Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen implicated as the major cause of peptic ulcer and second leading cause of gastric cancer (~70%) around the world. Conversely, an increased resistance to antibiotics and hindrances in the development of vaccines against H. pylori are observed. Pan-genome analyses of the global representative H. pylori isolates consisting of 39 complete genomes are presented in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed close relationships among geographically diverse strains of H. pylori. The conservation among these genomes was further analyzed by pan-genome approach; the predicted conserved gene families (1,193) constitute ~77% of the average H. pylori genome and 45% of the global gene repertoire of the species. Reverse vaccinology strategies have been adopted to identify and narrow down the potential core-immunogenic candidates. Total of 28 nonhost homolog proteins were characterized as universal therapeutic targets against H. pylori based on their functional annotation and protein-protein interaction. Finally, pathogenomics and genome plasticity analysis revealed 3 highly conserved and 2 highly variable putative pathogenicity islands in all of the H. pylori genomes been analyzed.
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an infectious disease that affects small ruminants and is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This disease is responsible for high economic losses due to condemnation and trim of infected carcasses, decreased leather and wool yield, loss of sales of breeding stock and deaths from internal involvement. Treatment is costly and ineffective; the most cost-effective strategy is timely immunisation. Various vaccine strategies have been tested, and recombinant vaccines are a promising alternative. Thus, in this study, different vaccine formulations using a recombinant protein (rCP40) and the CP09 live recombinant strain were evaluated. Five groups of 10 mice each were immunised with saline (G1), rCP40 (G2), CP09 (G3), a combination of CP09 and rCP40 (G4) and a heterologous prime-boost strategy (G5). Mice received two immunisations within 15 days. On day 30 after primary immunisation, all groups were challenged with a C. pseudotuberculosis virulent strain. Mice were monitored and mortality was recorded for 30 days after challenge.
The G2, G4 and G5 groups showed high levels of IgG1 and IgG2a; G2 presented significant IgG2a production after virulent challenge in the absence of IgG1 and IgG3 induction. Thirty days after challenge, the mice survival rates were 20 (G1), 90 (G2), 50 (G3), 70 (G4) and 60% (G5).
rCP40 is a promising target in the development of vaccines against caseous lymphadenitis.
Caseous lymphadenitis; Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; Recombinant vaccines; Live attenuated vaccines
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis is a facultative intracellular pathogen, and the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants. During the infection process, the bacterium is subjected to several stress conditions, including nitrosative stress, which is caused by nitric oxide (NO). In silico analysis of the genome of C. pseudotuberculosis ovis 1002 predicted several genes that could influence the resistance of this pathogen to nitrosative stress. Here, we applied high-throughput proteomics using high definition mass spectrometry to characterize the functional genome of C. pseudotuberculosis ovis 1002 in the presence of NO-donor Diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA/NO), with the aim of identifying proteins involved in nitrosative stress resistance.
We characterized 835 proteins, representing approximately 41% of the predicted proteome of C. pseudotuberculosis ovis 1002, following exposure to nitrosative stress. In total, 102 proteins were exclusive to the proteome of DETA/NO-induced cells, and a further 58 proteins were differentially regulated between the DETA/NO and control conditions. An interactomic analysis of the differential proteome of C. pseudotuberculosis in response to nitrosative stress was also performed. Our proteomic data set suggested the activation of both a general stress response and a specific nitrosative stress response, as well as changes in proteins involved in cellular metabolism, detoxification, transcriptional regulation, and DNA synthesis and repair.
Our proteomic analysis validated previously-determined in silico data for C. pseudotuberculosis ovis 1002. In addition, proteomic screening performed in the presence of NO enabled the identification of a set of factors that can influence the resistance and survival of C. pseudotuberculosis during exposure to nitrosative stress.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-1065) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; Caseous lymphadenitis; Proteomics; Label-free proteomics; Nitrosative stress; Nitric oxide
In this work, we present the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium ulcerans strain 210932, isolated from a human. The species is an emergent pathogen that infects a variety of wild and domesticated animals and humans. It is associated with a growing number of cases of a diphtheria-like disease around the world.
Exiguobacterium antarcticum strain B7
is a Gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterial species isolated in
Antarctica. Although this bacteria has been poorly studied, its genome
has already been sequenced. Therefore, it is an appropriate model for the
study of thermal adaptation. In the present study, we analyzed the
transcriptomes and proteomes of E.
antarcticum B7 grown at 0°C and 37°C by SOLiD RNA-Seq, Ion
Torrent RNA-Seq and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis tandem
mass spectrometry (2D-DIGE-MS/MS).
We found expression of 2,058 transcripts in all replicates from both
platforms and differential expression of 564 genes (absolute log2FC ≥1,
P-value <0.001) comparing the two temperatures by RNA-Seq. A total of
73 spots were differentially expressed between the two temperatures on
2D-DIGE, 25 of which were identified by MS/MS. Some proteins exhibited
patterns of dispersion in the gel that are characteristic of
Our findings suggest that the two sequencing platforms yielded similar
results and that different omic approaches may be used to improve the
understanding of gene expression. To adapt to low temperatures, E. antarcticum B7 expresses four of the six
cold-shock proteins present in its genome. The cold-shock proteins were
the most abundant in the bacterial proteome at 0°C. Some of the
differentially expressed genes are required to preserve transcription and
translation, while others encode proteins that contribute to the
maintenance of the intracellular environment and appropriate protein
folding. The results denote the complexity intrinsic to the adaptation of
psychrotrophic organisms to cold environments and are based on two omic
approaches. They also unveil the lifestyle of a bacterial species
isolated in Antarctica.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-986) contains supplementary material, which is available to
Exiguobacterium antarcticum; Psychrotrophic; Proteomic; RNA-Seq; Gene expression
The genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis MB20 bv. equi was sequenced using the Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) platform, and showed a size of 2,363,089 bp, with 2,365 coding sequences and a GC content of 52.1%. These results will serve as a basis for further studies on the pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis bv. equi.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous to a broad spectrum of hosts, including ruminants, thereby threatening economic and dairy industries worldwide. Currently there is no effective drug or vaccine available against Cp. To identify new targets, we adopted a novel integrative strategy, which began with the prediction of the modelome (tridimensional protein structures for the proteome of an organism, generated through comparative modeling) for 15 previously sequenced C. pseudotuberculosis strains. This pan-modelomics approach identified a set of 331 conserved proteins having 95-100% intra-species sequence similarity. Next, we combined subtractive proteomics and modelomics to reveal a set of 10 Cp proteins, which may be essential for the bacteria. Of these, 4 proteins (tcsR, mtrA, nrdI, and ispH) were essential and non-host homologs (considering man, horse, cow and sheep as hosts) and satisfied all criteria of being putative targets. Additionally, we subjected these 4 proteins to virtual screening of a drug-like compound library. In all cases, molecules predicted to form favorable interactions and which showed high complementarity to the target were found among the top ranking compounds. The remaining 6 essential proteins (adk, gapA, glyA, fumC, gnd, and aspA) have homologs in the host proteomes. Their active site cavities were compared to the respective cavities in host proteins. We propose that some of these proteins can be selectively targeted using structure-based drug design approaches (SBDD). Our results facilitate the selection of C. pseudotuberculosis putative proteins for developing broad-spectrum novel drugs and vaccines. A few of the targets identified here have been validated in other microorganisms, suggesting that our modelome strategy is effective and can also be applicable to other pathogens.
S. aureus is a major aetiological agent of ruminant mastitis worldwide. The chronic nature of S. aureus mastitis makes it difficult to cure and prone to resurgence. In order to identify the bacterial factors involved in this chronicity, Newbould 305 (N305), a strain that can reproducibly induce mild and chronic mastitis in an experimental setting, was characterized in depth. We employed genomic and proteomic techniques combined with phenotype characterization, in order to comprehensively analyse N305. The results were compared with data obtained on S. aureus RF122, a strain representative of the major clone involved in severe bovine mastitis worldwide. Five mobile genetic elements were identified in the N305 genome as carrying virulence factors which correlated with phenotypic features such as cytotoxicity, mammary epithelial cell invasion or host-adaptation. In particular, the presence and characteristics of surface exposed proteins correlated well with the greater adhesion and internalization capacities of N305 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. N305 also displayed less diversity of toxin genes but secreted larger quantities of these toxins, associated with a higher cytotoxicity potential. Our data are consistent with the invasiveness and host-adaptation features which contribute to the chronicity of S. aureus mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, exoproteins and surface exposed proteins constitute good targets for further research to explore the underlying mechanisms related to mastitis chronicity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13567-014-0106-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity.
Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) is an invasin from Staphylococcus aureus that allows this pathogen to internalize into eukaryote cells. It was previously demonstrated that recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing FnBPA were invasive and able to transfer a plasmid to eukaryotic cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the invasivity of recombinant strains of Lactococcus lactis that express FnBPA under the control of its constitutive promoter or driven by the strong nisin inducible expression system (NICE) were studied.
It was demonstrated that the nisA promoter allows an increase of FnBPA expression on the surface of Lactococcus lactis surface, as shown by flow cytometry, which subsequently enhanced internalization and plasmid transfer properties in vitro in Caco2 cells and Bone Marrow Dendritic Cells. In vivo, the use of nisA promoter increase the plasmid transfer in cells of both the small and large intestine of mice.
FnBPA expression at the surface of recombinant L. lactis is positively correlated to internalization and DNA transfer properties. The recombinant strains of L. lactis that expresses FnBPA under the control of the nisin inducible expression system could thus be considered as an improved tool in the field of DNA transfer.
FnBPA; Lactococcus lactis; nisA promoter; Caco-2 cells; BMDCs; Invasiveness; Plasmid transfer
Over the last decade network enrichment analysis has become popular in computational systems biology to elucidate aberrant network modules. Traditionally, these approaches focus on combining gene expression data with protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Nowadays, the so-called omics technologies allow for inclusion of many more data sets, e.g. protein phosphorylation or epigenetic modifications. This creates a need for analysis methods that can combine these various sources of data to obtain a systems-level view on aberrant biological networks.
We present a new release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain (avoid) genes provided in a positive (negative) list. Finally the new release now also provides a set of novel visualization features and has been implemented as an app for the standard bioinformatics network analysis tool: Cytoscape.
With KeyPathwayMiner 4.0, we publish a Cytoscape app for multi-omics based sub-network extraction. It is available in Cytoscape’s app store http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/keypathwayminer or via http://keypathwayminer.mpi-inf.mpg.de.
Network enrichment; Protein-protein interaction; Multi-omics; Key pathways
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are intestinal disorders characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Interleukin-10 is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines involved in the intestinal immune system and because of its role in downregulating inflammatory cascades, its potential for IBD therapy is under study. We previously presented the development of an invasive strain of Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) producing Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) which was capable of delivering, directly to host cells, a eukaryotic DNA expression vector coding for IL-10 of Mus musculus (pValac:il-10) and diminish inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of intestinal inflammation. As a new therapeutic strategy against IBD, the aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two L. lactis strains (the same invasive strain evaluated previously and the wild-type strain) carrying the therapeutic pValac:il-10 plasmid in the prevention of inflammation in a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced mouse model.
Results obtained showed that not only delivery of the pValac:il-10 plasmid by the invasive strain L. lactis MG1363 FnBPA+, but also by the wild-type strain L. lactis MG1363, was effective at diminishing intestinal inflammation (lower inflammation scores and higher IL-10 levels in the intestinal tissues, accompanied by decrease of IL-6) in the DSS-induced IBD mouse model.
Administration of both L. lactis strains carrying the pValac:il-10 plasmid was effective at diminishing inflammation in this murine model of experimental colitis, showing their potential for therapeutic intervention of IBD.
Many probiotic bacteria have been described as promising tools for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Most of these bacteria are lactic acid bacteria, which are part of the healthy human microbiota. However, little is known about the effects of transient bacteria present in normal diets, including Lactococcus lactis.
In the present study, we analysed the immunomodulatory effects of three L. lactis strains in vitro using intestinal epithelial cells. L. lactis NCDO 2118 was administered for 4 days to C57BL/6 mice during the remission period of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS).
Only one strain, L. lactis NCDO 2118, was able to reduce IL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion in Caco-2 cells, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect. Oral treatment using L. lactis NCDO 2118 resulted in a milder form of recurrent colitis than that observed in control diseased mice. This protective effect was not attributable to changes in secretory IgA (sIgA); however, NCDO 2118 administration was associated with an early increase in IL-6 production and sustained IL-10 production in colonic tissue. Mice fed L. lactis NCDO 2118 had an increased number of regulatory CD4+ T cells (Tregs) bearing surface TGF-β in its latent form (Latency-associated peptide-LAP) in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen.
Here, we identified a new probiotic strain with a potential role in the treatment of IBD, and we elucidated some of the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effect.
Lactococcus lactis; Colitis; Cytokines; Regulatory T cells; Probiotics
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from eight different hosts in twelve countries. Ninety-nine C. pseudotuberculosis field strains, one type strain (ATCC 19410T) and one vaccine strain (1002) were fingerprinted using the ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 primers, and the ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primer pair. Twenty-nine different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 28 by ERIC 2-PCR and 35 by ERIC 1+2-PCR. The discriminatory index calculated for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, and ERIC 1+2-PCR was 0.89, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Epidemiological concordance was established for all ERIC-PCR assays. ERIC 1+2-PCR was defined as the best method based on suitability of the amplification patterns and discriminatory index. Minimal spanning tree for ERIC 1+2-PCR revealed three major clonal complexes and clustering around nitrate-positive (biovar Equi) and nitrate-negative (biovar Ovis) strains. Therefore, ERIC 1+2-PCR proved to be the best technique evaluated in this study for genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis strains, due to its usefulness for molecular epidemiology investigations.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting in an exponential increase in draft (partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the “scientific value” of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information.
Next-generation sequencing; Drafts; Prokaryotic genomes; Computational tools; Omics
Despite the economic importance of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a chronic disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, few genes related to the virulence of its etiologic agent have been characterized. The oligopeptide permease (Opp) transporters are located in the plasma membrane and have functions generally related to the uptake of peptides from the extracellular environment. These peptide transporters, in addition to having an important role in cell nutrition, also participate in the regulation of various processes involving intercellular signaling, including the control of the expression of virulence genes in pathogenic bacteria. To study the role of Opp in C. pseudotuberculosis, an OppD deficient strain was constructed via simple crossover with a nonreplicative plasmid carrying part of the oppD gene sequence. As occurred to the wild-type, the ΔoppD strain showed impaired growth when exposed to the toxic glutathione peptide (GSH), indicating two possible scenarios: (i) that this component can be internalized by the bacterium through an Opp-independent pathway or (ii) that there is toxicity while the peptide is extracellular. Additionally, the ΔoppD mutant presented a reduced ability to adhere to and infect macrophages compared to the wild-type, although both strains exhibit the same potential to colonize spleens and cause injury and death to infected mice.
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice.
Heat shock protein 65; Lactococcus lactis; Regulatory T cells; Experimental autoimmune; encephalomyelitis
In this study, we compared immune responses elicited by DNA immunization using Lactococcus lactis or L. lactis expressing the Staphylococcus aureus invasin Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) at its surface. Both strains carried pValac:BLG, a plasmid containing the cDNA of Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG), and were designated LL-BLG and LL-FnBPA+ BLG respectively. A TH2 immune response characterized by the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 in medium of BLG reactivated splenocytes was detected after either oral or intranasal administration of LL-FnBPA+ BLG. In contrast, intranasal administration of LL-BLG elicited a TH1 immune response. After BLG sensitization, mice previously intranasally administered with LL-BLG showed a significantly lower concentration of BLG-specific IgE than the mice non-administered. Altenatively administration of LL-FnBPA+ BLG didn't modify the BLG-specific IgE concentration obtained after sensitization, thus confirming the TH2 orientation of the immune response. To determine if the TH2-skewed immune response obtained with LL-FnBpA+ BLG was FnBPA-specific or not, mice received another L. lactis strain producing a mutated form of the Listeria monocytogenes invasin Internalin A intranasally, allowing thus the binding to murine E-cadherin, and containing pValac:BLG (LL-mInlA+ BLG). As with LL-FnBPA+ BLG, LL-mInlA+ BLG was not able to elicit a TH1 immune response. Furthermore, we observed that these difference were not due to the peptidoglycan composition of the cell wall as LL-FnBPA+ BLG, LL-mInlA+ BLG and LL-BLG strains shared a similar composition. DNA vaccination using LL-BLG elicited a pro-inflammatory TH1 immune response while using LL-FnBPA+ BLG or LL-mInlA+ BLG elicited an anti-inflammatory TH2 immune response.
Several probiotic bacteria have been proposed for treatment or prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), showing a protective effect in animal models of experimental colitis and for some of them also in human clinical trials. While most of these probiotic bacteria are isolated from the digestive tract, we recently reported that a Lactobacillus strain isolated from cheese, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327 (Lb CNRZ327), also possesses anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that common dairy bacteria may be useful in the treatment or prevention of IBD. Here, we studied the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of Lb CNRZ327 in vivo, in a mouse dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. During colitis, Lb CNRZ327 modulated the production of TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-12 in colonic tissue and of TGF-β and IL-6 in the spleen, and caused an expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the cecal lymph nodes. Moreover, a strong tendency to CD4+Foxp3+ expansion was also observed in the spleen. The results of this study for the first time show that orally administered dairy lactobacilli can not only modulate mucosal but also systemic immune responses and constitute an effective treatment of IBD.
Corynebacterium ulcerans is a bacterial species with high importance because it causes infections in animals and, rarely, in humans. Its virulence mechanisms remain unclear. The current study describes the draft genome of C. ulcerans FRC58, which was isolated from the bronchitic aspiration of a patient in France.
The completion of whole-genome sequencing for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 has contributed to major advances in research aimed at understanding the biology of this microorganism. This bacterium causes significant loss to goat and sheep farmers because it is the causal agent of the infectious disease caseous lymphadenitis, which may lead to outcomes ranging from skin injury to animal death. In the current study, we simulated the conditions experienced by the bacteria during host infection. By sequencing transcripts using the SOLiDTM 3 Plus platform, we identified new targets expected to potentiate the survival and replication of the pathogen in adverse environments. These results may also identify possible candidates useful for the development of vaccines, diagnostic kits or therapies aimed at the reduction of losses in agribusiness.
Under the 3 simulated conditions (acid, osmotic and thermal shock stresses), 474 differentially expressed genes exhibiting at least a 2-fold change in expression levels were identified. Important genes to the infection process were induced, such as those involved in virulence, defence against oxidative stress, adhesion and regulation, and many genes encoded hypothetical proteins, indicating that further investigation of the bacterium is necessary. The data will contribute to a better understanding of the biology of C. pseudotuberculosis and to studies investigating strategies to control the disease.
Despite the veterinary importance of C. pseudotuberculosis, the bacterium is poorly characterised; therefore, effective treatments for caseous lymphadenitis have been difficult to establish. Through the use of RNAseq, these results provide a better biological understanding of this bacterium, shed light on the most likely survival mechanisms used by this microorganism in adverse environments and identify candidates that may help reduce or even eradicate the problems caused by this disease.
Differential gene expression; Transcripts; RNAseq; SOLID™; Stress; C. pseudotuberculosis
Turritopsis nutricula (T. nutricula) is the one of the known reported organisms that can revert its life cycle to the polyp stage even
after becoming sexually mature, defining itself as the only immortal organism in the animal kingdom. Therefore, the animal is
having prime importance in basic biological, aging, and biomedical researches. However, till date, the genome of this organism has
not been sequenced and even there is no molecular phylogenetic study to reveal its close relatives. Here, using phylogenetic
analysis based on available 16s rRNA gene and protein sequences of Cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (COI or COX1) of T. nutricula,
we have predicted the closest relatives of the organism. While we found Nemopsis bachei could be closest organism based on COX1
gene sequence; T. dohrnii may be designated as the closest taxon to T. nutricula based on rRNA. Moreover, we have figured out four
species that showed similar root distance based on COX1 protein sequence.
Turritopsis nutricula; immortal jellyfish; trans-differentiation; phylogeny; relativeness;