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1.  Discrimination of p53 immunohistochemistry-positive tumors by its staining pattern in gastric cancer 
Cancer Medicine  2014;4(1):75-83.
Immunohistochemistry staining of p53 is a cheap and simple method to detect aberrant function of p53. However, there are some discrepancies between the result of immunohistochemistry staining and mutation analysis. This study attempted to find a new definition of p53 staining by its staining pattern. Immunohistochemistry staining of p53 and TP53 gene mutation analysis were performed in 148 gastric cancer patients. Also SNP-CGH array analysis was conducted to four cases. Positive staining of p53 was observed in 88 (59.5%) tumors. Tumors with positive p53 staining showed malignant features compared to negative tumors. Mutation of TP53 gene was observed in 29 (19.6%) tumors with higher age and differentiated type. In positive p53 tumors, two types could be distinguished; aberrant type and scattered type. With comparison to TP53 gene mutation analysis, all the scattered type had wild-type TP53 gene (P = 0.0003). SNP-CGH array showed that scattered-type tumors had no change in the structure of chromosome 17. P53-scattered-type staining tumors may reflect a functionally active nonmutated TP53 gene. In interpretation of p53 immunohistochemistry staining, distinguishing p53-positive tumors by their staining pattern may be important in gastric cancer.
doi:10.1002/cam4.346
PMCID: PMC4312120  PMID: 25354498
Gastric cancer; immunohistochemistry; mutation analysis; p53; staining pattern
2.  Therapeutic strategy for postoperative recurrence in patients with non-small cell lung cancer 
World Journal of Clinical Oncology  2014;5(5):1048-1054.
Postoperative recurrence occurs in approximately half of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), even after complete resection. Disease recurrence after surgical resection reduces the patient’s life expectancy sharply. The prognosis after postoperative recurrence is considered to largely depend on both the mode of first recurrence (distant, locoregional or combined) and the treatment modality: (1) The majority of cases of postoperative recurrence involve distant metastasis with or without locoregional recurrence. Platinum-based systemic chemotherapy is practically accepted as the treatment for these diseases on the basis of evidence for original stage IV disease. The advent of both pemetrexed and molecular-targeted drugs has improved the survival of nonsquamous NSCLC and changed the chemotherapeutic algorithm for NSCLC; (2) Among patients with distant metastatic recurrence without locoregional recurrence at the primary tumor site, the metastasis is often limited in both organ and number. Such metastases are referred to as oligometastases. Local therapy, such as surgical resection and radiotherapy, has been suggested to be the first-line treatment of choice for oligometastatic recurrence; and (3) While locoregional recurrence is likely to cause troublesome symptoms, it is a potentially limited disease. Therefore, providing local control is important, and radiation is usually beneficial for treating local recurrence. In order to obtain better control of the disease and provide treatment with curative intent in patients with limited disease, the administration of concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy is recommended according to the results of originally nonresectable stage IIIA and IIIB disease.
doi:10.5306/wjco.v5.i5.1048
PMCID: PMC4259931  PMID: 25493240
Non-small cell lung cancer; Postoperative recurrence; Distant metastasis; Oligometastases; Local treatment; Locoregional recurrence
3.  Gemcitabine Induces Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Degradation through Autophagy in Pancreatic Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109076.
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and autophagy play increasingly important roles in DNA damage repair and cell death. Gemcitabine (GEM) remains the first-line chemotherapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer (PC). However, little is known about the relationship between PARP-1 expression and autophagy in response to GEM. Here we demonstrate that GEM induces DNA-damage response and degradation of mono-ADP ribosylated PARP-1 through the autophagy pathway in PC cells, which is rescued by inhibiting autophagy. Hypoxia and serum starvation inhibit autophagic activity due to abrogated GEM-induced mono-ADP-ribosylated PARP-1 degradation. Activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) induced by serum starvation shows differences in intracellular localization as well as modulation of autophagy and PARP-1 degradation in GEM-sensitive KLM1 and -resistant KLM1-R cells. Our study has revealed a novel role of autophagy in PARP-1 degradation in response to GEM, and the different impacts of MEK/ERK signaling pathway on autophagy between GEM-sensitive and -resistant PC cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109076
PMCID: PMC4182782  PMID: 25271986
4.  IgG4-related disease of the ileocecal region mimicking malignancy: A case report 
Highlights
•The colonic IgG4-RD is rare.•We report the case of a74-year-old female with IgG4-RD of the ileocecal region.•The patient was diagnosed asmalignant lymphoma and underwent right-hemi colectomy.•Postoperative pathologicalexamination revealed IgG4-RD of the ileocecal region.•Surgical resection for IgG4-RDis necessary for cases with concerns of malignancy.
INTRODUCTION
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterized by chronic fibrosing inflammation with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells, and responds well to steroids. Previous reports of IgG4-RD have focused on pancreatic and extrapancreatic including the gastrointestinal tract, however, the colonic IgG4-RD is rare.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We herein report the case of a 74-year-old female with edematous wall thickening of the terminal ileum to the lower ascending colon confirmed by several preoperative imaging studies, who underwent right hemi-colectomy for suspected malignant lymphoma. The resected specimen showed an irregular wall thickness with subserosal sclerosis, and the lesion was 10 cm in length from the terminal ileum to the ascending colon. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-RD by pathological examinations, which demonstrated an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells (150/HPF), and an elevated IgG4/IgG ratio (50%).
DISCUSSION
Gastrointestinal IgG4-RD appears to be difficult to diagnose prior to surgical resection because of its rarity, and the similarity of its features to malignancy.
The measurement of the serum IgG4 levels, immunohistochemical examination of biopsy specimens and use of several imaging modalities might help us to diagnose the disease without surgical resection, and this disease can generally be treated with steroid therapy. However, surgical resection for IgG4-RD may still be also necessary for patients with concerns regarding malignancy or with intractable gastrointestinal obstruction caused by this disease.
CONCLUSION
Gastrointestinal IgG4-RD often mimics malignancy, and we should therefore consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of colonic lesions in order to optimize the treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.08.003
PMCID: PMC4189076  PMID: 25194601
IgG4-related disease; Colon; Resection
5.  Spontaneous regression of breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis: a case report and review of literature 
Spontaneous regression (SR) of cancer is a rare but well-documented biological phenomenon. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein report a case of the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node with spontaneously-induced T cell-mediated immunological responses. A 52-year-old female with a lump in the left axilla was diagnosed to have a small breast carcinoma with a distinct axillary lymph node metastasis. During the preoperative systemic examination, she was diagnosed to have severe type 2 diabetes mellitus, was treated with insulin, and the hyperglycemia was normalized after one month. Surgery for left breast cancer was then performed. The postoperative histopathological examination revealed the SR of breast cancer at both the primary site and metastatic axillary lymph node. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that estrogen receptor positive, AE1/AE3-positive ductal carcinoma completely underwent necrosis associated with extensive infiltration of CD3-positive T cells in the tumor nodule in the lymph node. In addition, primary ductal carcinoma cells also underwent single cell necrosis with infiltration of T cells with lymph follicle-like organization of B cells in the mammary gland. The features were suggestive that the tumor eradication in the metastatic lymph node and regression of the primary ductal carcinoma could be due to host T cell response to the ductal carcinoma. As far as we know it is the first report that shows the spontaneous regression of breast cancer, probably due to the spontaneously-induced T cell response.
PMCID: PMC4129057  PMID: 25120822
Spontaneous regression; breast cancer; cancer immunology; T cell response
6.  Cystic Liver Infection after Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(2):169-174.
There are no reports of cystic liver infection after liver transplantation. Herein, we report a rare case of cystic liver graft infection after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The patient was a 24-year-old man with primary sclerosing cholangitis who underwent right lobe graft LDLT. Preoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a liver cyst at segment 8 of the donor liver. Biliary reconstruction was performed with hepaticojejunostomy. The postoperative course was uneventful until the patient developed a high fever and abdominal pain 15 months after LDLT. Abdominal contrast CT revealed abscess formation. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst was performed and purulent liquid was drained. The fever gradually subsided after treatment. On follow-up CT, the size of the infected liver cyst was decreased. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for cystic liver infection when using grafts with liver cysts, particularly when biliary reconstruction is performed with hepaticojejunostomy.
doi:10.1159/000363375
PMCID: PMC4049011  PMID: 24932164
Cystic liver infection; Living donor liver transplantation; Percutaneous drainage; Primary sclerosing cholangitis
7.  Spontaneous Massive Necrosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Narrowing and Occlusion of the Arteries and Portal Veins 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(1):148-155.
We herein present the case of a 77-year-old man who had fever and right hypochondriac pain. He visited his doctor and underwent contrast computed tomography (CT), and he was suspected to have a liver abscess. He received an antibiotic treatment and his symptoms soon disappeared, but the tumor did not get smaller and its density on contrast CT image got stronger. He underwent biopsy and moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was found. Extended left hepatic and caudate lobectomy was performed. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated HCC with narrowing and occlusion both in the arteries and portal veins associated with mild chronic inflammation. The mechanisms of spontaneous regression of HCC, such as immunological reactions and tumor hypoxia, have been proposed. In our case, histological examination showed the same findings. However, the mechanism is complex, and therefore further investigations are essential to elucidate it.
doi:10.1159/000362440
PMCID: PMC4036137  PMID: 24926228
Spontaneous necrosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Alcoholic liver disease; Hepatectomy
8.  A case of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast involving extensive lymph node metastasis 
We herein report a case of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) involving extensive lymph node metastasis with no recurrence for over 7 years. A 41-year-old female presented with pain and a swelling mass in the left axillary region, which had been present for several months. The tumor measured 1.6 cm in diameter in the middle of upper area of the left breast. Based on the findings of a core needle biopsy the pathological diagnosis was IMPC or mucinous carcinoma. The cytology of the left axillary lymph node was positive for metastatic carcinoma. The patient underwent a left mastectomy and a left axillary dissection (level I to III). The postoperative pathological diagnosis was IMPC with mucin production, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes was 59. The patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy (four courses of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) and four courses of docetaxel), radiation for the left chest wall, supraclavicular and internal thoracic area, and then received tamoxifen for 5 years. The patient has remained recurrence-free for over 7 years. IMPC is known to be an aggressive histological type associated with a high incidence of lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. It seems that long-term survival was obtained by performing sufficient medical treatment. Prognostic factors other than the number of lymph node metastases may also exist.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-84
PMCID: PMC4001353  PMID: 24708742
Invasive micropapillary carcinoma; Prognostic factor
9.  Management of thrombocytopenia due to liver cirrhosis: A review 
Thrombocytopenia is a common complication in liver disease and can adversely affect the treatment of liver cirrhosis, limiting the ability to administer therapy and delaying planned surgical/diagnostic procedures because of an increased risk of bleeding. Multiple factors, including splenic sequestration, reduced activity of the hematopoietic growth factor thrombopoietin, bone marrow suppression by chronic hepatitis C virus infection and anti-cancer agents, and antiviral treatment with interferon-based therapy, can contribute to the development of thrombocytopenia in cirrhotic patients. Of these factors, the major mechanisms for thrombocytopenia in liver cirrhosis are (1) platelet sequestration in the spleen; and (2) decreased production of thrombopoietin in the liver. Several treatment options, including platelet transfusion, interventional partial splenic embolization, and surgical splenectomy, are now available for severe thrombocytopenia in cirrhotic patients. Although thrombopoietin agonists and targeted agents are alternative tools for noninvasively treating thrombocytopenia due to liver cirrhosis, their ability to improve thrombocytopenia in cirrhotic patients is under investigation in clinical trials. In this review, we propose a treatment approach to thrombocytopenia according to our novel concept of splenic volume, and we describe the current management of thrombocytopenia due to liver cirrhosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i10.2595
PMCID: PMC3949268  PMID: 24627595
Liver cirrhosis; Thrombocytopenia; Thrombopoietin; Partial splenic embolization; Splenectomy
10.  Laparoscopic liver resection in the semiprone position for tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments, using a novel dual-handling technique and bipolar irrigation system 
Surgical Endoscopy  2014;28(8):2484-2492.
Background
Hepatic tumors in the lower edge and lateral segments are commonly treated by laparoscopic liver resection. Tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments are often large and locally invasive, and resection is associated with a higher risk of insufficient surgical margins, massive intraoperative bleeding, and breaching of the tumor. Laparoscopic surgery for such tumors often involves major hepatectomy, including resection of a large volume of normal liver tissue. We developed a novel method of laparoscopic resection of tumors in these segments with the patient in the semiprone position, using a dual-handling technique with an intercostal transthoracic port. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and usefulness of our technique.
Methods
Of 160 patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resection at our center from June 2008 to May 2013, we retrospectively reviewed those with tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments. Patients were placed supine or semilateral during surgery until January 2010 and semiprone from February 2010.
Results
Before the introduction of the semiprone position in February 2010, a total of 7 of 40 patients (17.5 %) with tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments underwent laparoscopic liver resection, and after introduction of the semiprone position, 69 of 120 patients (57.5 %) with tumors in the anterosuperior and posterior segments underwent laparoscopic liver resection (P < 0.001). There were no conversions to open surgery, reoperations, or deaths. The semiprone group had a significantly higher proportion of patients who underwent partial resection or segmentectomy of S7 or S8, lower intraoperative blood loss, and shorter hospital stay than the supine group (all P < 0.05). Postoperative complication rates were similar between groups.
Conclusions
Laparoscopic liver resection in the semiprone position is safe and increases the number of patients who can be treated by laparoscopic surgery without increasing the frequency of major hepatectomy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00464-014-3469-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00464-014-3469-y
PMCID: PMC4077249  PMID: 24622763
Pure laparoscopic hepatectomy; Semiprone position; Anterosuperior and posterior segments; Dual-handling technique; Intercostal transthoracic port
11.  Portal vein thrombosis in liver cirrhosis 
World Journal of Hepatology  2014;6(2):64-71.
Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is considered to be a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis. However, unlike PVT in patients without cirrhosis, very few data are available on the natural history and management of PVT in cirrhosis, despite its association with potentially life-threatening conditions, such as gastroesophageal bleeding and acute intestinal ischemia. Moreover, no consensus regarding PVT in cirrhosis exists. Suggested causes of PVT in cirrhosis include reduced portal blood flow velocity, multiple congenital or acquired thrombophilic factors, inherited or acquired conditions, and derangement of liver architecture. However, the understanding of PVT in cirrhosis is incomplete. In addition, information on the management of PVT in cirrhosis is inadequate. The aims of this review are to: (1) assemble data on the physiopathological mechanism, clinical findings, diagnosis and management of PVT in cirrhosis; (2) describe the principal factors most frequently involved in PVT development; and (3) summarize the recent knowledge concerning diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
doi:10.4254/wjh.v6.i2.64
PMCID: PMC3934638  PMID: 24575165
Portal vein thrombosis; Liver cirrhosis; Thrombophilic factors; Anticoagulation; Splenectomy
12.  New molecular staging with G-factor supplements TNM classification in gastric cancer: a multicenter collaborative research by the Japan Society for Gastroenterological Carcinogenesis G-Project committee 
Gastric Cancer  2014;18(1):119-128.
Background
The G-Project committee was erected by the Japan Society for Gastroenterological Carcinogenesis with an aim of establishing a new classification scheme based on molecular biological characteristics that would supplement the conventional TNM classification to better predict outcome.
Methods
In a literature search involving 822 articles on gastric cancer, eight molecules including p53, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Regenerating islet-derived family, member 4, olfactomedin-4 and Claudin-18 were selected as candidates to be included in the new molecular classification scheme named G-factor. A total of 210 cases of gastric cancer who underwent curative R0 resection were registered from four independent facilities. Immunohistochemical staining for the aforementioned molecules was performed for the surgically resected specimens of the 210 cases to investigate the correlation between clinicopathological factors and expression of each molecule.
Results
No significant correlation was observed between the immunostaining expression of any of the eight factors and postoperative recurrence. However, the expressions of p53 and MMP-7 were significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). When 210 gastric cancer patients were divided into three groups based on the expression of p53 and MMP-7 (G0 group: negative for both p53 and MMP-7, n = 69, G1 group: positive for either p53 or MMP-7, n = 97, G2 group: positive for both of the molecules, n = 44), G2 group demonstrated significantly higher recurrence rate (59 %) compared to 38 % in G0 (p = 0.047). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that G2 group was independently associated with a shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio 1.904, 95 % CI 1.098–3.303; p = 0.022), although the association with OS was not significant. Stage II patients among the G2 group had significantly inferior prognosis both in terms of OS and DFS when compared with those among the G0/G1 group, with survival curves similar to those of Stage III cases.
Conclusions
G-factor based on the expression of p53 and MMP-7 was found to be a promising factor to predict outcome of Stage II/III gastric cancer, and possibly to help select the treatment for Stage II cancer, thus supplementing the conventional TNM system.
doi:10.1007/s10120-014-0338-2
PMCID: PMC4257995  PMID: 24488015
Gastric cancer; G-factor; Molecular staging; TNM classification
13.  Thoracic Stent Graft with Distal Fenestration for the Superior Mesenteric Artery for Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2014;7(2):152-155.
An 86-year-old man with a 75-mm TAA that terminated just above the celiac artery was treated with a customized Zenith stent graft that had a distal fenestration for the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Because angiography demonstrated a type IB endoleak, an additional extension stent graft was deployed, and coil embolization of the aneurysmal sac was performed. Three months later, there was no endoleak and good visceral blood flow. Placement of a fenestrated thoracic stent graft with a scallop-like fenestration for the SMA is a promising procedure for the treatment of TAAs with a short distal neck.
doi:10.3400/avd.cr.13-00119
PMCID: PMC4072865  PMID: 24995061
fenestrated stent graft; thoracic aorta; aneurysm
14.  Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Dissemination after Induction Chemotherapy 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2013;7(3):516-521.
Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination may be diagnosed as unresectable. More recently, as a result of progress in chemotherapy, some patients with peritoneal dissemination have exhibited extended survival. We report on our experience with three patients in whom induction chemotherapy allowed for totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG). All three patients were diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination using staging laparoscopy. As induction chemotherapy, S-1 combined with cisplatin was administered to two patients and trastuzumab plus capecitabine combined with cisplatin to one patient. TLTG was performed in all patients and there were no postoperative complications. Adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated within 3 weeks after surgery in all three patients. Laparoscopic gastrectomy undertaken after induction chemotherapy was found to be effective and safe; this treatment has the potential to achieve good treatment outcomes in patients with stage IV gastric cancer.
doi:10.1159/000357591
PMCID: PMC3901594  PMID: 24474902
Gastric cancer; Peritoneal dissemination; Induction chemotherapy; Totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy
15.  Differential impact of the expression of the androgen receptor by age in estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer 
Cancer Medicine  2013;2(6):763-773.
We evaluated the expression of the androgen receptor (AR) to determine its significance in breast cancer. AR expression levels were analyzed in 250 invasive breast cancers by immunohistochemistry and any association with the clinicopathological features was evaluated. AR expression was higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases than in ER-negative cases (P < 0.0001). AR expression was associated with ER level, and it increased with age in ER-positive cases. The cut-off value was determined to be 75% (Cancer Res. 2009;69:6131–6140), and AR expression was considered to be high in 155 (62%) cases. High AR expression significantly correlated with lower nuclear grade (P < 0.0001), ER and progesterone receptor (PR) positivity (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0022), HER2 negativity (P = 0.0113), lower Ki67 index (P < 0.0001) and a longer disease-free survival (DFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (P = 0.0003 and 0.0107). This association between a high AR expression and a good DFS and DMFS was significant for ER-positive tumors (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0018); however, no association existed between AR expression and prognosis for ER-negative tumors. In patients ≤51 years old, a high AR expression level significantly correlated with a better prognosis, but this was not significant in patients who were 50 or younger. Multivariate Cox hazard analyses revealed AR expression to be independently associated with a good prognosis in overall patients (HR 0.46, P = 0.0052) and in the ER-positive cohort (HR 0.34, P = 0.0009). AR expression is associated with a less aggressive phenotype and a good prognosis in patients with ER-positive breast cancer. This is considered to be a specific phenomenon for postmenopausal breast cancer patients.
doi:10.1002/cam4.138
PMCID: PMC3892381  PMID: 24403250
Androgen receptor; breast cancer; estrogen receptor; phenotype; postmenopausal
16.  The early discontinuation of adjuvant hormone therapy is associated with a poor prognosis in Japanese breast cancer patients 
Surgery Today  2013;44(10):1841-1846.
Purpose
It is important for patients to complete the planned hormone therapy to reduce both the recurrence and mortality rates of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We investigated the rates and factors related to the early discontinuation of adjuvant hormone therapy at our institution.
Methods
We identified 145 females prescribed adjuvant hormone therapy who were followed up for longer than 5 years. The rate of completing the planned hormone therapy and factors related to early discontinuation were examined. The relapse-free survival rate was examined between the completion group and the discontinuation group.
Results
The completion rate was 90.6 %. The primary reason for discontinuing hormone therapy within 5 years was side effects, such as arthritic pain. The primary factor related to early discontinuation was a significantly younger age. The relapse-free survival rate was significantly lower in the discontinuation group (p = 0.025).
Conclusions
More than 90 % of the patients completed the planned adjuvant hormone therapy, and early discontinuation was related to a shorter RFS. To improve the rate of the successful completion of adjuvant hormone therapy, it is important to provide supportive care to reduce the occurrence of side effects and to care for young females with a desire to become pregnant.
doi:10.1007/s00595-013-0762-7
PMCID: PMC4162979  PMID: 24142101
Adherence; Early discontinuation; Adjuvant hormone therapy; Side effect
17.  New molecular staging with G-factors (VEGF-C and Reg IV) by supplementing TNM classification in colorectal cancers 
Oncology Reports  2013;30(6):2609-2616.
Staging classification of colorectal cancers is performed by the UICC/TNM classification system, which is the global gold standard. However, we often experience in clinical practice that there are considerable differences in prognoses between patients who have the same classification particularly in stage II and III cancers. The aim of this study was to propose a new TNM-G classification to predict prognosis and recurrence by supplementing the conventional TNM classification. A total of 220 cases of colorectal cancer, including 77 at stage II and 143 at stage III, were registered from four independent facilities. Immunohistochemical staining for 7 molecules, such as p53, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (Reg IV), olfactomedin 4, Claudin-18 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), was performed to investigate the correlation between clinicopathological factors and expression of each molecule. Based on the results, no significant correlation was observed between the immunostaining expression of these 7 factors and recurrence in total colorectal cancer. Recurrence in stage II (77 cases) was significantly higher in cases positive for Reg IV expression (P=0.042). On analysis of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), VEGF-C and Reg IV expression had a correlation with poor prognosis, therefore, these factors were selected and applied to G-factor classifications so that cases negative for both could be classified as G0, cases positive for either of the factors could be classified as G1, and cases positive for both factors could be classified as G2. While no significant correlation was observed in the recurrence rates between G0 and G2, OS and DFS in stage II cases were significantly poorer for G2 cases in comparison with G0 or G1 cases. The survival curves of OS and DFS in stage II G2 were similar to that of stage III cases. According to these results, prognosis of VEGF-C/Reg IV both positive G2 cases in stage II colorectal cancer was found to be almost equal to the poor survival in stage III cases, and the advancement of one stage up migration based on G-factors may be supposed to be highly feasible for clinical application. In conclusion, the combination of VEGF-C and Reg IV may be a promising factor for clinical staging to supplement the classical TNM classification system, and it may suggest a good indication of adjuvant chemotherapy for G2 cases in stage II colorectal cancers.
doi:10.3892/or.2013.2787
PMCID: PMC3839952  PMID: 24101199
colorectal cancer; G-factor; TNM classification; molecular stage; VEGF-C; Reg IV
18.  Rad51 Expression Is a Useful Predictive Factor for the Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus 
Annals of Surgical Oncology  2013;21(2):597-604.
Background
Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is beneficial in the setting of a complete pathological response. Rad51 expression affects both chemo- and radiosensitivity in many cancers; however, its role in ESCC is unclear.
Methods
Rad51 expression was investigated by immunohistochemical staining with resected specimens in 89 ESCC patients who underwent surgery without preoperative therapy. The association with Rad51 and clinicopathological factors was assessed. The expression of Rad51 was also investigated in pretreatment biopsy specimens in 39 ESCC patients who underwent surgery after NACRT and compared with the pathological response to NACRT.
Results
Lymph node metastasis was more frequently observed in Rad51-positive cases than negative cases (58.5 vs. 30.6 %, P = 0.0168) in patients treated with surgery alone. Disease-specific survival was decreased in Rad51-positive cases compared to Rad51-negative cases (5 year survival: 79.6 vs. 59.3 %, P = 0.0324). In NACRT patients, completed pathological responses were more frequently observed in Rad51-negative cases than in Rad51-positive cases (68.8 vs. 46.5 %, P = 0.0171).
Conclusions
Rad51 expression in ESCC was associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival. Additionally, Rad51 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens was a predictive factor for the response to NACRT.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1245/s10434-013-3220-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1245/s10434-013-3220-2
PMCID: PMC3929771  PMID: 24065387
19.  A safe combined nephrectomy and right lobectomy using the liver hanging maneuver for huge renal cell carcinoma directly invading the right lobe of the liver: report of a case 
Surgery Today  2013;44(9):1778-1782.
We herein discuss a patient who underwent simultaneous combined right nephrectomy and right lobectomy of the liver. A 64-year-old male was diagnosed with a huge right renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 13 cm in diameter, which was invading directly into the right hepatic lobe. This type of RCC has been rarely reported, and an anterior approach using the liver hanging maneuver was extremely useful during hepatic parenchymal dissection. The liver parenchymal dissection was performed prior to mobilization of the liver, because the mobilization of the right lobe of the liver was impossible. During the hepatic parenchymal resection, the liver was suspended with the tape and transected, and thereafter, retroperitoneal dissection, nephrectomy and right lobectomy of the liver were completed. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 12th postoperative day with an uneventful clinical course. The anterior approach using the liver hanging maneuver during hepatic parenchymal resection can be safe and feasible for huge RCC invading the right hepatic lobe.
doi:10.1007/s00595-013-0693-3
PMCID: PMC4138431  PMID: 24048764
20.  Non-cirrhotic portal-systemic encephalopathy caused by enlargement of a splenorenal shunt after pancreaticoduodenectomy for locally advanced duodenal cancer: report of a case 
Surgery Today  2013;44(8):1573-1576.
We report a case of portal-systemic encephalopathy occurring secondary to a splenorenal shunt, 2 years after a pancreaticoduodenectomy for locally advanced duodenal carcinoma. A 55-year-old woman was brought to our hospital with a decreased level of consciousness. Laboratory testing revealed an elevated serum ammonia level (221 μg/dl) and normal liver function. Retrospective review of a series of contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans of the abdomen identified a splenorenal shunt, which had gradually enlarged over the past 2 years (Fig. 1). The decreased level of consciousness was thought to be due to portal-systemic encephalopathy secondary to the splenorenal shunt. We performed balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration to occlude the splenorenal shunt, following which her serum ammonia level returned to normal (28 μg/dl) and an alert level of consciousness was maintained.Fig. 1Review of abdominal computed tomography scans. a Preoperatively, b 6 months postoperatively, c 1 year postoperatively, d 2 years and 2 months postoperatively. The shunt vessel gradually enlarged after pancreaticoduodenectomy (circle)
doi:10.1007/s00595-013-0679-1
PMCID: PMC4097198  PMID: 23982193
Encephalopathy; Splenorenal shunt; Duodenal cancer; Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration
21.  Contribution of BubR1 to oxidative stress-induced aneuploidy in p53-deficient cells 
Cancer Medicine  2013;2(4):447-456.
Abstract
DNA aneuploidy is observed in various human tumors and is associated with the abnormal expression of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins. Oxidative stress (OS) causes DNA damage and chromosome instability that may lead to carcinogenesis. OS is also suggested to contribute to an increase in aneuploid cells. However, it is not clear how OS is involved in the regulation of SAC and contributes to carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy. Here we show that an oxidant (KBrO3) activated the p53 signaling pathway and suppressed the expression of SAC factors, BubR1, and Mad2, in human diploid fibroblast MRC5 cells. This suppression was dependent on functional p53 and reactive oxygen species. In p53 knockdown cells, KBrO3 did not suppress BubR1 and Mad2 expression and increased both binucleated cells and cells with >4N DNA content. BubR1 and not Mad2 downregulation suppressed KBrO3-induced binucleated cells and cells with >4N DNA content in p53 knockdown cells, suggesting that BubR1 contributes to enhanced polyploidization by a mechanism other than its SAC function. In analysis of 182 gastric cancer specimens, we found that BubR1 expression was significantly high when p53 was positively stained, which indicates loss of p53 function (P = 0.0019). Moreover, positive staining of p53 and high expression of BubR1 in tumors were significantly correlated with DNA aneuploidy (P = 0.0065). These observations suggest that p53 deficiency may lead to the failure of BubR1 downregulation by OS and that p53 deficiency and BubR1 accumulation could contribute to gastric carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy.
We found that OS could contribute to the emergence of polyploid cells when p53 was deficient in normal human fibroblast cells. Importantly, this polyploidization could be suppressed by downregulating the expression of one spindle assembly checkpoint factor, BubR1. We also found that p53 dysfunction and BubR1 accumulation strongly correlate with the extent of aneuploidy in gastric cancer specimen and our data suggest that p53 deficiency and BubR1 accumulation could contribute to gastric carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy.
doi:10.1002/cam4.101
PMCID: PMC3799279  PMID: 24156017
Aneuploidy; BubR1; gastric cancer; oxidative stress; p53
22.  A Case of Panitumumab-Responsive Metastatic Rectal Cancer Initially Refractory to Cetuximab 
Case Reports in Oncology  2013;6(2):382-386.
A 64-year-old man was initially diagnosed with rectal cancer and liver metastasis. He underwent rectal amputation and partial hepatectomy. mFOLFOX6 was begun as first-line chemotherapy, but multiple pulmonary and right femoral lymph node metastases were found 1 year postoperatively. FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab was then started, but the tumors recurred after 2 years and 11 months. The regimen was changed to cetuximab with CPT-11. The lesions partially responded after 3 months, and the patient was free from progression for 1.5 years. Four years and 7 months after the adjuvant chemotherapy was started, the metastatic lesions gradually increased again, and the regimen was changed to panitumumab. After 2 months, the lesions had markedly decreased again and showed a partial response for 6 months. Although the pulmonary lesions became progressive again, the patient has been alive for 5 years and 8 months since the first operation.
doi:10.1159/000353781
PMCID: PMC3728606  PMID: 23904849
Cetuximab-resistant rectal cancer; Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation; Panitumumab
23.  Feasible Isolated Liver Transplantation for a Cirrhotic Patient on Chronic Hemodialysis 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2013;7(2):299-303.
End-stage liver and kidney disease (ELKD) is an indication for deceased donor simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Although a few cases of living donor liver-kidney transplantation have been reported, the invasiveness remains to be discussed. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an alternative choice for ELKD, but has never been reported. Here, we report a case of successful LDLT for a patient with ELKD on hemodialysis. The patient was a 63-year-old male and had decompensated hepatitis C cirrhosis with seronegativity for hepatitis C virus. He had non-diabetic end-stage renal failure and had been on hemodialysis for 3 years. He was in good general condition except for hepatic and renal failure. The living donor was his 58-year-old healthy wife. A right lobe graft was transplanted to the recipient under continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) and extracorporeal veno-venous bypass. CHDF was continued until postoperative day 4, at which point CHDF was converted to hemodialysis. His posttransplant course was good and he was discharged on postoperative day 36. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of LDLT for a patient on chronic hemodialysis. Therefore, being on hemodialysis is not a contraindication for LDLT. LDLT is feasible for a patient with ELKD on hemodialysis.
doi:10.1159/000354140
PMCID: PMC3728599  PMID: 23904841
Living donor liver transplantation; Hepatitis C; Hemodialysis
24.  A novel interplay between the Fanconi anemia core complex and ATR-ATRIP kinase during DNA cross-link repair 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(14):6930-6941.
When DNA replication is stalled at sites of DNA damage, a cascade of responses is activated in the cell to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair. A pathway initiated by the kinase Ataxia teleangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) and its partner ATR interacting protein (ATRIP) plays an important role in this response. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is also activated following genomic stress, and defects in this pathway cause a cancer-prone hematologic disorder in humans. Little is known about how these two pathways are coordinated. We report here that following cellular exposure to DNA cross-linking damage, the FA core complex enhances binding and localization of ATRIP within damaged chromatin. In cells lacking the core complex, ATR-mediated phosphorylation of two functional response targets, ATRIP and FANCI, is defective. We also provide evidence that the canonical ATR activation pathway involving RAD17 and TOPBP1 is largely dispensable for the FA pathway activation. Indeed DT40 mutant cells lacking both RAD17 and FANCD2 were synergistically more sensitive to cisplatin compared with either single mutant. Collectively, these data reveal new aspects of the interplay between regulation of ATR-ATRIP kinase and activation of the FA pathway.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt467
PMCID: PMC3737553  PMID: 23723247
25.  Dietary polyphenols and colorectal cancer risk: The Fukuoka colorectal cancer study 
AIM: To investigate the associations between dietary intake of polyphenols and colorectal cancer.
METHODS: The study subjects were derived from the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study, a community-based case-control study. The study subjects were 816 cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community-based controls. The consumption of 148 food items was assessed by a computer-assisted interview. We used the consumption of 97 food items to estimate dietary intakes of total, tea and coffee polyphenols. The Phenol-Explorer database was used for 92 food items. Of the 5 foods which were not listed in the Phenol-Explorer Database, polyphenol contents of 3 foods (sweet potatoes, satoimo and daikon) were based on a Japanese study and 2 foods (soybeans and fried potatoes) were estimated by ORAC-based polyphenol contents in the United States Department of Agriculture Database. Odds ratios (OR) and 95%CI of colorectal cancer risk according to quintile categories of intake were obtained by using logistic regression models with adjustment for age, sex, residential area, parental history of colorectal cancer, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index 10 years before, type of job, leisure-time physical activity and dietary intakes of calcium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
RESULTS: There was no measurable difference in total or tea polyphenol intake between cases and controls, but intake of coffee polyphenols was lower in cases than in controls. The multivariate-adjusted OR of colorectal cancer according to quintile categories of coffee polyphenols (from the first to top quintile) were 1.00 (referent), 0.81 (95%CI: 0.60-1.10), 0.65 (95%CI: 0.47-0.89), 0.65 (95%CI: 0.46-0.89) and 0.82 (95%CI: 0.60-1.10), respectively (Ptrend = 0.07). Similar, but less pronounced, decreases in the OR were also noted for the third and fourth quintiles of total polyphenol intake. Tea polyphenols and non-coffee polyphenols showed no association with colorectal cancer risk. The site-specific analysis, based on 463 colon cancer cases and 340 rectal cancer cases, showed an inverse association between coffee polyphenols and colon cancer. The multivariate-adjusted OR of colon cancer for the first to top quintiles of coffee polyphenols were 1.00 (referent), 0.92 (95%CI: 0.64-1.31), 0.75 (95%CI: 0.52-1.08), 0.69 (95%CI: 0.47-1.01), and 0.68 (95%CI: 0.46-1.00), respectively (Ptrend = 0.02). Distal colon cancer showed a more evident inverse association with coffee polyphenols than proximal colon cancer. The association between coffee polyphenols and rectal cancer risk was U-shaped, with significant decreases in the OR at the second to fourth quintile categories. There was also a tendency that the OR of colon and rectal cancer decreased in the intermediate categories of total polyphenols. The decrease in the OR in the intermediate categories of total polyphenols was most pronounced for distal colon cancer. Intake of tea polyphenols was not associated with either colon or rectal cancer. The associations of coffee consumption with colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were almost the same as observed for coffee polyphenols. The trend of the association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer was statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest a decreased risk of colorectal cancer associated with coffee consumption.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i17.2683
PMCID: PMC3645387  PMID: 23674876
Colorectal cancer; Colon cancer; Rectal cancer; Polyphenols; Coffee; Tea

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