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1.  NSAIDs, statins, low-dose aspirin and PPIs, and the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among patients with Barrett's oesophagus: a population-based case–control study 
BMJ Open  2015;5(1):e006640.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), low-dose aspirin and statins may decrease the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) among patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO). However, previous studies did not adequately address bias and confounding. Our objective was to estimate the risk of OAC among patients with BO exposed to NSAIDs, statins and PPIs.
Case–control study nested within a BO cohort.
Two primary care databases (the UK and the Netherlands (NL)).
Cases were adults ≥18 years of age with OAC or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) diagnosis ≥1 year after BO diagnosis. Controls were matched on age, sex, year of BO diagnosis and database.
Drug use was assessed from BO diagnosis until matching date.
Outcome measure
Adjusted ORs with 95% CI were calculated by conditional logistic regression.
Within the BO cohort (n=15 134), 45 OAC (UK: 40, NL: 5) and 12 HGD cases (NL: 12) were identified. ORa for OAC during NSAID use was 1.2 (95% CI 0.6 to 2.5) and during statin use for >3 years 0.5 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.7). When including HGD cases (n=57), ORa for NSAID use was 0.9 (95% CI 0.5 to 1.8) and for statin use >3 years 0.5 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.7). Higher doses of statins showed lower estimates for OAC and HGD, though not statistically significant. Low-dose aspirin and PPIs did not significantly decrease the risk of OAC and HGD.
In this population-based nested case–control study, use of NSAIDs, PPIs, low-dose aspirin or statins did not reduce the risk of HGD and OAC among patients with BO. These findings indicate that for an unselected group of patients with BO chemoprevention by use of drugs to reduce progression to HGD and OAC should not be directly considered as routine care.
PMCID: PMC4316430  PMID: 25633286
2.  Increased proton pump inhibitor and NSAID exposure in irritable bowel syndrome: results from a case-control study 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:121.
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) seen by a gastroenterologist often utilize medications that may alter intestinal homeostasis. The question arises whether exposure to these drugs is associated with the development of IBS symptoms. Aim of this study was therefore to assess the use of PPIs and NSAIDs in patients with IBS versus controls.
Cases of IBS from the last 5 years were reviewed. All patients having had at least one prescription for a particular drug (PPIs, NSAIDs, SSRIs, diuretics, ACE inhibitors) in the 6 months prior to the time of initial symptom onset were considered exposed. The control group consisted of individuals randomly selected from the general population.
287 cases of IBS were retrieved for analysis together with 287 age and sex-matched controls. Exposure to PPIs and NSAIDs was significantly higher in IBS patients, whereas no association between ACE inhibitor use and IBS was found. PPIs were not significantly associated when excluding patients with gastrointestinal reflux disease or functional dyspepsia. Exposure to SSRIs was also positively associated with IBS, but only when patients with psychiatric comorbidity were included in the analyses.
Medications that may alter intestinal homeostasis such as NSAIDs and PPIs were more frequently used in IBS patients compared to controls. This association might be relevant for everyday clinical practice, but it is remains to be elucidated whether this association is of etiological nature.
PMCID: PMC3482574  PMID: 22950677
Irritable bowel syndrome; Proton pump inhibitors; NSAIDs; Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; Intestinal permeability

Results 1-2 (2)