Capecitabine is a chemotherapeutic drug used in patients with breast, colon and gastric cancer. Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a type of dermatitis that frequently occurs as a reaction to capecitabine. To date, no effective strategies have been found to prevent or reverse HFS. Furthermore, chemotherapy induces an elevation in the expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and this activation represents a critical mechanism for the induction of chemotherapeutic resistance. Adapalene is a third-generation synthetic retinoid. Topical retinoids are important therapeutic anti-aging agents for managing photodamaged skin, and are known to increase HB-EGF levels, which is important for skin wound healing. Accordingly, the current report focused on the topical retinoids that increase HB-EGF expression in the skin, and we hypothesized that these topical retinoids induce local chemotherapeutic resistance in the skin of patients receiving chemotherapy and consequently, decrease the cutaneous side-effects of chemotherapy. This report presents a case of the successful treatment of refractory HFS induced by capecitabine using the topical application of adapalene. Topical adapalene was applied for 3 months and significantly reduced inflammation and pain following chemotherapy. Topical retinoids may have the potential to effectively treat capecitabine-induced HFS by increasing HB-EGF expression and decreasing cutaneous side-effects. Further studies are required to establish the therapeutic efficacy of topical retinoids on HFS.
retinoid; adapalene; hand-foot syndrome; capecitabine; heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor; chemotherapeutic resistance
In gastric cancer, poor prognosis is associated with peritoneal dissemination, which often accompanies malignant ascites. We searched for a target molecule in peritoneal metastasis and investigated its clinical utility as a biomarker.
Biopsy specimens from both primary lesions and peritoneal metastasis, and if possible, malignant ascites, were obtained from 40 patients with gastric cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
VEGF expression was seen in 70% of peritoneal samples. Of the 40 patients, 35 had malignant ascites. These 35 patients were divided into two groups: 15 with ascites found beyond the pelvic cavity (large group) and 20 whose ascites were within the pelvic cavity (small group). The two groups did not significantly differ by serum VEGF levels, but ascites VEGF levels in the large group were significantly higher than in the small group (P < 0.0001). Serum VEGF and ascites VEGF levels were highly correlated in the large group (r = 0.686). A high ascites VEGF level was found to be a risk factor for survival (P = 0.045). We include a report of a patient with chemoresistant refractory gastric cancer and symptomatic ascites who obtained 8 months of palliation from systemic bevacizumab.
Anti-VEGF therapies are promising, and the ascites VEGF level is an important marker in managing patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis.
vascular endothelial growth factor; malignant ascites; peritoneal metastasis; gastric cancer; bevacizumab
Duodenal ulcer penetration into the liver is a rare, but serious complication. Its frequency was thought to have decreased owing to advances in therapies for peptic ulcers. However, we encountered a case in which the duodenal ulcer had penetrated into a previous hemihepatectomy site.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 69-year-old man with a history of left hemihepatectomy 20 months previously presented to the emergency room with sudden-onset abdominal pain and nausea. An upper gastrointestinal examination with a fiberscope revealed a giant ulcer in the duodenal bulb. In addition, a foreign body was detected at the ulcer floor and was strongly suspected of being a ligature from previous hemihepatectomy.
The presence of a gas-filled liver mass and bowel wall thickening with inflammatory changes are important imaging findings for prompt diagnosis of such a condition, but in this case, none of these were reported. Further, no definite abscess was found. Thus, the patient was treated conservatively with a proton pump inhibitor.
This case demonstrates the importance of using absorbable suture materials, adequate lavage in the postoperative peritoneal space and gastroduodenal mucosal protection postoperatively.
Hepatectomy; Duodenal ulcer; Proton pump inhibitor; Penetration; Hepatoduodenal fistula
Biliary complications have great importance for liver transplant recipients because of affecting long-term prognosis. In rare situations, an internal hernia of the Roux-en-Y loop cause graft injury. A 42-year-old woman with a history of living donor liver transplantation 6 years ago presented with prolonged graft injury during the past 6 months. She suddenly developed ileus of the small bowel with internal hernia through the defect of the mesentery around the Roux-en-Y limb of the hepaticojejunostomy. Emergent surgery was performed to reduce the hernia and volvulus; also the mesenteric rent was closed with interrupted suture of silk. Internal hernia of the small bowel after liver transplantation is rare but causes graft injury due to associated biliary complications and rapid deterioration of patient's condition.
Epidermal-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers an advantage to cancer cells by improving their invasive capacity and metastatic potential. This phenomenon by which epidermal cells change into mesenchymal cells and therefore acquire a higher ability to automaticity, is considered a key process in cancer development. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a significant factor for accelerating EMT through the activation of proteins, including members of the Smad pathway. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that low-dose paclitaxel (PTX) inhibits EMT in certain cell lines, including those of cancer cells. The present study determined whether low-dose PTX was able to inhibit EMT in a human cholangiocarcinoma CCKS-1 cell line that had been treated with TGF-β1. First, the cytotoxic concentration of PTX for the CCKS-1 cells was identified to be ~5 nM by MTT assay and dead cell staining. Therefore, the concentrations of PTX were set as 1 nM, 2.5 nM and 5 nM for the subsequent experiments. In the morphological investigation, the CCKS-1 cells changed into a spindle morphology and became separated by the administration of TGF-β1. However, low-dose PTX inhibited these changes and the morphology resembled the control cells in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting investigations revealed that the CCKS-1 cells expressed mesenchymal markers following the administration of TGF-β1. However, low-dose PTX inhibited the expression of the mesenchymal markers and the CCKS-1 cells expressed the epithelial marker, E-cadherin. In particular, a concentration-dependent effect was observed in the immunoblotting experiments. These results show that PTX may be able to inhibit EMT in cancer cells, depending on the dose concentration.
cholangiocarcinoma; paclitaxel; epidermal-mesenchymal transition
The eligibility criteria of liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) must clearly confirm the prognosis not only from pathological diagnosis but also from pre-operative imaging diagnosis. In the present study, we evaluated published eligibility criteria for LT based on both pre-operative imaging diagnosis and pathological diagnosis using living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients at our hospital by α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in HCC. The Up-to-seven (Up-to-7), Asan and Tokyo criteria were evaluated, in both overall survival and HCC disease-free survival, to be statistically significantly beneficial criteria to define post-LDLT prognosis. Recipients only within Up-to-7 criteria based on both pre-operative imaging diagnosis and pathological diagnosis survived without HCC recurrence. Recipients with proliferation of α-SMA-positive CAFs in HCC had significantly poorer prognosis. All survival recipients without HCC recurrence, who were above the Up-to-7 criteria in pathological diagnosis, had no proliferation of α-SMA-positive CAFs. As a result of multivariate analysis, the significant independent factors defining prognosis of recipients after LDLT for HCC were Up-to-7 criteria and proliferation of α-SMA-positive CAFs. The ideal eligibility criteria for LDLT with HCC is Up-to-7 criteria and α-SMA-positive CAFs was considered to be an important factor in HCC recurrence. LDLT should be limited to recipients within Up-to-7 criteria or without proliferation of α-SMA-positive CAFs.
living donor liver transplantation; hepatocellular carcinoma; cancer-associated fibroblast; Up-to-seven criteria; α-smooth muscle actin
We present the first case of an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) accompanying a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). A 74-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown cause. Laboratory data revealed jaundice and liver injury. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a 20 mm polypoid tumor in the dilated distal bile duct, which exhibited early enhancement and papillary growth. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed mucus production from the papilla of Vater, characterized by its protruding and dilated orifice. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the polypoid tumor in the distal bile duct, but no invasive region was suggested by diagnostic imaging. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was IPNB. After endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected bile duct revealed papillary proliferation of biliary-type cells with nuclear atypia, indicating pancreaticobiliary-type IPNB. In addition, solid portions comprised of tumor cells with characteristic salt-and-pepper nuclei were evident. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin in this solid component, diagnosing it as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Furthermore, the MIB-1 proliferation index of NET was higher than that of IPNB, and microinvasion of the NET component was found, indicating neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET G3). This unique case of MANEC, comprising IPNB and NET, provides insight into the pathogenesis of biliary NET.
Neuroendocrine tumor; Intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile duct; Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct; Bile duct
Various treatments have been used for peritoneal dissemination, which is the most common mode of metastasis in gastric cancer, but sufficiently good clinical outcomes have not yet been obtained because of the presence of rich fibrous components and acquired drug resistance. Epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major causes of tissue fibrosis and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has a pivotal function in the progression of EMT. Smad proteins play an important role in the TGF-β signalling pathway. The TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway can be modulated by stabilising microtubules with paclitaxel (PTX). Here, we investigated whether paclitaxel can modulate TGF-β/Smad signalling in human peritoneal methothelial cells (HPMCs). To determine the cytostatic concentrations of antineoplastic agents in HPMCs, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed using PTX, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The minimum concentration that caused significant inhibition of TGF-β1-induced morphological changes in human peritoneal methothelial cells on pre-treatment with PTX was 5 nM at 48 h (cell viability: 87.1±1.5%, P<0.01). The TGF-β signalling cascade and the status of various fibrous components were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining, real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. TGF-β signalling induced morphological changes, α-SMA expression and collagen I synthesis in HPMCs and PTX treatment suppressed these EMT-like changes. Moreover, PTX treatment markedly suppressed Smad2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that at a low-dose, PTX can significantly suppress the TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway by inhibiting Smad2 phosphorylation in the human peritoneum and that this can reduce stromal fibrosis.
gastric cancer; human peritoneal mesothelial cell; paclitaxel; epithelial-mesenchymal transitions; fibrosis
A 56-year-old female with metastatic gallbladder cancer involving the liver and stenosis of the hilar bile duct was treated with gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2) plus S-1 (60 mg/m2). After 9 cycles of therapy, CT showed evidence of stable disease; however, the serum CEA level was increased. Therefore, the chemotherapy regimen was changed to weekly low-dose paclitaxel (60 mg/m2). After 12 cycles of therapy, paclitaxel was reduced to 30 mg/m2 as the patient developed neutropenia. The patient completed 32 cycles of therapy, and the tumor was reduced in size and marked improvement in bile duct stenosis was noted without any impairment in quality of life. The patient succumbed to the disease 25 months after treatment was initiated. Thus, in this case paclitaxel was more effective than gemcitabine plus S-1. Palliative chemotherapy with paclitaxel after failure of gemcitabine and 5-FU was well-tolerated; therefore, it may be an effective treatment for biliary tract cancer (BTC). A phase I study of palliative chemotherapy with weekly low-dose paclitaxel following gemcitabine (plus cisplatin) and 5-FU is currently in progress in patients with unresectable or recurrent BTC.
gallbladder cancer; biliary tract cancer; paclitaxel; palliative chemotherapy
We evaluated the safety and validity of cholecystomucoclasis (CM) and compared its intraoperative characteristics with those of standard cholecystectomy (SC).
We enrolled 174 patients who underwent cholecystectomy and retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of patients in the SC and CM groups.
Significant differences in age (71.1 vs. 61.9 years), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS), and serum C-reactive protein levels (CRP) (18.1 vs. 4.7 mg/dL) were observed between the CM and SC groups. Conversely, no significant differences were observed in the operation time (129 vs. 108 min), amount of blood loss (147 vs. 80 mL), intraoperative complications (0% vs. 5.7%), or duration of hospital stay (13.2 vs. 8.9 days) between the 2 groups. A high conversion rate (35.3%), postoperative complications (33%), and frequent drain insertions (94%) were observed in the CM group.
CM is a safe and valid surgical procedure and surgeons should not hesitate to transition to CM for patients who are of advanced age, in poor general condition (high ASA classification), or have high levels of serum CRP.
Cholecystitis; Cholecystomucoclasis; Deroofing; Subtotal cholecystectomy
Several recent studies have reported that selectins are produced during ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that selectin ligands play an important role in cell binding to the endothelium and in liver metastasis. Portal clamping during pancreaticoduodenectomy with vessel resection for pancreatic head cancer causes hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, which might promote liver metastasis. We investigated the liver colonization of pancreatic cancer cells under hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and examined the involvement of E-selectin and its ligands. A human pancreatic cancer cell line (Capan-1) was injected into the spleen of mice after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R group). In addition, to investigate the effect of an anti-E-selectin antibody on liver colonization in the IR group, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of the anti-E-selectin antibody following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and tumor inoculation (IR+Ab group). Four weeks later, mice were sacrificed and the number of tumor nodules on the liver was compared to mice without hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (control group). The incidence of liver metastasis in the I/R group was significantly higher (16 of 20, 80%) than that in the control group (6 of 20, 30%) (P<0.01). Moreover, mice in the I/R group had significantly more tumor nodules compared to those in the control group (median, 9.9 vs. 2.7 nodules) (P<0.01). In the I/R+Ab group, only 2 of 5 (40%) mice developed liver metastases. RT-PCR and southern blotting of the liver extracts showed that the expression of IL-1 and E-selectin mRNA after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion was significantly higher than the basal levels. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion increases liver metastases and E-selectin expression in pancreatic cancer. These results suggest that E-selectin produced due to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion is involved in liver metastasis.
ischemia-reperfusion injury; E-selectin; sialyl-LewisA; liver metastasis; pancreatic cancer; portal clamping
We examined the effects of the preferential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib on tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression and metastasis in HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cell xenografts in nude mouse rectum. COX-2 mRNA expression was examined in the xenograft and metastatic sites. The antitumor effect of celecoxib in the xenografts was evaluated by measuring the weight of the peri-ano-rectal tumor. The anti-metastatic effect of celecoxib was assessed by quantification of lymph node and lung metastases by amplification of a cancer-related human DNA by TaqMan PCR. The effects of celecoxib on angiogenesis, apoptosis, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and VEGF protein expression in the xenografts were evaluated by means of microvessel density (MVD) counting, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting, respectively. The rectal xenograft model showed lymph node and lung metastases with enhanced expression of COX-2 mRNA in each organ. Celecoxib inhibited rectal xenograft growth in a dose-dependent manner as follows: 150 ppm, 33.0% (p=0.000220); 750 ppm, 46.4% (p=0.0000292); 1500 ppm, 63.4% (p=0.0000109). Celecoxib inhibited lymph node metastasis in a dose-dependent manner as follows: 150 ppm, 86.7% (p=0.0263); 750 ppm, 90.3% (p=0.00638); 1500 ppm, 96.0% (p=0.000894). Celecoxib also inhibited lung metastasis as follows: 750 ppm, 53.3% (p=0.0107); 1500 ppm, 78.3% (p=0.00022). Celecoxib (1500 ppm) significantly inhibited PGE2 production by 68.4% (p=0.000157) and MVD counting by 48.2% (p=1.3×10−12) and induced apoptosis 2.5-fold (p=3.0×10−14) in the rectal xenograft. Celecoxib suppressed VEGF protein expression in the rectal xenograft. These studies demonstrate that celecoxib reduces the growth and metastatic potential of colorectal carcinoma in mice through COX-2 inhibition, anti-angiogenesis and apoptosis induction. The studies using HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cell xenografts in nude mouse rectum also provide important information that supports that the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib has a high potential for use as a clinical agent for inhibition of hematological and lymphatic metastases of colorectal cancer.
celecoxib; lymph node metastasis; lung metastasis; angiogenesis; prostaglandin E2; apoptosis; rectal xenograft model
Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent metastatic pattern of scirrhous gastric cancer. However, despite extensive research effort, disease outcomes have not improved sufficiently. Tumor progression and metastasis result from interactions between cancer and various cells in the stroma, including endothelial cells, immune cells and fibroblasts. Fibroblasts have been particularly well studied; they are known to change into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and produce transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), which mediates cancer-stroma interactions. Here, we investigated whether TGF-β derived from cancer cells in the peritoneal microenvironment activates human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), leading to the progression and fibrosis of gastric cancer. We found that activated HPMCs (a-HPMCs) took on a spindle shape formation, decreased the expression of E-cadherin and increased that of α-SMA. Furthermore, a-HPMCs became more invasive and upregulated proliferation of human gastric cancer-derived MKN45 cells following direct cell-cell contact. Notably, MKN45 cells co-cultured with a-HPMCs also acquired anchorage-independent cell growth and decreased expression of E-cadherin in vitro. To measure the effects of the co-culture in vivo, we developed a mouse xenograft model into which different culture products were subcutaneously injected. The largest tumors were observed in mice that had been given MKN45 cells co-cultured with a-HPMCs. Furthermore, these tumors contained HPMC-derived fibrous tissue. Thus, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HPMCs appears to drive peritoneal dissemination and tumor fibrosis.
gastric cancer; human peritoneal mesothelial cell; fibrosis; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cell-cell interaction
We examined the pathological effects of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and the expression of markers of apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells in resected pancreatic cancer specimens from patients treated with gemcitabine as NAC. Immunohistochemical expression of the apoptosis marker M30, EMT marker Snail and stem cell marker CD44 in surgically resected pancreatic cancer specimens were compared between patients treated (NAC group n=13) and not treated (control group n=21) with gemcitabine. In the NAC group, the tumor specimens showed tumor cell injury; however, there was no significant reduction of serosal, retroperitoneal, perineural or vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis or tumor size. The expression frequencies of M30 and CD44 were significantly higher in the NAC group (61.5 and 53.8%) compared to the control group (9.5 and 14.3%); however, no significant difference in Snail expression was noted between the two groups (53.8 versus 42.9%). Gemcitabine induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo; however, it did not reduce the tumor burden. Moreover, the residual cancer tissues were rich in chemoresistant cancer stem cells. By contrast, marked EMT of cancer cells was observed in the specimens from the groups treated and not treated with gemcitabine.
pancreatic cancer; gemcitabine; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; apoptosis; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; cancer stem cells
Results of surgery alone for pancreatic cancer are disappointing. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with gemcitabine and oral S-1 in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer. A total of 34 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, radiologically diagnosed preoperatively as having potentially resectable tumors, underwent pancreatic resection with lymphadenectomy at Kanazawa University Hospital. NAC was administered to 13 patients (NAC group). The remaining 21 patients were surgically treated without preoperative chemotherapy (control group). Surgical results were compared between these two groups, with follow-up for at least 24 months. No statistically significant differences were found in the clinicopathological background data (tumor location, age, gender, lymph node metastases, tumor stage and tumor size) between the NAC and control groups. Following preoperative chemotherapy, no patients were judged to be unable to undergo laparotomy, i.e., neither distant metastasis nor tumor progression was observed. Radiologically, all 13 NAC group patients had stable disease, whereas, histopathologically, all tumor specimens showed evidence of tumor cells. The treatment effect was judged by Evans grading to be grade IIa in 11 patients and grade IIb in 2 patients. Toxicity was evaluated in 11 patients. Grade III side effects were regarded as hematological toxicity, i.e., leucopenia (7.7%) and thrombocytopenia (15.4%). Moreover, the incidence of perioperative complications did not differ significantly between the NAC and control groups. The one- and three-year overall survival rates of the NAC group with pancreatic head cancer were 88.9 and 55.6%, respectively, superior to 88.9 and 29.6% in the control group (p=0.055). Therefore, NAC with gemcitabine and S-1 is well tolerated and potentially effective against pancreatic head cancer. A phase I study of NAC with gemcitabine and S-1 is under way in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer.
pancreatic cancer; gemcitabine; S-1; neoadjuvant chemotherapy
Adiponectin is inversely related to BMI, positively correlates with insulin sensitivity, and has anti-atherogenic effects. In recent years, adiponectin has been well studied in the field of oncology. Adiponectin has been shown to have antiproliferative effects on gastric cancer, and adiponectin expression is inversely correlated with clinical staging of the disease. However, no studies have reported the correlation between serum adiponectin and receptor expression with disease progression.
In this study, we evaluated expression levels of 2 adiponectin receptors--AdipoR1 and AdipoR2--and attempted to correlate their expression with prognosis in gastric cancer patients. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression in gastric cancer cell lines (MKN45, TMK-1, NUGC3, and NUGC4) was evaluated by western blotting analysis, and the antiproliferative potential of adiponectin was examined in vitro. Serum adiponectin levels were evaluated in 100 gastric cancer patients, and the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was assessed by immunohistochemical staining.
MKN45 and NUGC3 expressed higher levels of AdipoR1 compared to NUGC4, even though there was no significance in AdipoR2 expression. The antiproliferative effect of adiponectin was confirmed in MKN45 and NUGC3 at 10 μg/ml. No significant associations were observed between serum adiponectin levels and clinicopathological characteristics, but lymphatic metastasis and peritoneal dissemination were significantly higher in the negative AdipoR1 immunostaining group (24/32, p = 0.013 and 9/32, p = 0.042, respectively) compared to the positive AdipoR1 group (lymphatic metastasis, 33/68; peritoneal dissemination, 8/68). On the other hand, AdipoR2 expression was only associated with histopathological type (p = 0.001). In survival analysis, the AdipoR1 positive staining group had significantly longer survival rates than the negative staining group (p = 0.01). However, multivariate analysis indicated that AdipoR1 was not an independent prognostic factor on patient's survival on gastric cancer.
In gastric cancer, adiponectin has the possibility to be involved in cell growth suppression via AdipoR1. The presence of AdipoR1 could be a novel anticancer therapeutic target in gastric cancer.
Adiponectin; AdipoR1; AdipoR2; gastric cancer; survival
Development from chronic inflammation to Barrett's adenocarcinoma is known as one of the inflammation-related carcinogenesis routes. Gastroesophageal reflux disease induces regurgitant esophagitis, and esophageal mucosa is usually regenerated by squamous epithelium, but sometimes and somewhere replaced with metaplastic columnar epithelium. Specialized columnar epithelium, so-called Barrett's epithelium (BE), is a risk factor for dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in esophagus. Several experiments using rodent model inducing duodenogastroesophageal reflux or duodenoesophageal reflux revealed that columnar epithelium, first emerging at the proliferative zone, progresses to dysplasia and finally adenocarcinoma, and exogenous carcinogen is not necessary for cancer development. It is demonstrated that duodenal juice rather than gastric juice is essential to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma in not only rodent experiments, but also clinical studies. Antireflux surgery and chemoprevention by proton pump inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, green tea, retinoic acid and thioproline showed preventive effects on the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma in rodent models, but it remains controversial whether antireflux surgery could regress BE and prevent esophageal cancer in clinical observation. The Chemoprevention for Barrett's Esophagus Trial (CBET), a phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, double-masked study using celecoxib in patients with Barrett's dysplasia failed to prove to prevent progression of dysplasia to cancer. The AspECT (Aspirin Esomeprazole Chemoprevention Trial), a large multicenter phase III randomized trial to evaluate the effects of esomeprazole and/or aspirin on the rate of progression to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in patients with BE is now ongoing.
inflammation-metaplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence; Barrett's esophagus; duodenogastroesophageal reflux; chemoprevention for esophageal adenocarcinoma; antireflux surgery; proton pump inhibitors; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors; thioproline
Hepatic metastasis is a common cause of treatment failure after curative resection of pancreatic cancer. We report a pilot study of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for postoperative liver metastases from pancreatic cancer. Five patients who had undergone curative resection of liver metastases from pancreatic cancer received HAI of gemcitabine and 5-FU between October 2008 and September 2010 at Kanazawa University Hospital. Gemcitabine at a dose of 800 mg was infused over 30 min via a bedside pump. After gemcitabine administration, 250 mg of 5-FU was infused continuously over 24 h on days 1–5, comprising one cycle of therapy. These treatment cycles were continued biweekly. In the evaluation according to RECIST criteria, a partial response was obtained in 2 of the 5 cases, with stable disease being achieved in the remaining 3 cases (response rate, 100%). In 4 of the 5 cases, a decrease in serum tumor marker CA19-9 was observed after 10 HAI treatment cycles. The median time to treatment failure was 10 months (range 3–17). As to adverse events, leukocytopenia was grade 3 in 1 of 4 affected cases and all 5 were anemic, although 4 of the 5 cases had anemia prior to HAI therapy. Grade 2 thrombocytopenia was observed in 2 cases. No nonhematologic events, such as nausea, diarrhea, liver injury and neuropathy, occurred. There were no life-threatening toxicities, but 4 cases (80%) developed catheter complications, and the HAI catheter and subcutaneous implantable port system had to be removed. HAI delivers high doses of chemotherapeutic agents directly into tumor vessels, producing increased regional levels with greater efficacy and a lower incidence/severity of systemic side effects. In conclusion, HAI chemotherapy is useful and safe for the treatment of malignancies confined to the liver.
pancreatic cancer; liver metastasis; hepatic arterial infusion; chemotherapy; gemcitabine; 5-fluorouracil
Management of peritoneal dissemination is the most critical problem in gastric cancer. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of valproic acid (VPA) on a highly peritoneal-seeding cell line of human scirrhous gastric cancer, OCUM-2MD3, and to explore the mechanism and the potential of VPA.
The effects of VPA on the growth of OCUM-2MD3 cells were assessed by MTT assay. In addition, paclitaxel (PTX) was combined with VPA to evaluate their synergistic effects. HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression were evaluated by western blotting in OCUM-2MD3 cells and other gastric cancer cell lines (TMK-1, MKN-28). The acetylation status of histone H3 and α-tubulin after exposure to VPA were analyzed by western blotting. The activities of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-modulating proteins were also examined by western blotting. The effects of VPA in vivo were evaluated in a xenograft model, and apoptotic activity was assessed by TUNEL assay.
OCUM-2MD3 cells showed high levels of HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression compared with TMK-1 and MKN-28. The concentration of VPA required for significant inhibition of cell viability (P < 0.05) was 5 mM at 24 h and 0.5 mM at 48 h and 72 h. The inhibition of VPA with PTX showed dose-dependent and combinatorial effects. VPA increased acetyl-histone H3, acetyl-α-tubulin, and p21WAF1 levels accompanied by upregulation of p27, caspase 3, and caspase 9, and downregulation of bcl-2, cyclin D1, and survivin. In the xenograft model experiment, the mean tumor volume of the VPA-treated group was significantly reduced by 36.4%, compared with that of the control group at 4 weeks after treatment (P < 0.01). The apoptotic index was significantly higher in the VPA-treated group (42.3% ± 3.5%) than in the control group (7.7% ± 2.5%) (P < 0.001).
VPA induced dynamic modulation of histone H3 and α-tubulin acetylation in relation with the anticancer effect and the enhancement of PTX in the OCUM-2MD3 cell line. Therefore, VPA in combination with PTX is expected to be a promising therapy for peritoneal dissemination of scirrhous gastric cancer.
Here, we present a case of post-operative liver metastases from pancreatic head cancer in a patient with leukocytopenia, who was safely treated by hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine and 5-FU. The patient was a 61-year-old woman who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head cancer, but was found to be an unsuitable candidate for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy due to the presence of leukocytopenia. Five months after surgery, a follow-up CT revealed two liver metastases. Intravenous systemic chemotherapy was also contraindicated due to the leukocytopenia. In the apparent absence of recurrence, excepting the liver metastases, we decided to administer HAI chemotherapy, which had already been administered following the curative surgery. HAI chemotherapy has been shown to be associated with a lower incidence of systemic side effects. Gemcitabine at a dose of 400 mg was administered via a bedside pump and infused over 30 min. After gemcitabine infusion, 250 mg of 5-FU was infused continuously over 24 h from days 1 to 5. This comprised 1 cycle of therapy. The treatment cycles were continued biweekly. After 10 cycles without severe side effects, it was found that though the size of the metastatic tumors was not reduced, tumor vascularity was. However, after the 13th treatment cycle, local recurrence and lymph node metastases were detected. By this time, the patient had recovered from the leukocytopenia, and could thus be administered systemic chemotherapy. In conclusion, HAI chemotherapy is useful and safe for the treatment of malignancies confined to the liver, even in cases where the patient is in a reduced physical condition.
pancreatic cancer; liver metastases; hepatic arterial infusion; chemotherapy; gemcitabine; leukocytopenia
Type III procollagen (amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen type III) and type IV collagen are considered to be reliable serum markers for monitoring the progression of liver fibrosis. The peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer is also characterised by abundant collagen deposition in the peritoneum. The present study was performed to investigate the potential of serum type III procollagen and IV collagen as biomarkers for peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer. The study population consisted of 117 patients with gastric cancer: 32 patients had peritoneal dissemination which was pathologically diagnosed by laparotomy or laparoscopic examination, while 85 patients (45/40, early/advanced gastric cancer) had no peritoneal dissemination. We measured the serum levels of type III procollagen and type IV collagen in comparison to the commonly accepted tumor markers carcinoembryonic (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 and CA125. The median type III procollagen levels showed no significant differences between the two groups, whereas the median type IV collagen levels were significantly (201 ng/ml) higher in patients with than in those without peritoneal dissemination (early/advanced gastric cancer, 124/136 ng/ml) (P<0.05). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, type IV collagen had the largest area under the curve (0.83), followed by CA125 (0.72), CA19-9 (0.64), CEA (0.59) and type III procollagen (0.48). Type IV collagen was an independent marker (P<0.0001, odds ratio 15.7) for predicting peritoneal dissemination along with CA125 (P=0.0086, odds ratio 9.4) based on multivariate logistic regression. In conclusion, serum type IV collagen levels may be significant in the early detection and management of patients with peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.
type IV collagen; gastric cancer; peritoneal dissemination
Serous microcystic adenomas are rare and account for 1–2% of all exocrine pancreatic tumors and 25% of all pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Recently, with advances in imaging techniques, these adenomas have been identified at an increasing frequency. A 63-year-old woman visited her doctor in 1999 due to a gastric deformity detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a cystic lesion measuring 6.0 cm in diameter, resulting in a diagnosis of serous microcystic adenoma of the pancreatic head. During follow-up, the tumor increased steadily in size, measuring 6.0 cm in diameter in 1999 and 13.0 cm in 2008, while remaining asymptomatic throughout this period of time. The risk of malignant transformation appears to be low even over the long-term. However, some cases of malignant transformation to serous cystadenocarcinoma have recently been reported. In this case, assessment of the relationship between the tumor and adjacent vascular structures, such as massive drainage vein development on the surface or tumor flow into the portal and superior mesenteric veins and the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, was critical for determining tumor resectability. The risk of massive intra-operative hemorrhage was felt to be considerable, given the extent of the veins on the surface of the tumor, as well as the size and location of the primary pancreatic mass. Therefore, preoperative embolization of the tumor-feeding arteries arising from the celiac axis (gastroduodenal, splenic and dorsal pancreatic arteries) was performed. Tumor resection with pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed without a blood transfusion, with an estimated blood loss of 570 ml. The final pathology confirmed the diagnosis of serous microcystic adenoma. The patient is currently alive and disease-free. Preoperative partial embolization of the tumor feeding arteries and intra-operative resection of the right gastric and inferior pancreatoduodenal arteries, allowed the tumor blood supply to be arrested without preoperative tumor necrosis. Subsequently, intraoperative blood loss was reduced. Preoperative partial embolization of the feeding arteries is useful for the resection of hypervascular large tumors of the pancreas.
serous microcystic adenoma; giant tumor; hypervascular tumor; pancreas; preoperative arterial embolization
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been reported to be a minimally invasive and effective procedure for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the pattern of recurrence and complications following RFA have yet to be fully identified. During the period January 2000 to December 2006, we performed HCC resections in 15 patients who developed local recurrence after RFA, as well as in 144 patients without RFA. In patients with local recurrence of HCC after RFA, the tumors showed a more invasive growth, more vascular invasion and less differentiation compared with tumors of patients without RFA. In 6 of the 15 patients with recurrence after RFA, needle biopsy of the HCC was performed before tumor ablation. In five of these 6 patients, dedifferentiation of the tumor was observed. These findings suggest that heat shock due to RFA induces dedifferentiation of HCC. Recurrence after RFA may result in an aggressive tumor that precludes any possibility of cure. RFA must not be considered a suitable alternative to surgery in patients with a low surgical risk. Instead, RFA should be performed according to strict indications by skilled operators using the latest devices.
hepatocellular carcinoma; dedifferentiation; local recurrence; radiofrequency ablation
We posed six clinical questions (CQ) on preoperative biliary drainage and organized all pertinent evidence regarding these questions. CQ 1. Is preoperative biliary drainage necessary for patients with jaundice? The indications for preoperative drainage for jaundiced patients are changing greatly. Many reports state that, excluding conditions such as cholangitis and liver dysfunction, biliary drainage is not necessary before pancreatoduodenectomy or less invasive surgery. However, the morbidity and mortality of extended hepatectomy for biliary cancer is still high, and the most common cause of death is hepatic failure; therefore, preoperative biliary drainage is desirable in patients who are to undergo extended hepatectomy. CQ 2. What procedures are appropriate for preoperative biliary drainage? There are three methods of biliary drainage: percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD), and surgical drainage. ERBD is an internal drainage method, and PTBD and ENBD are external methods. However, there are no reports of comparisons of preoperative biliary drainage methods using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, at this point, a method should be used that can be safely performed with the equipment and techniques available at each facility. CQ 3. Which is better, unilateral or bilateral biliary drainage, in malignant hilar obstruction? Unilateral biliary drainage of the future remnant hepatic lobe is usually enough even when intrahepatic bile ducts are separated into multiple units due to hilar malignancy. Bilateral biliary drainage should be considered in the following cases: those in which the operative procedure is difficult to determine before biliary drainage; those in which cholangitis has developed after unilateral drainage; and those in which the decrease in serum bilirubin after unilateral drainage is very slow. CQ 4. What is the best treatment for postdrainage fever? The most likely cause of high fever in patients with biliary drainage is cholangitis due to problems with the existing drainage catheter or segmental cholangitis if an undrained segment is left. In the latter case, urgent drainage is required. CQ 5. Is bile culture necessary in patients with biliary drainage who are to undergo surgery? Monitoring of bile cultures is necessary for patients with biliary drainage to determine the appropriate use of antibiotics during the perioperative period. CQ 6. Is bile replacement useful for patients with external biliary drainage? Maintenance of the enterohepatic bile circulation is vitally important. Thus, preoperative bile replacement in patients with external biliary drainage is very likely to be effective when highly invasive surgery (e.g., extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is planned.
Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Bile replacement; Guidelines
AIM: To reveal the characteristics of CD133+ cells in the liver.
METHODS: This study examined the histological characteristics of CD133+ cells in non-neoplastic and neoplastic liver tissues by immunostaining, and also analyzed the biological characteristics of CD133+ cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.
RESULTS: Immunostaining revealed constant expression of CD133 in non-neoplastic and neoplastic biliary epithelium, and these cells had the immunophenotype CD133+/CK19+/HepPar-1-. A small number of CD133+/CK19-/HepPar-1+ cells were also identified in HCC and combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. In addition, small ductal structures, resembling the canal of Hering, partly surrounded by hepatocytes were positive for CD133. CD133 expression was observed in three HCC (HuH7, PLC5 and HepG2) and two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (HuCCT1 and CCKS1). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) revealed that CD133+ and CD133- cells derived from HuH7 and HuCCT1 cells similarly produced CD133+ and CD133- cells during subculture. To examine the relationship between CD133+ cells and the side population (SP) phenotype, FACS was performed using Hoechst 33342 and a monoclonal antibody against CD133. The ratios of CD133+/CD133- cells were almost identical in the SP and non-SP in HuH7. In addition, four different cellular populations (SP/CD133+, SP/CD133-, non-SP/CD133+, and non-SP/CD133-) could similarly produce CD133+ and CD133- cells during subculture.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that CD133 could be a biliary and progenitor cell marker in vivo. However, CD133 alone is not sufficient to detect tumor-initiating cells in cell lines.
Cholangiocarcinoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Keratins; Stem cells