Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is associated with a dismal prognosis. The identification of cancer biomarkers advances the possibility for early detection and better monitoring of tumor progression and/or response to therapy. The current study presents results of the development of a serum based four-protein (biglycan, myeloperoxidase, annexin-A6, and protein S100-A9) biomarker-panel for EAC.
A vertically integrated proteomics-based biomarker discovery approach was used to identify candidate serum biomarkers for detection of EAC. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed on FFPE tissue samples that were collected from across the Barrett's esophagus (BE)-EAC disease spectrum. The MS-based spectral count data was used to guide the selection of candidate serum biomarkers. The serum ELISA data was validated in an independent cohort and used to develop a multi-parametric risk assessment model to predict the presence of disease.
With a minimum threshold of 10 spectral counts, 351 proteins were identified as differentially abundant along the spectrum of BE, HGD and EAC (p < 0.05). Eleven proteins from this dataset were then tested using ELISAs in serum samples of which five proteins were significantly elevated in abundance in the EAC patients compared to normal controls, which mirrored trends across the disease spectrum present in the tissue data. Using serum data a Bayesian Rule Learning predictive model with four biomarkers was developed to accurately classify disease class; the cross-validation results for the merged dataset yielded accuracy of 87% and AUROC of 93 %.
Serum biomarkers hold significant promise for early non-invasive detection of EAC.
A majority of high-grade (HG) serous ovarian cancer (SOC) patients develop resistant disease despite high initial response rates to platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. We identified shed/secreted proteins in preclinical models of paclitaxel-resistant human HGSOC models and correlated these candidate proteins with patient outcomes using public data from HGSOC patients. Proteomic analyses of a HGSOC cell line secretome was compared to those from a syngeneic paclitaxel-resistant variant and from a line established from an intrinsically chemorefractory HGSOC patient Associations between the identified candidate proteins and patient outcome were assessed in a discovery cohort of 545 patients and two validation cohorts totaling 795 independent SOC patients. Among the 81 differentially abundant proteins identified (q < 0.05) from paclitaxel-sensitive vs -resistant HGSOC cell secretomes, AKAP12 was verified to be elevated in all models of paclitaxel-resistant HGSOC. Furthermore, elevated AKAP12 transcript expression was associated with worse progression-free and overall survival. Associations with outcome were observed in three independent cohorts and remained significant after adjusted multivariate modeling. We further provide evidence to support that differential gene methyktion status is associated with elevated expression of AKAP12 in taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer patient subsets. Elevated expression and shedding/secretion of AKAP12 is characteristic of paclitaxel-resistant HGSOC cells, and elevated AKAP12 transcript expression is a poor prognostic and predictive marker for progression-free and overall survival in SOC patients.
Ovarian cancer; proteomics; secretome; AKAP12; paclitaxel resistance
A subset of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases have been characterized by the t(5;17)(q35;q21) translocation variant which fuses nucleophosmin (NPM) to retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA). The resultant NPM-RAR fusion protein blocks myeloid differentiation, and leads to a leukemic phenotype similar to that caused by the t(15;17)(q22;q21) PML-RAR fusion. The contribution of the N-terminal 117 amino acids of NPM contained within NPM-RAR has not been well studied. As a molecular chaperone, NPM interacts with a variety of proteins implicated in leukemogenesis. Therefore, a proteomic analysis was conducted to identify novel NPM-RAR associated proteins. Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein (TRADD) was identified as a relevant binding partner for NPM-RAR. This interaction was validated by co-precipitation and co-localization analysis. Biological assessment found that NPM-RAR expression impaired TNF-induced signaling through TRADD, blunting TNF-mediated activation of caspase 3 (CASP3) and caspase 8 (CASP8), to ultimately block apoptosis.
This study identifies a novel mechanism through which NPM-RAR impacts leukemogenesis.
acute promyelocytic leukemia; nucleophosmin; NPM-RAR; TRADD; apoptosis
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways are upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Preclinical models indicate synergistic anti-tumor activity from dual blockade. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled window trial of erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor; erlotinib plus sulindac, a non-selective COX inhibitor, vs. placebo.
Patients with untreated, operable Stage II-IVb HNSCC were randomized 5:5:3 to erlotinib, erlotinib-sulindac, or placebo. Tumor specimens were collected before and after 7-14 days of treatment. The primary endpoint was change in Ki-67 proliferation index. We hypothesized an ordering effect in Ki-67 reduction: erlotinib-sulindac > erlotinib > placebo. We evaluated tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry for pharmacodynamic modulation of EGFR and COX-2 signaling intermediates.
From 2005-2009, 47 patients were randomized for the target 39 evaluable patients. Thirty-four tumor pairs were of sufficient quality to assess biomarker modulation. Ki-67 was significantly decreased by erlotinib or erlotinib-sulindac (omnibus comparison, two-sided Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.04). Wilcoxon pairwise contrasts confirmed greater Ki-67 effect in both erlotinib groups (erlotinib-sulindac vs. placebo p=0.043; erlobinib vs. placebo, p=0.027). There was a significant trend in ordering of Ki-67 reduction: erlotinib-sulindac > erlotinib > placebo (two-sided exact Jonckheere-Terpstra, p =0.0185). Low baseline pSrc correlated with greater Ki-67 reduction (R2 = .312, p = 0.024).
Brief treatment with erlotinib significantly decreased proliferation in HNSCC, with additive effect from sulindac. Efficacy studies of dual EGFR-COX inhibition are justified. pSrc is a potential resistance biomarker for anti-EGFR therapy, and warrants investigation as a molecular target.
erlotinib; sulindac; phase 0; head and neck cancer; pSrc
Significant reductions in gynecologic (GYN) cancer mortality and morbidity require treatments that prevent and reverse resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. The objective of this study was to determine if pharmacologic inhibition of key DNA damage response kinases in GYN cancers would enhance cell killing by platinum-based chemotherapy and radiation.
A panel of human ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer cell lines were treated with platinum drugs or ionizing radiation (IR) along with small molecule pharmacological kinase inhibitors of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad-3-related (ATR).
Pharmacologic inhibition of ATR significantly enhanced platinum drug response in all GYN cancer cell lines tested, whereas inhibition of ATM did not enhance the response to platinum drugs. Co-inhibition of ATM and ATR did not enhance platinum kill beyond that observed by inhibition of ATR alone. By contrast, inhibiting either ATR or ATM enhanced the response to IR in all GYN cancer cells, with further enhancement achieved with co-inhibition.
These studies highlight actionable mechanisms operative in GYN cancer cells with potential to maximize response of platinum agents and radiation in newly diagnosed as well as recurrent gynecologic cancers.
DNA damage repair response; ATR; ATM; Gynecologic cancer; Cisplatin resistance; Ionizing radiation
Most serpins inhibit serine and/or cysteine proteases, and their inhibitory activities are usually defined in vitro. However, the physiological protease targets of most serpins are unknown despite many years of research. This may be due to the rapid degradation of the inactive serpin:protease complexes and/or the conditions under which the serpin inhibits the protease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans is an ideal system for identifying protease targets due to powerful forward and reverse genetics, as well as the ease of creating transgenic animals. Using combinatorial approaches of genetics and biochemistry in C. elegans, the true in vivo protease targets of the endogenous serpins can be elucidated.
Gaining insights into the molecular events that govern the progression from melanoma in situ to advanced melanoma, and understanding how the local microenvironment at the melanoma site influences this progression, are two clinically pivotal aspects that to date are largely unexplored. In an effort to identify key regulators of the crosstalk between melanoma cells and the melanoma-skin microenvironment, primary and metastatic human melanoma cells were seeded into skin organ cultures (SOCs), and grown for two weeks. Melanoma cells were recovered from SOCs by laser microdissection and whole-cell tryptic digests analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with an LTQ-Orbitrap. The differential protein abundances were calculated by spectral counting, the results of which provides evidence that cell-matrix and cell-adhesion molecules that are upregulated in the presence of these melanoma cells recapitulate proteomic data obtained from comparative analysis of human biopsies of invasive melanoma and a tissue sample of adjacent, non-involved skin. This concordance demonstrates the value of SOCs for conducting proteomic investigations of the melanoma microenvironment.
melanoma; proteomics; skin organ culture
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States but it remains poorly understood at the molecular level. This investigation was conducted to specifically assess whether gene expression changes underlie the clinical and pathologic factors traditionally used for determining treatment regimens in women with stage I endometrial cancer. These include the effect of tumor grade, depth of myometrial invasion and histotype. We utilized oligonucleotide microarrays to assess the transcript expression profile in epithelial glandular cells laser microdissected from 79 endometrioid and 12 serous stage I endometrial cancers with a heterogeneous distribution of grade and depth of myometrial invasion, along with 12 normal post-menopausal endometrial samples. Unsupervised multidimensional scaling analyses revealed that serous and endometrioid stage I cancers have similar transcript expression patterns when compared to normal controls where 900 transcripts were identified to be differentially expressed by at least fourfold (univariate t-test, p < 0.001) between the cancers and normal endometrium. This analysis also identified transcript expression differences between serous and endometrioid cancers and tumor grade, but no apparent differences were identified as a function of depth of myometrial invasion. Four genes were validated by quantitative PCR on an independent set of cancer and normal endometrium samples. These findings indicate that unique gene expression profiles are associated with histologic type and grade, but not myometrial invasion among early stage endometrial cancers. These data provide a comprehensive perspective on the molecular alterations associated with stage I endometrial cancer, particularly those subtypes that have the worst prognosis.
endometrial cancer; gene expression; stage I; RORB; IHH; DLG7; MELK
Recent studies have suggested that changes in serum phosphate levels influence pathological states associated with aging such as cancer, bone metabolism, and cardiovascular function, even in individuals with normal renal function. The causes are only beginning to be elucidated but are likely a combination of endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, and cell autonomous effects. We have used an integrated quantitative biology approach, combining transcriptomics and proteomics to define a multi-phase, extracellular phosphate-induced, signaling network in pre-osteoblasts as well as primary human and mouse mesenchymal stromal cells. We identified a rapid mitogenic response stimulated by elevated phosphate that results in the induction of immediate early genes including c-fos. The mechanism of activation requires FGF receptor signaling followed by stimulation of N-ras and activation of AP-1 and serum response elements. A distinct long-term response also requires FGF receptor signaling and results in N-ras activation and expression of genes and secretion of proteins involved in matrix regulation, calcification, and angiogenesis. The late response is synergistically enhanced by addition of FGF23 peptide. The intermediate phase results in increased oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production and is necessary for the late response providing a functional link between the phases. Collectively, the results define elevated phosphate, as a mitogen and define specific mechanisms by which phosphate stimulates proliferation and matrix regulation. Our approach provides a comprehensive understanding of the cellular response to elevated extracellular phosphate, functionally connecting temporally coordinated signaling, transcriptional, and metabolic events with changes in long-term cell behavior.
Inorganic phosphate; FGF receptor signaling; immediate early genes; angiogenesis; AP-1
The pathogenesis of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers has been difficult to elucidate despite intense effort. Recently, though, the care of women felt to be at high risk due to a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer or a known germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation has provided potential insight into the development of these malignancies. Risk-reducing surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries, called risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy (RRBSO), is commonly performed as a laparoscopic procedure to minimize recovery time. We describe here an optimized surgical sampling workflow for analyzing the proteomes of peritoneal, fallopian tube, and ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) specimens collected at the time of laparoscopic RRBSO, a technique which has not been described previously. This methodology presents a unique opportunity for closer examination of the proteomic alterations in the tissues at risk for malignant transformation in women with an inherited susceptibility to ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer development.
ovarian cancer; ovarian surface epithelium; fallopian tube; proteomics; mass spectrometry
AIM: To assess the proteome of normal versus tumor tissue in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) in Iranian patients and compare our results with former reports by using proteomics.
METHODS: Protein was extracted from normal and tumor tissues. Two dimensional electrophoresis was carried out and spots with differential expression were identified with mass spectrometry. RNA extraction and RT-PCR along with immunodetection were performed.
RESULTS: Fourteen proteins were found whose expression levels differed in tumor compared to normal tissues. Mass spectrometric analysis resulted in the identification of β-tropomyosin (TMβ), myosin light chain 2 (and its isoform), myosin regulatory light chain 2, peroxyredoxin 2, annexinIand an unknown polypeptide as the down regulated polypeptides in tumor tissue. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), TPM4-ALK fusion oncoprotein 2, myosin light polypeptide 6, keratinI, GH16431p and calreticulin were the up-regulated polypeptides found in tumor tissue. Several of these proteins, such as TMβ, HSP70, annexinI, calreticulin, TPM4-ALK and isoforms of myosins, have been well recognized in tumorigenesis of esophageal or other types of cancers.
CONCLUSION: Our study not only supports the involve-ment of some of the formerly reported proteins in SCCE but also introduces additional proteins found to be lost in SCCE, including TMβ.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophagus; Esophageal; Proteomics; Two dimensional electrophore-sis; Polypeptide marker
Angiogenesis is important for tumor growth and metastasis. CLT1 (CGLIIQKNEC), a peptide that binds to tumor interstitial spaces in the presence of fibrin-fibronectin, has structural similarity to the anti-angiogenic β-sheet peptides anastellin and anginex. This similarity is reflected in the ability of CLT1 to form co-aggregates with fibronectin that induce an unfolded protein response and cause autophagic cell death in proliferating endothelial cells. CLT1 cytotoxicity is mediated at least in parts by a novel CLT1 binding protein, Chloride Intracellular Channel 1 (CLIC1), which promotes internalization of CLT1-fibronectin co-aggregates in a mechanism that depends on the LIIQK amino acid sequence of CLT1. LIIQK encompasses amino acid residues relevant for CLT1 binding to CLIC1 and in addition, facilitates the formation of CLT1-fibronectin co-aggregates, which in turn promote translocation of CLIC1 to the endothelial cell surface through ligation of integrin αvβ3. Paralleling the in vitro results, we found that CLT1 co-localizes with CLIC1 and fibronectin in angiogenic blood vessels in vivo, and that CLT1 treatment inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Our findings show that CLT1 is a new anti-angiogenic compound, and its mechanism of action is to form co-aggregates with fibronectin, which bind to angiogenic endothelial cells through integrins, become internalized through CLIC1 and elicit a cytotoxic unfolded protein response. The simple structure and high potency of CLT1 make it a potentially useful compound for anti-angiogenic treatments.
CLT1; fibronectin; chloride intracellular channel 1; angiogenesis; integrin
ATM is a protein kinase that initiates a well-characterized signaling cascade in cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the role for ATM in coordinating critical protein interactions and subsequent exchanges within DNA damage response (DDR) complexes is unknown. We combined SILAC-based tandem mass spectrometry and a subcellular fractionation protocol to interrogate the proteome of irradiated cells treated with or without the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933. We developed an integrative network analysis to identify and prioritize proteins that were responsive to KU55933, specifically in chromatin, and that were also enriched for physical interactions with known DNA repair proteins. This analysis identified 53BP1 and annexin A1 (ANXA1) as strong candidates. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that the exchange of GFP-53BP1 in DDR complexes decreased with KU55933. Further, we found that ANXA1 knockdown sensitized cells to IR via a mechanism that was not potentiated by KU55933. Our study reveals a role for ATM kinase activity in the dynamic exchange of proteins in DDR complexes and identifies a role for ANXA1 in cellular radioprotection.
DNA damage response; ATM; 53BP1
Isothiocyanates (ITCs), such as phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN), are effective cancer chemopreventive compounds. It is believed that a major mechanism for the cancer preventive activity of ITCs is through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the upstream molecular targets of ITCs have been underexplored until recently. To identify proteins that are covalently modified by ITCs, human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells were treated with 14C-PEITC and 14C-SFN and the cell lysates were extracted for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. After superimposing the colloidal Coomassie blue protein staining pattern with the pattern of radioactivity obtained from X-ray films, it was clear that only a small fraction of cellular proteins contained radioactivity, presumably resulting from selective binding with PEITC or SFN via thiocarbamation. More than 30 proteins with a variety of biological functions were identified with high confidence. Here we report the identities of these potential ITC target proteins and discuss their biological relevance. The discovery of the protein targets may facilitate studies of the mechanisms by which ITCs exert their cancer preventive activity and provide molecular basis for designing more efficacious ITC compounds.
RNA-binding protein pathology now represents one of the best characterized pathologic features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients with TDP-43 or FUS pathology (FTLD-TDP and FTLD-FUS). Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identified altered levels of the RNA-binding motif 45 (RBM45) protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS patients. This protein contains sequence similarities to TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and fused-in-sarcoma (FUS) that are contained in cytoplasmic inclusions of ALS and FTLD-TDP or FTLD-FUS patients. To further characterize RBM45, we first verified the presence of RBM45 in CSF and spinal cord tissue extracts of ALS patients by immunoblot. We next used immunohistochemistry to examine the subcellular distribution of RBM45 and observed in a punctate staining pattern within nuclei of neurons and glia in the brain and spinal cord. We also detected RBM45 cytoplasmic inclusions in 91 % of ALS, 100 % of FTLD-TDP and 75 % of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases. The most extensive RBM45 pathology was observed in patients that harbor the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion. These RBM45 inclusions were observed in spinal cord motor neurons, glia and neurons of the dentate gyrus. By confocal microscopy, RBM45 co-localizes with ubiquitin and TDP-43 in inclusion bodies. In neurons containing RBM45 cytoplasmic inclusions we often detected the protein in a punctate pattern within the nucleus that lacked either TDP-43 or ubiquitin. We identified RBM45 using a proteomic screen of CSF from ALS and control subjects for candidate biomarkers, and link this RNA-binding protein to inclusion pathology in ALS, FTLD-TDP and AD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00401-012-1045-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Frontotemporal lobar degeneration; TDP-43; RNA-binding protein; RBM45; C9ORF72
The importance of mitochondria as oxygen sensors as well as producers of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has recently become a focal point of cancer research. However, in the case of melanoma, little information is available to what extent cellular bioenergetics processes contribute to the progression of the disease and related to it, whether oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has a prominent role in advanced melanoma. In this study we demonstrate that compared to melanocytes, metastatic melanoma cells have elevated levels of OXPHOS. Furthermore, treating metastatic melanoma cells with the drug, Elesclomol, which induces cancer cell apoptosis through oxidative stress, we document by way of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) that proteins participating in OXPHOS are downregulated. We also provide evidence that melanoma cells with high levels of glycolysis are more resistant to Elesclomol. We further show that Elesclomol upregulates hypoxia inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α), and that prolonged exposure of melanoma cells to this drug leads to selection of melanoma cells with high levels of glycolysis. Taken together, our findings suggest that molecular targeting of OXPHOS may have efficacy for advanced melanoma.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death with poor survival due to the late stage at which lung cancer is typically diagnosed. Given the clinical burden from lung cancer, and the relatively favorable survival associated with early stage lung cancer, biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer are of important potential clinical benefit.
We performed a global lung cancer serum biomarker discovery study using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a set of pooled non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) case sera and matched controls. Immunoaffinity subtraction was used to deplete the top most abundant serum proteins; the remaining serum proteins were subjected to trypsin digestion and analyzed in triplicate by LC-MS/MS. The tandem mass spectrum data were searched against the human proteome database and the resultant spectral counting data were used to estimate the relative abundance of proteins across the case/control serum pools. The spectral counting derived abundances of some candidate biomarker proteins were confirmed with multiple reaction monitoring MS assays.
A list of 49 differentially abundant candidate proteins was compiled by applying a negative binomial regression model to the spectral counting data (p<0.01). Functional analysis with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tools showed significant enrichment of inflammatory response proteins, key molecules in cell-cell signaling and interaction network and differential physiological responses for the two common NSCLC subtypes.
We identified a set of candidate serum biomarkers with statistically significant differential abundance across the lung cancer case/control pools which, when validated, could improve lung cancer early detection.
Lung cancer; serum biomarkers; LC-MS/MS
The efficiency of drug metabolism by a single enzyme can be measured as the fractional metabolic clearance which can be used as a measure of whole body activity for that enzyme. Measurement of activity of multiple enzymes simultaneously is feasible using a cocktail approach however analytical approach using different assays for drug probes can be cumbersome. A quantitative ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based method for the rapid measurement of six cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe drugs and their relevant metabolites, is described. The six specific probe substrates/metabolites, are caffeine/paraxanthine (CYP1A2), flurbiprofen/4′-hydroxyflurbiprofen (CYP2C9), mephenytoin/4′-hydroxymephenytoin (CYP2C19), debrisoquine/4-hydroxydebrisoquine (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone/6′-hydroxychlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) and dapsone/N-monoacetyldapsone (NAT2). These probes were quantified by stable isotope dilution from plasma and urine. The present workflow provides a robust, fast and sensitive assay for the “Pittsburgh Cocktail”, and has been successfully applied to a clinical phenotyping study of liver disease. A representative group of 17 controls and patients with chronic liver disease were administered orally caffeine (100mg), chlorzoxazone (250mg), debrisoquine (10mg), mephenytoin (100mg) flurbiprofen (50mg) and dapsone (100mg). Urine (0 through 8 h) and plasma (4 and 8 h) samples were analyzed for drug/metabolite amounts by stable isotope dilution UPLC-MS/MS. The phenotypic activity of drug metabolizing enzymes was investigated with 17 patient samples. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was optimized for each drug and metabolite. In the method developed, analytes were resolved by reversed-phase by development of a gradient using a water/methanol solvent system. SRM of each analyte was performed in duplicate on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing an 8 min analytical method each, one with the source operating in the positive mode and one in the negative mode, using the same solvent system. This method enabled quantification of each drug (caffeine, chlorzoxazone, debrisoquine, mephenytoin, flurbiprofen, and dapsone) and its resulting primary metabolite in urine or plasma in patient samples. The method developed and the data herein demonstrate a robust quantitative assay to examine changes in CYP enzymes both independently or as part of a cocktail. The clinical use of a combination of probe drugs with UPLC-MS/MS is a highly efficient tool for the assessment of CYP enzyme activity in liver disease.
CYP; Mass spectrometry; stable isotope dilution; phenotyping; drug cocktail
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) promotes bone loss and inhibits bone formation. Osterix (Osx, SP7) is a transcription factor required for osteoblast (OB) differentiation because deletion results in a cartilaginous skeleton. We previously described a TNF suppressor element in the Osx promoter that was used to isolate nuclear proteins mediating TNF inhibition of OB differentiation. Nuclear extracts from TNF-treated pre-OBs were incubated with the TNF suppressor element for protein pull-down, and tryptic fragments were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed eight bound transcription factors. One protein, the paired related homeobox protein (Prx1), had been shown previously to have a critical role in limb bud formation and skeletal patterning. PCR revealed Prx1 expression in primary stromal cells (MSCs), C3H10T1/2 cells, and MC3T3 preosteoblasts. TNF stimulated a 14-fold increase in mRNA for Prx1, rapid cell accumulation in MC3T3 cells, and expression in periosteal and trabecular lining cells in vivo. Transient expression of Prx inhibited transcription of Osx and RUNX2. Expression of the Prx1b isoform or Prx2 decreased Osx and RUNX2 mRNA and OB differentiation in preosteoblasts. Silencing of Prx1 with siRNA abrogated TNF suppression of Osx mRNA and increased basal Osx expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift revealed Prx1b as the preferred isoform binding the Osx promoter. These results identify the homeobox protein Prx1 as an obligate mediator of TNF inhibition of Osx and differentiation of OB progenitors. Activation of Prx1 by TNF may contribute to reduced bone formation in inflammatory arthritis, menopause, and aging. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
OSTEOBLASTS; BONE; TNF; PRX1; MHOX
Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy in the United States. A well recognized disparity by race in both incidence and survival outcome exists for this cancer. Specifically Caucasians are about two times more likely to develop endometrial cancer than are African-Americans. However, African-American women are more likely to die from this disease than are Caucasians. The basis for this disparity remains unknown. Previous studies have identified differences in the types and frequencies of gene mutations among endometrial cancers from Caucasians and African-Americans suggesting that the tumors from these two groups might have differing underlying genetic defects. We performed a gene expression microarray study in an effort to identify differentially expressed transcripts between African-American and Caucasian women’s endometrial cancers. Our gene expression screen identified a list of potential biomarkers that are differentially expressed between these two groups of cancers. Of these we identified a poorly characterized transcript with a region of homology to phospho serine phosphatase (PSPH) and designated phospho serine phosphatase like (PSPHL) as the most differentially over-expressed gene in cancers from African-Americans. We further clarified the nature of expressed transcripts. Northern blot analysis confirmed the message was limited to a transcript of under 1 kB. Sequence analysis of transcripts confirmed two alternate open reading frame (ORF) isoforms due to alternative splicing events. Splice specific primer sets confirmed both isoforms were differentially expressed in tissues from Caucasians and African-Americans. We further examined the expression in other tissues from women to include normal endometrium, normal and malignant ovary. In all cases PSPHL expression was more often present in tissues from African-Americans than Caucasians. Our data confirm the African-American based expression of the PSPHL transcript in endometrial cancer and also identify its expression in other tissues from African-Americans including ovary and ovarian cancer. PSPHL represents a candidate gene that might influence the observed racial disparity in endometrial and other cancers.
endometrial cancer; PSPHL; racial disparity
Targeted glycoproteomics represents an attractive approach for conducting peripheral blood based cancer biomarker discovery due to the well-known altered pattern of protein glycosylation in cancer and the reduced complexity of the resultant glycoproteome. Here we report its application to a set of pooled non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) case sera (9 adenocarcinoma and 6 squamous cell carcinoma pools from 54 patients) and matched controls pools, including 8 clinical control pools with computed tomography detected nodules but being non-malignant as determined by biopsy from 54 patients, and 8 matched healthy control pools from 106 cancer-free subjects. The goal of the study is to discover biomarkers which may enable improved early detection and diagnosis of lung cancer. Immunoaffinity subtraction was used to first deplete the top most abundant serum proteins; the remaining serum proteins were then subjected to hydrazide chemistry based glycoprotein capture and enrichment. Hydrazide resin in situ trypsin digestion was used to release non-glycosylated peptides. Formerly N-linked glycosylated peptides were released by peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) treatment and were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A MATLAB® based in-house tool was developed to facilitate retention time alignment across different LC-MS/MS runs, determination of precursor ion m/z values and elution profiles, and the integration of mass chromatograms based on determined parameters for identified peptides. A total of 38 glycopeptides from 22 different proteins were significantly differentially abundant across the case/control pools (P<0.01, Student’s t test) and their abundances led to a near complete separation of case and control pools based on hierarchical clustering. The differential abundances of three of these candidate proteins were verified by commercially available ELISAs applied in the pools. Strong positive correlations between glycopeptide mass chromatograms and ELISA-measured protein abundance was observed for all of the selected glycoproteins.
Lung cancer; serum biomarkers; glycoproteomics; LC-MS/MS; mass chromatogram
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Unfortunately, a validated protein biomarker-screening test to detect early stage disease from peripheral blood has not yet been developed. The present investigation assesses the ability to identify tumor relevant proteins from ovarian cancer proximal fluids, including tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) and corresponding ascites, from patients with papillary serous EOC and translates these findings to targeted blood-based immunoassays.
Paired TIF and ascites collected from four papillary serous EOC patients at the time of surgery underwent immunodepletion, resolution by 1D gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which resulted in an aggregate identification of 569 and 171 proteins from TIF and ascites, respectively. Of these, peroxiredoxin I (PRDX1) was selected for validation in serum by ELISA and demonstrated to be present and significantly elevated (p = 0.0188) in 20 EOC patients with a mean level of 26.0 ng/mL (±9.27 SEM) as compared to 4.19 ng/mL (±2.58 SEM) from 16 patients with normal/benign ovarian pathology.
We have utilized a workflow for harvesting EOC-relevant proximal biofluids, including TIF and ascites, for proteomic analysis. Among the differentially abundant proteins identified from these proximal fluids, PRDX1 was demonstrated to be present in serum and shown by ELISA to be elevated by nearly 6-fold in papillary serous EOC patients relative to normal/benign patients. Our findings demonstrate the facile ability to discover potential EOC-relevant proteins in proximal fluids and confirm their presence in peripheral blood serum. In addition, our finding of elevated levels of PRDX1 in the serum of EOC patients versus normal/benign patients warrants further evaluation as a tumor specific biomarker for EOC.
RC-101, a cationic peptide retrocyclin analog, has in vitro activity against HIV-1. Peptide drugs are commonly prone to conformational changes, oxidation and hydrolysis when exposed to excipients in a formulation or biological fluids in the body, this can affect product efficacy. We aimed to investigate RC-101 stability under several conditions including the presence of human vaginal fluids (HVF), enabling the efficient design of a safe and effective microbicide product. Stability studies (temperature, pH, and oxidation) were performed by HPLC, Circular Dichroism, and Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Additionally, the effect of HVF on formulated RC-101 was evaluated with fluids collected from healthy volunteers, or from subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV). RC-101 was monitored by LC-MS/MS for up to 72 h.
RC-101 was stable at pH 3, 4, and 7, at 25 and 37°C. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide resulted in less than 10% RC-101 reduction over 24 h. RC-101 was detected 48 h after incubation with normal HVF; however, not following incubation with HVF from BV subjects.
Our results emphasize the importance of preformulation evaluations and highlight the impact of HVF on microbicide product stability and efficacy. RC-101 was stable in normal HVF for at least 48 h, indicating that it is a promising candidate for microbicide product development. However, RC-101 stability appears compromised in individuals with BV, requiring more advanced formulation strategies for stabilization in this environment.
Studies integrating transcriptomic data with proteomic data can illuminate the proteome more clearly than either separately. Integromic studies can deepen understanding of the dynamic complex regulatory relationship between the transcriptome and the proteome. Integrating these data dictates a reliable mapping between the identifier nomenclature resultant from the two high-throughput platforms. However, this kind of analysis is well known to be hampered by lack of standardization of identifier nomenclature among proteins, genes, and microarray probe sets. Therefore data integration may also play a role in critiquing the fallible gene identifications that both platforms emit.
We compared three freely available internet-based identifier mapping resources for mapping UniProt accessions (ACCs) to Affymetrix probesets identifications (IDs): DAVID, EnVision, and NetAffx. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of 91 endometrial cancer and 7 noncancer samples generated 11,879 distinct ACCs. For each ACC, we compared the retrieval sets of probeset IDs from each mapping resource. We confirmed a high level of discrepancy among the mapping resources. On the same samples, mRNA expression was available. Therefore, to evaluate the quality of each ACC-to-probeset match, we calculated proteome-transcriptome correlations, and compared the resources presuming that better mapping of identifiers should generate a higher proportion of mapped pairs with strong inter-platform correlations. A mixture model for the correlations fitted well and supported regression analysis, providing a window into the performance of the mapping resources. The resources have added and dropped matches over two years, but their overall performance has not changed.
The methods presented here serve to achieve concrete context-specific insight, to support well-informed decisions in choosing an ID mapping strategy for "omic" data merging.
Collagen IV networks are ancient proteins of basement membranes that underlie epithelia in metazoa from sponge to human. The networks provide structural integrity to tissues and serve as ligands for integrin cell-surface receptors. They are assembled by oligomerization of triple-helical protomers and are covalently cross-linked, a key reinforcement that stabilizes networks. We used Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to show that a sulfilimine bond (-S=N-) crosslinks hydroxylysine-211 and methionine-93 of adjoining protomers, a bond not previously found in biomolecules. This bond, the nitrogen analog of a sulfoxide, appears to have arisen at the divergence of sponge and cnidaria, an adaptation of the extracellular matrix in response to mechanical stress in metazoan evolution.