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1.  Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with conscious sedation does not interfere with catheter-based 24-h pH monitoring 
AIM: To investigate the impact of esophagogastroduodenoscopy with conscious sedation on the subsequent 24-h catheter-based pH monitoring.
METHODS: Fifty patients with extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease undergoing ambulatory dual-probe 24-h pH monitoring were enrolled from March 2010 to August 2011. All of the data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-six patients (72%, group A) underwent pH monitoring shortly after esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with conscious sedation, and 14 patients (28%, group B) underwent pH monitoring without conscious sedation. The 24-h pH data from two time periods were analyzed: the first 4 h (Period I) and the remaining time of the study (Period II).
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 49.6 ± 12.5 years; 20 patients (40%) were men. The baseline data, including age, sex, body mass index, reflux esophagitis, the Reflux Symptom Index, and the Reflux Findings Score, were comparable between the two groups. The percentage of total time with a pH < 4 and the frequency of acid reflux during Period I were not significantly different between the two groups, as measured using both pharyngeal (0.03% ± 0.10% vs 0.07% ± 0.16%, P = 0.32; and 0.07 ± 0.23 episodes/h vs 0.18 ± 0.47 episodes/h, P = 0.33, respectively) and esophageal probes (0.96% ± 1.89% vs 0.42% ± 0.81%, P = 0.59; and 0.74 ± 1.51 episodes/h vs 0.63 ± 0.97 episodes/h, P = 0.49, respectively). The percentage of total time with a pH < 4 and the frequency of acid reflux were also not significantly different between Periods I and II in group A patients, as measured using both pharyngeal (0.03% ± 0.10% vs 0.23% ± 0.85%, P = 0.21; and 0.07 ± 0.23 episodes/h vs 0.29 ± 0.98 episodes/h, P = 0.22, respectively) and esophageal probes (0.96% ± 1.89% vs 1.11% ± 2.57%, P = 0.55; and 0.74 ± 1.51 episodes/h vs 0.81 ± 1.76 episodes/h, P = 0.55, respectively).
CONCLUSION: EGD with conscious sedation does not interfere with the results of subsequent 24-h pH monitoring in patients with extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
PMCID: PMC3607757  PMID: 23555169
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy; Conscious sedation; pH monitoring; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Extraesophageal symptoms
2.  How can colorectal neoplasms be treated during colonoscopy? 
AIM: For many physicians who ordinarily treat patients with colonic diseases, colonoscopy is considered a prime study interest. Developments in colonoscopic equipment and methods have led to a large number of endoscopic diagnoses and treatment for colorectal neoplasms. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the efficacy and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for colorectal neoplastic lesions.
METHODS: From September 1999 to May 2003, 11447 consecutive colonoscopic examinations in 9864 patients were gathered; totaling 5502 endoscopic treatments for colorectal neoplasms. Macroscopic characteristics of the neoplasms were classified into protruded (n = 3953), sessile (n = 1402), lateral spreading tumor (n = 139) and depressed lesions (n = 8). Snare polypectomy was conducted in 3984 lesions, hot forcep removal in 1 368 lesions, and endoscopic mucosal resection in 150 lesions.
RESULTS: Histological diagnoses were 4596 neoplastic lesions (4376 adenomas and 220 adenocarcinomas) and 906 non-neoplastic lesions (891 hyperplastic and 15 inflammatory polyps). For the adenocarcinoma group, 31 instances involved submucosal invasion or resection margin, who received further operations, while 13 surgical specimens discovered no residual tumors. Three per-forations and 96 bleedings were found following endo-scopic treatment. No procedure-related mortality was found and no recurrent malignancy was found after 14-56 mo follow-up.
CONCLUSION: To lower the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer, endoscopic treatment for colorectal neoplasms is a simple and safe procedure.
PMCID: PMC4305922  PMID: 15884128
Colonoscopy; Snare; Hot forcep; Endoscopic mucosal resection
3.  Serum levels of apolipoprotein A-I and high-density lipoprotein can predict organ failure in acute pancreatitis 
Critical Care  2015;19(1):88.
Predicting severity of pancreatitis is an important goal. Clinicians are still searching for novel and simple biomarkers that can better predict persistent organ failure (OF). Lipoproteins, especially high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apolipoprotein A-I (APO A-I), have been shown to have anti-inflammation effects in various clinical settings. Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is associated with hypo-lipoproteinemia. We studied whether the concentrations of HDL and APO A-I can predict persistent OF in patients with predicted SAP admitted to the ICU.
In 66 patients with predicted SAP, we prospectively evaluated the relationship between lipid levels, inflammatory cytokines and clinical outcomes, including persistent OF and hospital mortality. Blood samples were obtained within 24 hours of admission to the ICU.
HDL and APO A-I levels were inversely correlated with various disease severity scores. Patients with persistent OF had lower levels of HDL and APO A-I, while those with transient OF had lower levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and lower rates of hospital mortality. Meanwhile, hospital non-survivors had lower concentrations of HDL, and APO A-I compared to the survivors. By using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, both HDL and APO A-I demonstrated an excellent discriminative power for predicting persistent OF among all patients (AUROC 0.912 and 0.898 respectively) and among those with OF (AUROC 0.904 and 0.895 respectively). Pair-wise comparison of AUROC showed that both HDL and APO A-I had better discriminative power than C-reactive protein to predict persistent OF.
Serum levels of HDL and APO A-I at admission to the ICU are inversely correlated with disease severity in patients with predicted SAP and can predict persistent OF in this clinical setting.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-015-0832-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4363356  PMID: 25851781
4.  High-dose hypofractionated X-ray radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Tumor responses and toxicities 
Oncology Letters  2013;6(5):1514-1520.
Hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) has been employed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study aimed to report the treatment effects, the dose-response associations and the factors that are associated with radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) in a high-dose hypofractionated RT procedure. A total of 40 patients with non-metastatic HCC who underwent RT for local control of irradiated tumors were studied. The treatment technique was that of three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy, with a fraction size of 3 Gy and a total dose of 40–66 Gy in 14–23 fractions. The biologically-effective dose (BED) was 52.0–85.8 Gy10 (median, 74.1 Gy10). Tumor regression was observed in 28 patients (70.0%) with a complete response, partial response, stable disease and progressive disease status in 11 (27.5%), 17 (42.5%), five (12.5%) and seven patients (17.5%), respectively. The one-, two- and five-year overall survival (OS) and in-field control (IFC) rates were 60, 40 and 21% and 73, 62 and 56%, respectively. A positive correlation also emerged between the radiation dose and the IFC (P=0.035). Eight of the 40 patients (20%) developed non-classic RILD. A higher Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score was associated with a higher probability of non-classic RILD (P=0.02). The tumor response and IFC rate of HCC following irradiation were significantly dose-dependent. High-dose hypofractionated X-ray RT is a feasible and effective treatment for HCC in patients with good liver function and for those who meet the criteria for a curative attempt.
PMCID: PMC3813808  PMID: 24179551
hepatocellular carcinoma; hypofractionated; radiotherapy; toxicities
5.  Modified endoscopic submucosal dissection with enucleation for treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:124.
Gastric subepithelial tumors are usually asymptomatic and observed incidentally during endoscopic examination. Although most of these tumors are considered benign, some have a potential for malignant transformation, particularly those originating from the muscularis propria layer. For this type of tumor, surgical resection is the standard treatment of choice. With recent advent of endoscopic resection techniques and devices, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been considered as an alternative way of treatment. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a modified ESD technique with enucleation for removal of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer, and to evaluate its efficacy and safety.
From November 2009 to May 2011, a total of 16 patients received a modified ESD with enucleation for their subepithelial tumors. All tumors were smaller than 5 cm and originated from the muscularis propria layer of the stomach, as shown by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The procedure was conducted with an insulated-tip knife 2. Patient’s demographics, tumor size and pathological diagnosis, procedure time, procedure-related complication, and treatment outcome were reviewed.
Fifteen of the sixteen tumors were successful complete resection. The mean tumor size measured by EUS was 26.1 mm (range: 20–42 mm). The mean procedure time was 52 minutes (range: 30–120 minutes). Endoscopic features of the 4 tumors were pedunculated and 12 were sessile. Their immunohistochemical diagnosis was c-kit (+) stromal tumor in 14 patients and leiomyoma in 2 patients. There was no procedure-related perforation or overt bleeding. During a mean follow up duration of 14.8 months (range: 6–22 months), there was no tumor recurrence or metastasis.
Using a modified ESD with enucleation for treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer and larger than 2 cm, complete resection can be successfully performed without serious complication. It is a safe and effective alternative to surgical therapy for these tumors of 2 to 5 cm in size.
PMCID: PMC3508821  PMID: 22978826
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Endoscopic ultrasonography
6.  Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study 
Critical Care  2009;13(4):R123.
Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis worldwide. Patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis (SABP) constitute a subgroup of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients in whom systemic inflammation may be triggered and perpetuated by different mechanisms. The aim of this prospective investigation was to examine the adrenal response to corticotropin and the relationship between adrenal function and outcome in patients with SABP.
Thirty-two patients with SABP were enrolled in this study. A short corticotropin (250 μg) stimulation test (SST) was performed within the first 24 hours of admission to the ICU. Critical illness related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) was defined as follows: baseline value less than 10 μg/dL, or cortisol response less than 9 μg/dL.
CIRCI occurred in 34.4% of patients. The patients with CIRCI were more severely ill as evidenced by higher APACHE II and SOFA scores and numbers of organ system dysfunction on the day of SST. The in-hospital mortality for the entire group was 21.9%. The CIRCI group had a higher hospital mortality rate compared to those with normal adrenal function (45.5% vs. 9.5%, P = 0.032). The hospital survivors had a higher cortisol response to corticotropin (17.4 (8.3–27.1) vs. 7.2 (1.7–12) μg/dL, P = 0.019). The cortisol response to corticotropin inversely correlated with SOFA score and the number of organ dysfunction on the day of SST. The rates of pancreatic necrosis and bacteremia were significantly higher in the CIRCI group (100% vs 42.9%, P = 0.002; 81.8% vs 23.8%, P = 0.003, respectively).
CIRCI is common in patients with SABP. It is associated with bacteremia, multiple organ dysfunction and increased mortality.
PMCID: PMC2750175  PMID: 19630953

Results 1-6 (6)