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1.  Cystic Liver Infection after Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):169-174.
There are no reports of cystic liver infection after liver transplantation. Herein, we report a rare case of cystic liver graft infection after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The patient was a 24-year-old man with primary sclerosing cholangitis who underwent right lobe graft LDLT. Preoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a liver cyst at segment 8 of the donor liver. Biliary reconstruction was performed with hepaticojejunostomy. The postoperative course was uneventful until the patient developed a high fever and abdominal pain 15 months after LDLT. Abdominal contrast CT revealed abscess formation. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst was performed and purulent liquid was drained. The fever gradually subsided after treatment. On follow-up CT, the size of the infected liver cyst was decreased. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for cystic liver infection when using grafts with liver cysts, particularly when biliary reconstruction is performed with hepaticojejunostomy.
PMCID: PMC4049011  PMID: 24932164
Cystic liver infection; Living donor liver transplantation; Percutaneous drainage; Primary sclerosing cholangitis
2.  Spontaneous Massive Necrosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Narrowing and Occlusion of the Arteries and Portal Veins 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(1):148-155.
We herein present the case of a 77-year-old man who had fever and right hypochondriac pain. He visited his doctor and underwent contrast computed tomography (CT), and he was suspected to have a liver abscess. He received an antibiotic treatment and his symptoms soon disappeared, but the tumor did not get smaller and its density on contrast CT image got stronger. He underwent biopsy and moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was found. Extended left hepatic and caudate lobectomy was performed. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated HCC with narrowing and occlusion both in the arteries and portal veins associated with mild chronic inflammation. The mechanisms of spontaneous regression of HCC, such as immunological reactions and tumor hypoxia, have been proposed. In our case, histological examination showed the same findings. However, the mechanism is complex, and therefore further investigations are essential to elucidate it.
PMCID: PMC4036137  PMID: 24926228
Spontaneous necrosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Alcoholic liver disease; Hepatectomy
3.  Laparoscopic liver resection in the semiprone position for tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments, using a novel dual-handling technique and bipolar irrigation system 
Surgical Endoscopy  2014;28(8):2484-2492.
Hepatic tumors in the lower edge and lateral segments are commonly treated by laparoscopic liver resection. Tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments are often large and locally invasive, and resection is associated with a higher risk of insufficient surgical margins, massive intraoperative bleeding, and breaching of the tumor. Laparoscopic surgery for such tumors often involves major hepatectomy, including resection of a large volume of normal liver tissue. We developed a novel method of laparoscopic resection of tumors in these segments with the patient in the semiprone position, using a dual-handling technique with an intercostal transthoracic port. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and usefulness of our technique.
Of 160 patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resection at our center from June 2008 to May 2013, we retrospectively reviewed those with tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments. Patients were placed supine or semilateral during surgery until January 2010 and semiprone from February 2010.
Before the introduction of the semiprone position in February 2010, a total of 7 of 40 patients (17.5 %) with tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments underwent laparoscopic liver resection, and after introduction of the semiprone position, 69 of 120 patients (57.5 %) with tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments underwent laparoscopic liver resection (P < 0.001). There were no conversions to open surgery, reoperations, or deaths. The semiprone group had a significantly higher proportion of patients who underwent partial resection or segmentectomy of S7 or S8, lower intraoperative blood loss, and shorter hospital stay than the supine group (all P < 0.05). Postoperative complication rates were similar between groups.
Laparoscopic liver resection in the semiprone position is safe and increases the number of patients who can be treated by laparoscopic surgery without increasing the frequency of major hepatectomy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00464-014-3469-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4077249  PMID: 24622763
Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy; Semiprone position; Anterosuperior and posterior segments; Dual-handling technique; Intercostal transthoracic port
4.  A safe combined nephrectomy and right lobectomy using the liver hanging maneuver for huge renal cell carcinoma directly invading the right lobe of the liver: report of a case 
Surgery Today  2013;44(9):1778-1782.
We herein discuss a patient who underwent simultaneous combined right nephrectomy and right lobectomy of the liver. A 64-year-old male was diagnosed with a huge right renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 13 cm in diameter, which was invading directly into the right hepatic lobe. This type of RCC has been rarely reported, and an anterior approach using the liver hanging maneuver was extremely useful during hepatic parenchymal dissection. The liver parenchymal dissection was performed prior to mobilization of the liver, because the mobilization of the right lobe of the liver was impossible. During the hepatic parenchymal resection, the liver was suspended with the tape and transected, and thereafter, retroperitoneal dissection, nephrectomy and right lobectomy of the liver were completed. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 12th postoperative day with an uneventful clinical course. The anterior approach using the liver hanging maneuver during hepatic parenchymal resection can be safe and feasible for huge RCC invading the right hepatic lobe.
PMCID: PMC4138431  PMID: 24048764
5.  Feasible Isolated Liver Transplantation for a Cirrhotic Patient on Chronic Hemodialysis 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2013;7(2):299-303.
End-stage liver and kidney disease (ELKD) is an indication for deceased donor simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Although a few cases of living donor liver-kidney transplantation have been reported, the invasiveness remains to be discussed. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an alternative choice for ELKD, but has never been reported. Here, we report a case of successful LDLT for a patient with ELKD on hemodialysis. The patient was a 63-year-old male and had decompensated hepatitis C cirrhosis with seronegativity for hepatitis C virus. He had non-diabetic end-stage renal failure and had been on hemodialysis for 3 years. He was in good general condition except for hepatic and renal failure. The living donor was his 58-year-old healthy wife. A right lobe graft was transplanted to the recipient under continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) and extracorporeal veno-venous bypass. CHDF was continued until postoperative day 4, at which point CHDF was converted to hemodialysis. His posttransplant course was good and he was discharged on postoperative day 36. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of LDLT for a patient on chronic hemodialysis. Therefore, being on hemodialysis is not a contraindication for LDLT. LDLT is feasible for a patient with ELKD on hemodialysis.
PMCID: PMC3728599  PMID: 23904841
Living donor liver transplantation; Hepatitis C; Hemodialysis
6.  Effect of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with Hepatitis C and cirrhosis carrying IL28B minor genotype 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:158.
IL28B and ITPA genetic variants are associated with the outcome of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) therapy. However, the significance of these genetic variants in cirrhotic patients following splenectomy has not been determined.
Thirty-seven patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy (Spx group) and 90 who did not (non-Spx group) were genotyped for IL28B and ITPA. The outcome or adverse effects were compared in each group. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and protein kinase R expression in the spleen was measured using total RNA extracted from exenterate spleen.
Sustained virological response (SVR) rate was higher in patients carrying IL28B major genotype following splenectomy (50% vs 27.3%) and in patients carrying minor genotype in the Spx group compared to non-Spx group (27.3% vs 3.6%, P < 0.05). Pretreatment splenic ISG expression was higher in patients carrying IL28B major. There was no difference in progression of anemia or thrombocytopenia between patients carrying each ITPA genotype in the Spx group. Although splenectomy did not increase hemoglobin (Hb) level, Hb decline tended to be greater in the non-Spx group. In contrast, splenectomy significantly increased platelet count (61.1 × 103/μl vs 168.7 × 103/μl, P < 0.01), which was maintained during the course of PEG-IFN/RBV therapy.
IL28B genetic variants correlated with response to PEG-IFN/RBV following splenectomy. Splenectomy improved SVR rate among patients carrying IL28B minor genotype and protected against anemia and thrombocytopenia during the course of PEG-IFN/RBV therapy regardless of ITPA genotype.
PMCID: PMC3503804  PMID: 23145809
IL28B; ITPA; Splenectomy; Liver cirrhosis
7.  Neither MICA Nor DEPDC5 Genetic Polymorphisms Correlate with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence following Hepatectomy 
HPB Surgery  2012;2012:185496.
Purpose. Genetic polymorphisms of MICA and DEPDC5 have been reported to correlate with progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C patients. However, correlation of these genetic variants with HCC recurrence following hepatectomy has not yet been clarified. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy, including 64 patients who were hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive, were genotyped for MICA (rs2596542) and DEPDC5 (rs1012068). Recurrence-free survival rates (RFS) were compared for each genotype. Results. Five-year HCC recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates following hepatectomy were 20.7% in MICA GG allele carriers, 38.7% in GA, and 20.8% in AA, respectively (P = 0.72). The five-year RFS rate was 23.8% in DEPDC5 TT allele carriers and 31.8% in TG/GG, respectively (P = 0.47). The survival rates in all (including HCV-negative) patients were also similar among each MICA and DEPDC5 genotype following hepatectomy. Among HCV-positive patients carrying the DEPDC5 TG/GG allele, low fibrosis stage (F0-2) occurred more often compared with TT carriers (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Neither MICA nor DEPDC5 genetic polymorphism correlates with HCC recurrence following hepatectomy. DEPDC5 minor genotype data suggest a high susceptibility for HCC development in livers, even those with low fibrosis stages.
PMCID: PMC3485991  PMID: 23132957
8.  Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy in semiprone position for right hepatic major resection 
Pure laparoscopic liver resection is technically difficult for tumors located in the dorsal anterior and posterior sectors. We have developed a maneuver to perform pure laparoscopic hepatectomy in the semiprone position which was developed for resecting tumors located in these areas.
The medical records have been reviewed retrospectively in 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resection in the semiprone position for carcinoma in the dorsal anterior or posterior sectors of the right liver between 2008 and 2011.
Seventeen liver tumors were primary liver tumors and 13 were colorectal metastases. Of the 30 patients, 11 (36.6 %) underwent major hepatectomy [right hemihepatectomy in 7 (23.3 %) and posterior sectionectomy in 4 (13.3 %)]. Anatomical minor resection, such as S6 or S7 segmentectomy, was performed in five patients (16.6 %). Five patients with liver metastasis underwent a simultaneous laparoscopic resection. There was no mortality, reoperation, or conversion to open procedures. There were no hepatectomy-related complications such as postoperative bleeding, bile leakage, or liver failure.
Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy in the semiprone position for tumors present in the dorsal anterior and posterior sectors is feasible and safe. This method expands the indications for laparoscopic liver resection for tumors.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00534-012-0558-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3572367  PMID: 23053355
Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy; Semiprone position; Anatomical liver resection; Rouviere’s sulcus
9.  Additional Resection of the Pancreas Body Prevents Postoperative Pancreas Fistula in Patients with Portal Annular Pancreas Who Undergo Pancreaticoduodenectomy 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2012;6(1):131-134.
Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is a rare variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends to the dorsal surface of the pancreas body and surrounds the portal vein or superior mesenteric vein. Upon pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), when the pancreas is cut at the neck, two cut surfaces are created. Thus, the cut surface of the pancreas becomes larger than usual and the dorsal cut surface is behind the portal vein, therefore pancreatic fistula after PD has been reported frequently. We planned subtotal stomach-preserving PD in a 45-year-old woman with underlying insulinoma of the pancreas head. When the pancreas head was dissected, the uncinate process was extended and fused to the dorsal surface of the pancreas body. Additional resection of the pancreas body 1 cm distal to the pancreas tail to the left side of the original resection line was performed. The new cut surface became one and pancreaticojejunostomy was performed as usual. No postoperative complications such as pancreatic fistula occurred. Additional resection of the pancreas body may be a standardized procedure in patients with PAP in cases of pancreas cut surface reconstruction.
PMCID: PMC3335356  PMID: 22532811
Portal annular pancreas; Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Pancreas fistula
10.  Successful Treatment for Hepatic Encephalopathy Aggravated by Portal Vein Thrombosis with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2011;5(2):366-371.
This report presents the case of a 78-year-old female with hepatic encephalopathy due to an inferior mesenteric venous-inferior vena cava shunt. She developed hepatocellular carcinoma affected by hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and underwent posterior sectionectomy. Portal vein thrombosis developed and the portal trunk was narrowed after hepatectomy. Portal vein thrombosis resulted in high portal pressure and increased blood flow in an inferior mesenteric venous-inferior vena cava shunt, and hepatic encephalopathy with hyperammonemia was aggravated. The hepatic encephalopathy aggravated by portal vein thrombosis was successfully treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via a right transjugular venous approach without the development of other collateral vessels.
PMCID: PMC3134060  PMID: 21769289
Hepatic encephalopathy; Portal vein thrombosis; Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration
11.  Mucin-hypersecreting bile duct neoplasm characterized by clinicopathological resemblance to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas 
Although intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is acceptable as a distinct disease entity, the concept of mucin-secreting biliary tumors has not been fully established.
Case presentation
We describe herein a case of mucin secreting biliary neoplasm. Imaging revealed a cystic lesion 2 cm in diameter at the left lateral segment of the liver. Duodenal endoscopy revealed mucin secretion through an enlarged papilla of Vater. On the cholangiogram, the cystic lesion communicated with bile duct, and large filling defects caused by mucin were observed in the dilated common bile duct. This lesion was diagnosed as a mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. Left and caudate lobectomy of the liver with extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction was performed according to the possibility of the tumor's malignant behavior. Histological examination of the specimen revealed biliary cystic wall was covered by micropapillary neoplastic epithelium with mucin secretion lacking stromal invasion nor ovarian-like stroma. The patient has remained well with no evidence of recurrence for 38 months since her operation.
It is only recently that the term "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)," which is accepted as a distinct disease entity of the pancreas, has begun to be used for mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. This case also seemed to be intraductal papillary neoplasm with prominent cystic dilatation of the bile duct.
PMCID: PMC2000466  PMID: 17725824

Results 1-11 (11)