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1.  Optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps using high-definition i-scan: An educational experience 
AIM: To examine performances regarding prediction of polyp histology using high-definition (HD) i-scan in a group of endoscopists with varying levels of experience.
METHODS: We used a digital library of HD i-scan still images, comprising twin pictures (surface enhancement and tone enhancement), collected at our university hospital. We defined endoscopic features of adenomatous and non-adenomatous polyps, according to the following parameters: color, surface pattern and vascular pattern. We familiarized the participating endoscopists on optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps using a 20-min didactic training session. All endoscopists were asked to evaluate an image set of 50 colorectal polyps with regard to polyp histology. We classified the diagnoses into high confidence (i.e., cases in which the endoscopist could assign a diagnosis with certainty) and low confidence diagnoses (i.e., cases in which the endoscopist preferred to send the polyp for formal histology). Mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy per endoscopist/image were computed and differences between groups tested using independent-samples t tests. High vs low confidence diagnoses were compared using the paired-samples t test.
RESULTS: Eleven endoscopists without previous experience on optical diagnosis evaluated a total of 550 images (396 adenomatous, 154 non-adenomatous). Mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 79.3%, 85.7% and 81.1%, respectively. No significant differences were found between gastroenterologists and trainees regarding performances of optical diagnosis (mean accuracy 78.0% vs 82.9%, P = 0.098). Diminutive lesions were predicted with a lower mean accuracy as compared to non-diminutive lesions (74.2% vs 93.1%, P = 0.008). A total of 446 (81.1%) diagnoses were made with high confidence. High confidence diagnoses corresponded to a significantly higher mean accuracy than low confidence diagnoses (84.0% vs 64.3%, P = 0.008). A total of 319 (58.0%) images were evaluated as having excellent quality. Considering excellent quality images in conjunction with high confidence diagnosis, overall accuracy increased to 92.8%.
CONCLUSION: After a single training session, endoscopists with varying levels of experience can already provide optical diagnosis with an accuracy of 84.0%.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i27.4334
PMCID: PMC3718901  PMID: 23885144
Colonoscopy; High-definition i-scan; Optical diagnosis; Colorectal polyps; Training
2.  Increased proton pump inhibitor and NSAID exposure in irritable bowel syndrome: results from a case-control study 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:121.
Background
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) seen by a gastroenterologist often utilize medications that may alter intestinal homeostasis. The question arises whether exposure to these drugs is associated with the development of IBS symptoms. Aim of this study was therefore to assess the use of PPIs and NSAIDs in patients with IBS versus controls.
Methods
Cases of IBS from the last 5 years were reviewed. All patients having had at least one prescription for a particular drug (PPIs, NSAIDs, SSRIs, diuretics, ACE inhibitors) in the 6 months prior to the time of initial symptom onset were considered exposed. The control group consisted of individuals randomly selected from the general population.
Results
287 cases of IBS were retrieved for analysis together with 287 age and sex-matched controls. Exposure to PPIs and NSAIDs was significantly higher in IBS patients, whereas no association between ACE inhibitor use and IBS was found. PPIs were not significantly associated when excluding patients with gastrointestinal reflux disease or functional dyspepsia. Exposure to SSRIs was also positively associated with IBS, but only when patients with psychiatric comorbidity were included in the analyses.
Conclusions
Medications that may alter intestinal homeostasis such as NSAIDs and PPIs were more frequently used in IBS patients compared to controls. This association might be relevant for everyday clinical practice, but it is remains to be elucidated whether this association is of etiological nature.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-121
PMCID: PMC3482574  PMID: 22950677
Irritable bowel syndrome; Proton pump inhibitors; NSAIDs; Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; Intestinal permeability

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