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1.  Cystic Liver Infection after Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):169-174.
There are no reports of cystic liver infection after liver transplantation. Herein, we report a rare case of cystic liver graft infection after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The patient was a 24-year-old man with primary sclerosing cholangitis who underwent right lobe graft LDLT. Preoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a liver cyst at segment 8 of the donor liver. Biliary reconstruction was performed with hepaticojejunostomy. The postoperative course was uneventful until the patient developed a high fever and abdominal pain 15 months after LDLT. Abdominal contrast CT revealed abscess formation. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst was performed and purulent liquid was drained. The fever gradually subsided after treatment. On follow-up CT, the size of the infected liver cyst was decreased. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for cystic liver infection when using grafts with liver cysts, particularly when biliary reconstruction is performed with hepaticojejunostomy.
doi:10.1159/000363375
PMCID: PMC4049011  PMID: 24932164
Cystic liver infection; Living donor liver transplantation; Percutaneous drainage; Primary sclerosing cholangitis
2.  Spontaneous Massive Necrosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Narrowing and Occlusion of the Arteries and Portal Veins 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(1):148-155.
We herein present the case of a 77-year-old man who had fever and right hypochondriac pain. He visited his doctor and underwent contrast computed tomography (CT), and he was suspected to have a liver abscess. He received an antibiotic treatment and his symptoms soon disappeared, but the tumor did not get smaller and its density on contrast CT image got stronger. He underwent biopsy and moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was found. Extended left hepatic and caudate lobectomy was performed. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated HCC with narrowing and occlusion both in the arteries and portal veins associated with mild chronic inflammation. The mechanisms of spontaneous regression of HCC, such as immunological reactions and tumor hypoxia, have been proposed. In our case, histological examination showed the same findings. However, the mechanism is complex, and therefore further investigations are essential to elucidate it.
doi:10.1159/000362440
PMCID: PMC4036137  PMID: 24926228
Spontaneous necrosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Alcoholic liver disease; Hepatectomy
3.  Feasible Isolated Liver Transplantation for a Cirrhotic Patient on Chronic Hemodialysis 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2013;7(2):299-303.
End-stage liver and kidney disease (ELKD) is an indication for deceased donor simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Although a few cases of living donor liver-kidney transplantation have been reported, the invasiveness remains to be discussed. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an alternative choice for ELKD, but has never been reported. Here, we report a case of successful LDLT for a patient with ELKD on hemodialysis. The patient was a 63-year-old male and had decompensated hepatitis C cirrhosis with seronegativity for hepatitis C virus. He had non-diabetic end-stage renal failure and had been on hemodialysis for 3 years. He was in good general condition except for hepatic and renal failure. The living donor was his 58-year-old healthy wife. A right lobe graft was transplanted to the recipient under continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) and extracorporeal veno-venous bypass. CHDF was continued until postoperative day 4, at which point CHDF was converted to hemodialysis. His posttransplant course was good and he was discharged on postoperative day 36. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of LDLT for a patient on chronic hemodialysis. Therefore, being on hemodialysis is not a contraindication for LDLT. LDLT is feasible for a patient with ELKD on hemodialysis.
doi:10.1159/000354140
PMCID: PMC3728599  PMID: 23904841
Living donor liver transplantation; Hepatitis C; Hemodialysis
4.  Effect of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with Hepatitis C and cirrhosis carrying IL28B minor genotype 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:158.
Background
IL28B and ITPA genetic variants are associated with the outcome of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) therapy. However, the significance of these genetic variants in cirrhotic patients following splenectomy has not been determined.
Methods
Thirty-seven patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy (Spx group) and 90 who did not (non-Spx group) were genotyped for IL28B and ITPA. The outcome or adverse effects were compared in each group. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and protein kinase R expression in the spleen was measured using total RNA extracted from exenterate spleen.
Results
Sustained virological response (SVR) rate was higher in patients carrying IL28B major genotype following splenectomy (50% vs 27.3%) and in patients carrying minor genotype in the Spx group compared to non-Spx group (27.3% vs 3.6%, P < 0.05). Pretreatment splenic ISG expression was higher in patients carrying IL28B major. There was no difference in progression of anemia or thrombocytopenia between patients carrying each ITPA genotype in the Spx group. Although splenectomy did not increase hemoglobin (Hb) level, Hb decline tended to be greater in the non-Spx group. In contrast, splenectomy significantly increased platelet count (61.1 × 103/μl vs 168.7 × 103/μl, P < 0.01), which was maintained during the course of PEG-IFN/RBV therapy.
Conclusions
IL28B genetic variants correlated with response to PEG-IFN/RBV following splenectomy. Splenectomy improved SVR rate among patients carrying IL28B minor genotype and protected against anemia and thrombocytopenia during the course of PEG-IFN/RBV therapy regardless of ITPA genotype.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-158
PMCID: PMC3503804  PMID: 23145809
IL28B; ITPA; Splenectomy; Liver cirrhosis
5.  Neither MICA Nor DEPDC5 Genetic Polymorphisms Correlate with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence following Hepatectomy 
HPB Surgery  2012;2012:185496.
Purpose. Genetic polymorphisms of MICA and DEPDC5 have been reported to correlate with progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C patients. However, correlation of these genetic variants with HCC recurrence following hepatectomy has not yet been clarified. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy, including 64 patients who were hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive, were genotyped for MICA (rs2596542) and DEPDC5 (rs1012068). Recurrence-free survival rates (RFS) were compared for each genotype. Results. Five-year HCC recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates following hepatectomy were 20.7% in MICA GG allele carriers, 38.7% in GA, and 20.8% in AA, respectively (P = 0.72). The five-year RFS rate was 23.8% in DEPDC5 TT allele carriers and 31.8% in TG/GG, respectively (P = 0.47). The survival rates in all (including HCV-negative) patients were also similar among each MICA and DEPDC5 genotype following hepatectomy. Among HCV-positive patients carrying the DEPDC5 TG/GG allele, low fibrosis stage (F0-2) occurred more often compared with TT carriers (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Neither MICA nor DEPDC5 genetic polymorphism correlates with HCC recurrence following hepatectomy. DEPDC5 minor genotype data suggest a high susceptibility for HCC development in livers, even those with low fibrosis stages.
doi:10.1155/2012/185496
PMCID: PMC3485991  PMID: 23132957
6.  Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy in semiprone position for right hepatic major resection 
Background
Pure laparoscopic liver resection is technically difficult for tumors located in the dorsal anterior and posterior sectors. We have developed a maneuver to perform pure laparoscopic hepatectomy in the semiprone position which was developed for resecting tumors located in these areas.
Methods
The medical records have been reviewed retrospectively in 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resection in the semiprone position for carcinoma in the dorsal anterior or posterior sectors of the right liver between 2008 and 2011.
Results
Seventeen liver tumors were primary liver tumors and 13 were colorectal metastases. Of the 30 patients, 11 (36.6 %) underwent major hepatectomy [right hemihepatectomy in 7 (23.3 %) and posterior sectionectomy in 4 (13.3 %)]. Anatomical minor resection, such as S6 or S7 segmentectomy, was performed in five patients (16.6 %). Five patients with liver metastasis underwent a simultaneous laparoscopic resection. There was no mortality, reoperation, or conversion to open procedures. There were no hepatectomy-related complications such as postoperative bleeding, bile leakage, or liver failure.
Conclusions
Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy in the semiprone position for tumors present in the dorsal anterior and posterior sectors is feasible and safe. This method expands the indications for laparoscopic liver resection for tumors.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00534-012-0558-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00534-012-0558-y
PMCID: PMC3572367  PMID: 23053355
Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy; Semiprone position; Anatomical liver resection; Rouviere’s sulcus
7.  Additional Resection of the Pancreas Body Prevents Postoperative Pancreas Fistula in Patients with Portal Annular Pancreas Who Undergo Pancreaticoduodenectomy 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2012;6(1):131-134.
Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is a rare variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends to the dorsal surface of the pancreas body and surrounds the portal vein or superior mesenteric vein. Upon pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), when the pancreas is cut at the neck, two cut surfaces are created. Thus, the cut surface of the pancreas becomes larger than usual and the dorsal cut surface is behind the portal vein, therefore pancreatic fistula after PD has been reported frequently. We planned subtotal stomach-preserving PD in a 45-year-old woman with underlying insulinoma of the pancreas head. When the pancreas head was dissected, the uncinate process was extended and fused to the dorsal surface of the pancreas body. Additional resection of the pancreas body 1 cm distal to the pancreas tail to the left side of the original resection line was performed. The new cut surface became one and pancreaticojejunostomy was performed as usual. No postoperative complications such as pancreatic fistula occurred. Additional resection of the pancreas body may be a standardized procedure in patients with PAP in cases of pancreas cut surface reconstruction.
doi:10.1159/000335210
PMCID: PMC3335356  PMID: 22532811
Portal annular pancreas; Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Pancreas fistula
8.  Successful Treatment for Hepatic Encephalopathy Aggravated by Portal Vein Thrombosis with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2011;5(2):366-371.
This report presents the case of a 78-year-old female with hepatic encephalopathy due to an inferior mesenteric venous-inferior vena cava shunt. She developed hepatocellular carcinoma affected by hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and underwent posterior sectionectomy. Portal vein thrombosis developed and the portal trunk was narrowed after hepatectomy. Portal vein thrombosis resulted in high portal pressure and increased blood flow in an inferior mesenteric venous-inferior vena cava shunt, and hepatic encephalopathy with hyperammonemia was aggravated. The hepatic encephalopathy aggravated by portal vein thrombosis was successfully treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via a right transjugular venous approach without the development of other collateral vessels.
doi:10.1159/000330287
PMCID: PMC3134060  PMID: 21769289
Hepatic encephalopathy; Portal vein thrombosis; Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration
9.  Mucin-hypersecreting bile duct neoplasm characterized by clinicopathological resemblance to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas 
Background
Although intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is acceptable as a distinct disease entity, the concept of mucin-secreting biliary tumors has not been fully established.
Case presentation
We describe herein a case of mucin secreting biliary neoplasm. Imaging revealed a cystic lesion 2 cm in diameter at the left lateral segment of the liver. Duodenal endoscopy revealed mucin secretion through an enlarged papilla of Vater. On the cholangiogram, the cystic lesion communicated with bile duct, and large filling defects caused by mucin were observed in the dilated common bile duct. This lesion was diagnosed as a mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. Left and caudate lobectomy of the liver with extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction was performed according to the possibility of the tumor's malignant behavior. Histological examination of the specimen revealed biliary cystic wall was covered by micropapillary neoplastic epithelium with mucin secretion lacking stromal invasion nor ovarian-like stroma. The patient has remained well with no evidence of recurrence for 38 months since her operation.
Conclusion
It is only recently that the term "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)," which is accepted as a distinct disease entity of the pancreas, has begun to be used for mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. This case also seemed to be intraductal papillary neoplasm with prominent cystic dilatation of the bile duct.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-5-98
PMCID: PMC2000466  PMID: 17725824

Results 1-9 (9)