AIM: To investigate the presence of autoantibodies directed against liver sinusoidal cells in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).
METHODS: Liver biopsies from 21 PBC patients were studied and compared with 12 liver biopsies from disease controls [3 patients with hepatitis B (HBV) virus, 3 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 3 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and 3 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH)]. As healthy controls, we used tissue specimens adjacent to metastatic liver adenocarcinoma. Normal serum was taken from staff members of the unit. The determination of the cell type targeted by autoantibodies present in the patients sera was performed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis using paraffin-embedded liver sections as a substrate. Sera from homologous or heterologous PBC patients or sera from the disease control group were used as primary antibodies. The presence of autoantibodies was identified using confocal microscopy.
RESULTS: In total, 18/21 (85.7%) PBC patients exhibited positive staining in the sinusoidal cells, 10/21 (47.6%) in lymphocytes, 8/21 (38%) in cholangiocytes and 7/21 (33.3%) in hepatocytes, when homologous serum and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated immunoglobulin type G (IgG) secondary antibody were used. PBC sections incubated with heterologous PBC serum showed reduced staining (20% for sinusoidal cells, 20% for lymphocytes, 20% for cholangiocytes and 13.3% for hepatocytes). When IgM immunoglobulin, instead of IgG, was used as secondary antibody, positive staining was observed in 75% of lymphocytes, 62.5% of cholangiocytes, 37.5% of hepatocytes and 50% of the sinusoidal cells with a much stronger staining intensity. No staining was observed when either normal or PBC sera were used as a primary antibody on liver sections from the disease control group. When PBC sera were incubated with healthy control sections, weak positive staining of cholangiocytes was observed in 3/21 (14.3%) PBC serum samples. Steatohepatitis serum on PBC sections gave a positive staining of some hepatocytes and lymphocytes but no staining on viral hepatitis sections. Incubation with HBV sera stained some hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and intra-sinusoidal or portal lymphocytes of PBC, HBV and AAH patients but not HCV patients.
CONCLUSION: In this study, for the first time in diseased liver tissue, we have demonstrated that a large proportion of PBC patients have disease specific autoantibodies against liver sinusoidal cells.
Primary biliary cirrhosis; Autoantibodies; Sinusoidal cells; Cholangiocytes; Liver tissue
AIM: To assess the esophageal motility in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare those with patients with autoimmune disorders.
METHODS: 15 patients with IBS, 22 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 19 with systemic sclerosis (SSc) were prospectively selected from a total of 115 patients at a single university centre and esophageal motility was analysed using standard manometry (Mui Scientific PIP-4-8SS). All patients underwent esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy before entering the study so that only patients with normal endoscopic findings were included in the current study. All patients underwent a complete physical, blood biochemistry and urinary examination. The grade of dysphagia was determined for each patient in accordance to the intensity and frequency of the presented esophageal symptoms. Furthermore, disease activity scores (SLEDAI and modified Rodnan score) were obtained for patients with autoimmune diseases. Outcome parameter: A correlation coefficient was calculated between amplitudes, velocity and duration of the peristaltic waves throughout esophagus and patients’ dysphagia for all three groups.
RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the standard blood biochemistry and urinary analysis in all three groups. Patients with IBS showed similar pathologic dysphagia scores compared to patients with SLE and SSc. The mean value of dysphagia score was in IBS group 7.3, in SLE group 6.73 and in SSc group 7.56 with a P-value > 0.05. However, the manometric patterns were different. IBS patients showed during esophageal manometry peristaltic amplitudes at the proximal part of esophagus greater than 60 mmHg in 46% of the patients, which was significant higher in comparison to the SLE (11.8%) and SSc-Group (0%, P = 0.003). Furthermore, IBS patients showed lower mean resting pressure of the distal esophagus sphincter (Lower esophageal sphincter, 22 mmHg) when compared with SLE (28 mmHg, P = 0.037) and SSc (26 mmHg, P = 0.052). 23.5% of patients with SLE showed amplitudes greater as 160 mmHg in the distal esophagus (IBS and SSc: 0%) whereas 29.4% amplitudes greater as 100 mmHg in the middle one (IBS: 16.7%, SSc: 5.9% respectively, P = 0.006). Patients with SSc demonstrated, as expected, in almost half of the cases reduced peristalsis or even aperistalsis in the lower two thirds of the esophagus. SSc patients demonstrated a negative correlation coefficient between dysphagia score, amplitude and velocity of peristaltic activity at middle and lower esophagus [r = -0.6, P < 0.05].
CONCLUSION: IBS patients have comparable dysphagia-scores as patients with autoimmune disorders. The different manometric patterns might allow differentiating esophageal symptoms based on IBS from other organic diseases.
Irritable bowel syndrome; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Systemic sclerosis; Esophageal manometry; Dysphagia
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a disease with genetic and environmental pathogenetic background. Chemicals, infectious agents, hormone therapy, reproductive history and surgical interventions have been implicated in the induction of PBC. Familial PBC has been documented in first degree relatives (FDR). Most cohort studies are genetically heterogeneous. Our study aimed to determine eventual lifestyle or disease associations and familial occurrence rates in a genetically homogeneous and geographically defined population of PBC patients.
111 consenting PBC patients, were compared with 115 FDR and 149 controls matched for age, sex, Cretan origin and residence. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographics, lifestyle, medical, surgical and reproductive history. Significant variables on the univariate analysis were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a forward step-wise logistic regression model.
Dyslipidaemia was found in 69.4% of patients, 60% of FDR and 40.9% of controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.003 respectively), autoimmune diseases in 36.9% of patients, 30.4% of FDR and 13.4% of controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.011 respectively). Hashimoto’s disease (p = 0.003), Raynaud syndrome (p = 0.023) and Sjögren syndrome (p = 0.044) were significantly associated with PBC. On multivariate analysis statistically significant associations were found with primary educational level (AOR 2.304, 95% CI 1.024-5.181), cholecystectomy (AOR 2.927, 95% CI 1.347-6.362) and the presence of at least another autoimmune disease (AOR 3.318, 95% CI 1.177-6.22). Cancer history was more frequent in patients than in controls (p = 0.033). Familial PBC was found to be 9.9%.
Dyslipidaemia and autoimmune diseases were significantly increased not only in patients as expected but also in their FDR. An increased prevalence of malignancies was found in patients. Primary educational level, cholecystectomy and the presence of at least another autoimmune disease were found as putative risk factors for PBC. No association was found with smoking, urinary tract infection or reproductive history. The reported high familial occurrence of PBC could imply screening with AMA of FDR with at least another autoimmune disease.
Familial pbc; risk factors; cholecystectomy; dyslipidaemia; cancer; educational level
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most preferable diagnostic examination for patients over fifty when upper gastrointestinal symptoms appear. However, limited knowledge exists in concerns to the compliance of primary care patients' to the doctors' recommendations for endoscopy.
Patients who visited primary care practices in Greece and experienced upper gastrointestinal symptoms within a 10 days screening study, were referred for an upper endoscopy exam. The patients which refused to complete the endoscopy exam, were interviewed by the use of an open- ended translated and validated questionnaire, the Identification of Dyspepsia in General Population (IDGP) questionnaire. A qualitative thematic analysis grounded on the theory of planned behavior was performed to reveal the reasons for patients' refusal, while socio-demographic predictors were also assessed.
Nine hundred and ninety two patients were recorded, 159 of them (16%) were found positive for dyspepsia and gastro-esophageal reflux disease according to the IDGP questionnaire. Out of the above, 131 (83.6%) patients refused further investigation with endoscopy. Patients who refused upper endoscopy were predominantly female (87.8%) (p = 0.036) and over the age of 50. The lack of severe symptoms, fear of pain, concerns of sedation, comorbidity and competing life demands were reported by patients as barriers to performing an endoscopic investigation.
Patients with dyspepsia in rural Greece tend to avoid upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with two major axons considered to be the causes of patients' refusal: their beliefs towards endoscopy and their personal capability to cope with it. Future research examining reasons of low compliance should be carried out in combination with modern behavioral theories so as to investigate into the above.
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an immune mediated chronic cholestatic liver disease with a slowly progressive course It is a universal disease with a reported latitudinal gradient in prevalence and incidence. The aetiology of primary biliary cirrhosis is still unknown. It is characterized by a 60% concordance in monozygotic twins and is considered an autoimmune disease because of several features common to other autoimmune conditions and the relatively homogeneous serological and biochemical features. However geoepidemiological and clinical studies strongly imply that environmental factors also play an important role. It is accepted that the disease is clearly the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several risk factors have been suggested to be associated with PBC, including exposure to infectious agents and chemical xenobiotics. This review will attempt to place such factors in perspective.
AIM: To investigate the role of octreotide on cellular proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.
METHODS: We studied cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the possible internal caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway involved, after treatment of HepG2 carcinoma cells with octreotide in comparison with the apoptosis caused by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Activities of caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-2 were studied, while apoptosis was investigated through detection of DNA fragmentation and through identification of apoptotic cells with the annexin-V/propidium iodide flow cytometric method.
RESULTS: After an initial increase in HepG2 cellular proliferation, a significant inhibition was observed with 10-8 mol/L octreotide, while TNF-α dose-dependently decreased proliferation. Early and late apoptosis was significantly increased with both substances. Octreotide significantly increased caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-2 activity. TNF-α significantly increased only caspase-2. Cellular proliferation was decreased after treatment with octreotide or TNF-α alone but, in contrast to TNF-α, octreotide decreased proliferation only at concentrations of 10-8 mol/L, while lower concentrations increased proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Our findings are suggestive of caspase-mediated signaling pathways of octreotide antitumor activity in HepG2 cells, and indicate that measurements of serum octreotide levels may be important, at least in clinical trials, to verify optimal therapeutic drug concentrations.
Octreotide; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Apoptosis; Caspases; Somatostatin
AIM: To investigate the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms in the peripheral and hepatic venous blood of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients.
METHODS: We examined TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), in 27 stage IV PBC patients (27 peripheral and 15 hepatic vein sera), 35 early (I-II) PBC and 60 healthy controls. As disease controls 28 hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis (28 peripheral and 17 hepatic vein serum), 44 chronic HCV hepatitis and 38 HCV-related hepatocellular carcinomas were included. We also tested liver tissue by immunohistochemistry to identify localization of TGF isoforms.
RESULTS: TGF-β1 was significantly decreased in all cirrhotics (PBC III-IV: median 13.4 ng/mL; range, 7.4-26.2, HCV cirrhosis: 11.6 ng/mL; range, 5.0-33.8), compared to controls (30.9 ng/mL; range, 20.9-37.8). TGF-β2 was increased in viral cirrhosis but not in PBC and chronic hepatitis. TGF-β3 (47.2 pg/mL; range, 27.0-79.7 in healthy controls) was increased in early and late PBC (I-II: 94.3 pg/mL; range, 41.5-358.6; III-IV: 152.8 pg/mL; range, 60.4-361.2; P < 0.001) and decreased in viral cirrhosis (37.4 pg/mL; range, 13.3-84.0; P < 0.05). Hepatic vein TGF-β levels were analogous to those in peripheral blood. Immunohistochemistry identified all isoforms in portal tract lymphocytes, sinusoidal cells and cholangiocytes. TGF-β3 was additionally overexpressed in hepatocytes in PBC patients.
CONCLUSION: The serum profile of TGF-β isoforms is different in cirrhotics. Increased TGF-β3 is characteristic of PBC. These findings may be related to the immunological abnormalities of PBC.
Transforming growth factor-β; Primary biliary cirrhosis; Liver fibrosis; Cirrhosis
AIM: To investigate possible associations of anti-nuclear envelope antibody (ANEA) with disease severity and survival in Greek primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients.
METHODS: Serum samples were collected at diagnosis from 147 PBC patients (85% female), who were followed-up for a median 89.5 mo (range 1-240). ANEA were detected with indirect immunofluorescence on 1% formaldehyde fixed Hep2 cells, and anti-gp210 antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Findings were correlated with clinical data, histology, and survival.
RESULTS: ANEA were detected in 69/147 (46.9%) patients and 31/147 (21%) were also anti-gp210 positive. The ANEA positive patients were at a more advanced histological stage (I-II/III-IV 56.5%/43.5% vs 74.4%/25.6%, P = 0.005) compared to the ANEA negative ones. They had a higher antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) titer (≤ 1:160/> 1:160 50.7%/49.3% vs 71.8%/28.2%, P = 0.001) and a lower survival time (91.7 ± 50.7 mo vs 101.8 ± 55 mo, P = 0.043). Moreover, they had more advanced fibrosis, portal inflammation, interface hepatitis, and proliferation of bile ductules (P = 0.008, P = 0.008, P = 0.019, and P = 0.027, respectively). They also died more frequently of hepatic failure and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (P = 0.016). ANEA positive, anti-gp210 positive patients had a difference in stage (I-II/III-IV 54.8%/45.2% vs 74.4%/25.6%, P = 0.006), AMA titer (≤ 1:160/> 1:160 51.6%/48.4% vs 71.8%/28.2%, P = 0.009), survival (91.1 ± 52.9 mo vs 101.8 ± 55 mo, P = 0.009), and Mayo risk score (5.5 ± 1.9 vs 5.04 ± 1.3, P = 0.04) compared to the ANEA negative patients. ANEA positive, anti-gp210 negative patients had a difference in AMA titer (≤ 1:160/> 1:160 50%/50% vs 71.8%/28.2%, P = 0.002), stage (I-II/III-IV 57.9%/42.1% vs 74.4%/25.6%, P = 0.033), fibrosis (P = 0.009), portal inflammation (P = 0.018), interface hepatitis (P = 0.032), and proliferation of bile ductules (P = 0.031). Anti-gp210 positive patients had a worse Mayo risk score (5.5 ± 1.9 vs 4.9 ± 1.7, P = 0.038) than the anti-gp210 negative ones.
CONCLUSION: The presence of ANEA and anti-gp210 identifies a subgroup of PBC patients with advanced disease severity and poor prognosis.
Primary biliary cirrhosis; Antimitochondrial antibodies; Antinuclear antibodies; Antibodies against nuclear envelope antigens; Anti-gp210 antibodies
Detection of autoantibodies giving nuclear rim pattern by immunofluorescence (anti-nuclear envelope antibodies - ANEA) in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a useful tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Differences in the prevalence of ANEA in PBC sera so far reported have been attributed to the methodology used for the detection as well as to ethnic/geographical variations. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of ANEA in sera of Greek patients with PBC by using methods widely used by clinical laboratories and a combination of techniques and materials.
We screened 103 sera by immunoblotting on nuclear envelopes and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using cells and purified nuclei. Reactivities against specific autoantigens were assessed using purified proteins, ELISA, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry.
We found higher prevalence of ANEA when sera were assayed by IIF on purified nuclei or cultured cells (50%) compared to Hep2 commercially available slides (15%). Anti-gp210 antibodies were identified in 22.3% and 33% of sera using ELISA for the C-terminal of gp210 or both ELISA and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Immunoblotting on nuclear envelopes revealed that immunoreactivity for the 210 kDa zone is related to anti-gp210 antibodies (p < 0.0001). Moreover, we found that sera had antibodies for lamins A (6.8%), B (1%) and C (1%) and LBR (8.7%), whereas none at all had detectable anti-p62 antibodies.
The prevalence of ANEA or anti-gp210 antibodies is under-estimated in PBC sera which are analyzed by conventional commercially available IIF or ELISA, respectively. Therefore, new substrates for IIF and ELISA should be included by clinical laboratories in the analysis of ANEA in autoimmune sera.
Both in vitro and epidemiological studies indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a protective role against peptic ulcer in humans. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition is thought to reflect dietary fatty acid intake. The aim of the present study is to investigate adipose and gastric mucosa fatty acid levels in relation to gastric ulceration status.
Fifty two adult outpatients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy participated in the study. Adipose tissue samples were taken from the abdomen and buttock during the endoscopy procedure and samples from gastric tissue were taken from a subsample of 30 subjects. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was determined using the CLO test. Capillary gas chromatography was used for the extraction of 36 and 42 adipose tissue and gastric mucosa lipids respectively.
The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) C18:1n-12c, C16:1n-5, C16:4n-1 and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) C16:3n-4, C20:3n-3, C20:4n-6, C21:5n-3 and C18:2n-9c,12t of the gastric mucosa were present in higher proportions in ulcer negative patients. These unsaturated fatty acids, however, each contributed less than 1% on average to total fatty acid content. In addition, higher average levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) C22:6n-3 were detected in abdominal and buttock samples in CLO negative controls, compared to CLO positive controls. Adipose tissue and gastric mucosa n-6 and trans fatty acid levels were positively linearly correlated (r = 0.37 and 0.41 for n-6 and trans fatty acids respectively).
Certain minor MUFAs and PUFAs of the gastric mucosa appear to be present in higher proportions in ulcer negative patients. Overall, the findings provide only weak evidence of an association between the gastric mucosal fatty acids and the presence of gastric ulceration. The higher average levels of EPA and DHA in abdominal and buttock adipose tissue in CLO negative controls could be an indicator that dietary FAs inhibit Helicobacter pylori growth. Larger studies are necessary to provide evidence of a biologically relevant effect.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is frequently diagnosed in primary care. Its diagnosis is based on diagnostic criteria but their use is limited in primary care.
We aimed to assess the diagnostic agreement between the older (Manning's and Rome II) and the new (Rome III) criteria for the diagnosis of IBS in primary care in Greece.
Medical records of 5 Health Centers in rural Crete, Greece, were reviewed for a four-year period and patients with the diagnosis of IBS were invited to a structured interview. Kappa agreement of the Rome III criteria with the criteria of Manning and Rome II was estimated. One hundred and twenty three patients were eligible for interview and 67 (54.5%) participated. Forty-six (69%) fulfilled the Manning, 32(48%) the Rome II, and 16(24%) the Rome III criteria. Twenty-seven (40%) patients were identified as IBS according to the questionnaire for the identification of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs). The agreement of Rome III with Manning criteria was poor (kappa = 0.25). The agreement between the FGIDs questionnaire and the Manning, Rome II and Rome III criteria was: kappa = 0.30, 0.31 and 0.24 respectively. Moderate agreement was found between the Rome II and III criteria (kappa = 0.51).
Questionnaires and criteria deriving from expert's consensus meetings or tertiary hospitals are not easy to apply in rural primary care where symptoms are often underestimated by patients and complicated questions can be confusing.
AIM: To evaluate the role of pentavalent Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] in the diagnosis of ischemic colitis.
METHODS: Fourteen patients with endoscopically and histologically confirmed ischemic colitis were included in the study. Tc-99m (V) DMSA scintigraphy was performed within 2 d after colonoscopy. Images were considered positive when an area of increased activity was observed in the region of interest and negative when no abnormal tracer uptake was detected.
RESULTS: In 3 out of the 14 patients, Tc-99m (V) DMSA images showed moderate activity in the bowel. The scintigraphic results corresponded with the endoscopic findings. In the other 11 patients, no abnormal tracer uptake was detected in the abdomen.
CONCLUSION: Besides the limited number of patients, Tc-99m (V) DMSA could not be considered as a useful imaging modality for the evaluation of ischemic colitis.
Scintigraphy; Technetium-99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid; Ischemic colitis; Intestinal ischemia; Diagnosis
Antinuclear antibodies are useful diagnostic tools in several autoimmune diseases. However, the routine detection of nuclear envelope autoantibodies using immunofluorescence (IF) is not always easy to perform in patients' sera because of the presence of autoantibodies to other nuclear and cytoplasmic components which could mask the characteristic rim-like pattern of nuclear envelope autoantibodies. This is particularly common in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which generaly have high titres of anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Therefore, we have assayed a number of commercial slides and alternative fixation conditions to optimize the detection of anti-nuclear envelope antibodies (ANEA) in PBC sera.
We have explored the presence of ANEA in 33 sera from patients with established PBC using three different Hep2 commercial slides and home-made slides with HeLa and Hep2 cells fixed with methanol, ethanol, 1% or 4% formaldehyde.
We observed that the IF pattern was related to the cell type used (Hep2 or HeLa), the manufacturer and the cell fixation scheme. When both cell lines were fixed with 1% formaldehyde, the intensity of the cytoplasmic staining was considerably decreased regardless to the serum sample, whereas the prevalence of cytoplasmic autoantibodies was significantly lowered, as compared to any of the Hep2 commercial slide and fixation used. In addition, the prevalence of ANEA was importantly increased in formaldehyde-fixed cells.
Immunofluorescence using appropriately fixed cells represent an easy, no time-consuming and low cost technique for the routine screening of sera for ANEA. Detection of ANEA is shown to be more efficient using formaldehyde-fixed cells instead of commercially available Hep2 cells.
The majority of Crohn's disease patients with B1 phenotype at diagnosis (i.e. non-stricturing non-penetrating disease) will develop over time a stricturing or a penetrating pattern. Conflicting data exist on the rate of proximal disease extension in ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis or left-sided colitis at diagnosis. We aimed to study disease evolution in Crohn's disease B1 patients and ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis and left-sided colitis at diagnosis.
116 Crohn's disease and 256 ulcerative colitis patients were followed-up for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Crohn's disease patients were classified according to the Vienna criteria. Data were analysed actuarially.
B1 phenotype accounted for 68.9% of Crohn's disease patients at diagnosis. The cumulative probability of change in disease behaviour in B1 patients was 43.6% at 10 years after diagnosis. Active smoking (Hazard Ratio: 3.01) and non-colonic disease (non-L2) (Hazard Ratio: 3.01) were associated with behavioural change in B1 patients. Proctitis and left-sided colitis accounted for 24.2%, and 48.4% of ulcerative colitis patients at diagnosis. The 10 year cumulative probability of proximal disease extension in patients with proctitis and left-sided colitis was 36.8%, and 17.1%, respectively (p: 0.003). Among proctitis patients, proximal extension was more common in non-smokers (Hazard Ratio: 4.39).
Classification of Crohn's disease patients in B1 phenotype should be considered as temporary. Smoking and non-colonic disease are risk factors for behavioural change in B1 Crohn's disease patients. Proximal extension is more common in ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis than in those with left-sided colitis. Among proctitis patients, proximal extension is more common in non-smokers.
Although endometriosis with sigmoid serosal involvement is not uncommon in women of childbearing age, the mucosal involvement is rare and differential diagnosis from colon cancer may be difficult due to the lack of pathognomonic symptoms and the poor diagnostic yield of colonoscopy and colonic biopsies.
We present a case of a young woman with sigmoid endometriosis, in which the initial diagnostic workup suggested colon cancer. Histologic evidence, obtained from a second colonoscopy, along with pelvic ultrasound findings led to the final diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis which was confirmed by laparoscopy.
Colonic endometriosis is often a diagnostic challenge and should be considered in young women with symptoms from the lower gastrointestinal tract.
colon cancer; endometriosis; intestinal bleeding.
The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic accuracy of Child-Pugh and APACHE II and III scoring systems in predicting short-term, hospital mortality of patients with liver cirrhosis.
200 admissions of 147 cirrhotic patients (44% viral-associated liver cirrhosis, 33% alcoholic, 18.5% cryptogenic, 4.5% both viral and alcoholic) were studied prospectively. Clinical and laboratory data conforming to the Child-Pugh, APACHE II and III scores were recorded on day 1 for all patients. Discrimination was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under a ROC curve (AUC). Calibration was estimated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test.
Overall mortality was 11.5%. The mean Child-Pugh, APACHE II and III scores for survivors were found to be significantly lower than those of nonsurvivors. Discrimination was excellent for Child-Pugh (ROC AUC: 0.859) and APACHE III (ROC AUC: 0.816) scores, and acceptable for APACHE II score (ROC AUC: 0.759). Although the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic revealed adequate goodness-of-fit for Child-Pugh score (P = 0.192), this was not the case for APACHE II and III scores (P = 0.004 and 0.003 respectively)
Our results indicate that, of the three models, Child-Pugh score had the least statistically significant discrepancy between predicted and observed mortality across the strata of increasing predicting mortality. This supports the hypothesis that APACHE scores do not work accurately outside ICU settings.
Intestinal tuberculosis is a rare disease in western countries, affecting mainly immigrants and immunocompromised patients. Intestinal tuberculosis is a diagnostic challenge, especially when active pulmonary infection is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases.
Here, we report a case of isolated colonic tuberculosis where the initial diagnostic workup was suggestive of Crohn's disease. Computed tomography findings however, raised the possibility of colonic tuberculosis and the detection of acid-fast bacilli in biopsy specimens confirmed the diagnosis.
In conclusion, this case highlights the need for awareness of intestinal tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of chronic intestinal disease
The relatively rare carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a neoplasia with a good prognosis compared to pancreatic cancer. Preoperative staging is important in planning the most suitable surgical intervention.
To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) in comparison with conventional US and CT scan, in staging of patients with ampullary carcinoma.
Patients and Methods
20 patients (7 women and 13 men) with histologically proven carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater were assessed by EUS, CT scan and US. Results were compared to surgical findings.
Endoscopic biopsies were diagnostic in 76% of the patients. Detection of ampullary cancer with US and CT scan was 15% and 20% respectively. Only indirect signs of the disease were identified in the majority of cases using these methods. Overall accuracy of EUS in detection of ampullary tumours was 100%. The EUS was significantly (p < 0.001) superior than US and CT scan in ampullary carcinoma detection. Tumour size, tumour extension and the existence of metastatic lymph nodes were also identified and EUS proved to be very useful for the preoperative classification both for the T and the N components of the TNM staging of this neoplasia. The diagnostic accuracy for tumour extension (T) was 82% and for detection of metastatic lymph nodes (N) was 71%.
EUS is more accurate in detecting ampullary cancer than US and CT scan. Tumor extension and locally metastatic lymph nodes are more accurately assessed by means of EUS than with other imaging methods.
An increased prevalence of coeliac disease in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis has been recently reported. However, in other studies the association has not been confirmed. There have been no formal attempts to systematically evaluate patients with autoimmune cholangitis for coeliac disease.
Sera from 62 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, 17 with autoimmune cholangitis and 100 blood donors were screened for anti-gliadin, anti-endomysial, anti-reticulin, and IgA class antibodies to guinea pig liver-derived tissue transglutaminase. Eighteen untreated coeliacs served as methodological controls. Analyses were performed by using the χ2 and Fischer's exact tests.
Anti-gliadin antibodies were detected in 21% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, 35% of patients with autoimmune cholangitis, and 3% of controls (p < 0.001). IgA class gliadin antibodies positivity was more pronounced in patients with Scheuer's stage III-IV disease (p < 0.05). Anti-transglutaminase antibodies were detected in 10% and in 18% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune cholangitis respectively (p < 0.001). Anti-reticulin and anti-endomysial antibodies were negative in all patients. Duodenal biopsies were performed in 59% and 71% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune cholangitis respectively, tested positive for at least one antibody class. No histological features of coeliac disease were found.
We were unable to demonstrate an increased risk of coeliac disease in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune cholangitis. Our results confirm the previously reported high prevalence of false-positive anti-gliadin and guinea pig liver-derived anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in patients with chronic liver disease.
So far the prevalence of viral hepatitis infection in hospitalized patients has not been extensively studied. Therefore we conducted the present five-year observational study to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in high-risk hospitalized patients of Crete, the largest Greek island, Due to the homogeneous population, epidemiological studies can be accurately done.
The study was carried out in two out of four District General Hospitals, and in the University Hospital of the island. Markers for HBV and HCV were studied and statistically evaluated according to age, sex and geographical area, in a well-defined hospitalized population.
The total prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV in the three prefectures during the five-year study is 2.66% and 4.75% respectively. Overall the relative risks were higher in males than females for each hepatitis marker (p < 0.001). Higher prevalence of HBcAb was found in the 41–60 years age group for both sexes (males 36.17%, females 27.38%). Peak HBsAg prevalence was found in the age group of 21–40 and 41–60 years for males (5.4%) and females (3.09%) respectively. Anti-HCV prevalence increases with age reaching the highest prevalence in the age group of 41–60 years for males (7.19%) and in the 61–90 years age group for females (7.16%). For both sexes significant differences between the three locations were identified. For HBsAg a higher prevalence in Heraklion (3.96%) compared to Chania (2.30%, males: p < 0.0001, females: p < 0.05) and Rethymnon (1.45%, males: p < 0.01, females: p < 0.0001) was detected. For HCV a significantly higher prevalence in Heraklion (6.54%) compared to Chania (2.39%, males: p < 0.001, females: p < 0.001) but not in Rethymnon (5.15%, NS). A lower prevalence rate of HBcAb in Heraklion compared to Chania (20.07% versus 23.05%, males: p < 0.001, females: p < 0.001) was found.
These results were possibly overestimated, but nevertheless reflect the situation of the general population within the island as shown by our previous publications in other study groups. Moreover they contribute to the mapping of viral hepatitis prevalence in a geographical area of Southern Europe and may be helpful in planning public health interventional strategies.
Hepatitis C is a serious problem on the Greek island of Crete, where a high prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C (anti-HCV) has recently been reported. This article reports the findings of a study carried out in Crete, which investigated the prevalence of serum autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Patients and Methods
One hundred and forty two patients (59 men and 83 women), who were found anti-HCV seropositive in two hospitals and two Primary Health Care Centres in Crete, were eligible. Sixty healthy blood donors (46 men, 14 women), which were negative to anti-HCV, were used as the control group. They were randomly selected from those attending Rethymnon Hospital. Autoantibodies were identified using the indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) technique on human epithelial cells from larynx cancer (HEp-2 cells), rat liver-kidney-stomach substrate (CT3) and Chrithidia Luciliae (CL).
Serum autoantibodies were detected in 104 HCV patients, yielding an overall prevalence of 73.2%. The most frequent autoantibodies were antinuclear antibodies (ANA), positive in 72 patients (50.7%). Anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) were detected in 33 patients (23.2%). Only one patient was positive for LKM1 autoantibodies. No autoantibodies were found in 38 patients (26.7%). Autoantibodies were also found in 5 out of the 60 examined healthy blood donors (8.3%).
Autoantibodies, mainly ANA and ASMA are very common in HCV seropositive patients from Crete. By contrast LKM1 autoantibodies are exceptionally rare in these patients.