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BMC Genomics (2)
Arbieva, Zarema (1)
Arbieva, Zarema H (1)
Chen, Lin (1)
DiPietro, Luisa A (1)
Gavin, Igor M (1)
Gillis, Bruce S (1)
Guo, Shujuan (1)
Marucha, Phillip T (1)
Mustoe, Thomas A (1)
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Analysis of lead toxicity in human cells
Gillis, Bruce S
Gavin, Igor M
Lead is a metal with many recognized adverse health side effects, and yet the molecular processes underlying lead toxicity are still poorly understood. Quantifying the injurious effects of lead is also difficult because of the diagnostic limitations that exist when analyzing human blood and urine specimens for lead toxicity.
We analyzed the deleterious impact of lead on human cells by measuring its effects on cytokine production and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lead activates the secretion of the chemokine IL-8 and impacts mitogen-dependent activation by increasing the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and of the chemokines IL-8 and MIP1-α in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. The recorded changes in gene expression affected major cellular functions, including metallothionein expression, and the expression of cellular metabolic enzymes and protein kinase activity. The expression of 31 genes remained elevated after the removal of lead from the testing medium thereby allowing for the measurement of adverse health effects of lead poisoning. These included thirteen metallothionein transcripts, three endothelial receptor B transcripts and a number of transcripts which encode cellular metabolic enzymes. Cellular responses to lead correlated with blood lead levels and were significantly altered in individuals with higher lead content resultantly affecting the nervous system, the negative regulation of transcription and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified changes in gene expression in individuals with elevated zinc protoporphyrin blood levels and found that genes regulating the transmission of nerve impulses were affected in these individuals. The affected pathways were G-protein mediated signaling, gap junction signaling, synaptic long-term potentiation, neuropathic pain signaling as well as CREB signaling in neurons. Cellular responses to lead were altered in subjects with high zinc protoporphyrin blood levels.
The results of our study defined specific changes in gene and protein expression in response to lead challenges and determined the injurious effects of exposures to lead on a cellular level. This information can be used for documenting the health effects of exposures to lead which will facilitate identifying and monitoring efficacious treatments for lead-related maladies.
Lead; Heavy metals; Cytokines; Gene expression; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Zinc protoporphyrin
Positional differences in the wound transcriptome of skin and oral mucosa
Marucha, Phillip T
Mustoe, Thomas A
DiPietro, Luisa A
When compared to skin, oral mucosal wounds heal rapidly and with reduced scar formation. Recent studies suggest that intrinsic differences in inflammation, growth factor production, levels of stem cells, and cellular proliferation capacity may underlie the exceptional healing that occurs in oral mucosa. The current study was designed to compare the transcriptomes of oral mucosal and skin wounds in order to identify critical differences in the healing response at these two sites using an unbiased approach.
Using microarray analysis, we explored the differences in gene expression in skin and oral mucosal wound healing in a murine model of paired equivalent sized wounds. Samples were examined from days 0 to 10 and spanned all stages of the wound healing process. Using unwounded matched tissue as a control, filtering identified 1,479 probe sets in skin wounds yet only 502 probe sets in mucosal wounds that were significantly differentially expressed over time. Clusters of genes that showed similar patterns of expression were also identified in each wound type. Analysis of functionally related gene expression demonstrated dramatically different reactions to injury between skin and mucosal wounds. To explore whether site-specific differences might be derived from intrinsic differences in cellular responses at each site, we compared the response of isolated epithelial cells from skin and oral mucosa to a defined in vitro stimulus. When cytokine levels were measured, epithelial cells from skin produced significantly higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than cells from oral mucosa.
The results provide the first detailed molecular profile of the site-specific differences in the genetic response to injury in mucosa and skin, and suggest the divergent reactions to injury may derive from intrinsic differences in the cellular responses at each site.
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