameters, constitute lookup tables (eXtreme model). Using the eXtreme model, the significance of change-points could be evaluated in a constant time complexity through a table lookup process.
A novel algorithm, eCBS, was developed in this study. The current implementation of eCBS consistently outperforms the hybrid CBS 4× to 20× in computation time without loss of accuracy. Source codes, supplementary materials, supplementary figures, and supplementary tables can be found at
PMCID: PMC3224564  PMID: 21985277
4.  A probe-density-based analysis method for array CGH data: simulation, normalization and centralization 
Bioinformatics  2008;24(16):1749-1756.
Motivation: Genomic instability is one of the fundamental factors in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Many studies have shown that copy-number abnormalities at the DNA level are important in the pathogenesis of cancer. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), developed based on expression microarray technology, can reveal the chromosomal aberrations in segmental copies at a high resolution. However, due to the nature of aCGH, many standard expression data processing tools, such as data normalization, often fail to yield satisfactory results.
Results: We demonstrated a novel aCGH normalization algorithm, which provides an accurate aCGH data normalization by utilizing the dependency of neighboring probe measurements in aCGH experiments. To facilitate the study, we have developed a hidden Markov model (HMM) to simulate a series of aCGH experiments with random DNA copy number alterations that are used to validate the performance of our normalization. In addition, we applied the proposed normalization algorithm to an aCGH study of lung cancer cell lines. By using the proposed algorithm, data quality and the reliability of experimental results are significantly improved, and the distinct patterns of DNA copy number alternations are observed among those lung cancer cell lines.
Supplementary information: Source codes and.gures may be found at
PMCID: PMC2732214  PMID: 18603568

Results 1-4 (4)