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author:("Das, aniba M")
1.  Inborn Errors of Energy Metabolism Associated with Myopathies 
Inherited neuromuscular disorders affect approximately one in 3,500 children. Structural muscular defects are most common; however functional impairment of skeletal and cardiac muscle in both children and adults may be caused by inborn errors of energy metabolism as well. Patients suffering from metabolic myopathies due to compromised energy metabolism may present with exercise intolerance, muscle pain, reversible or progressive muscle weakness, and myoglobinuria. In this review, the physiology of energy metabolism in muscle is described, followed by the presentation of distinct disorders affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle: glycogen storage diseases types III, V, VII, fatty acid oxidation defects, and respiratory chain defects (i.e., mitochondriopathies). The diagnostic work-up and therapeutic options in these disorders are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2877206  PMID: 20589068
2.  Lysine-Restricted Diet as Adjunct Therapy for Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy: The PDE Consortium Consensus Recommendations 
JIMD Reports  2014;15:47-57.
Background: Seventy-five percent of patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) due to Antiquitin (ATQ) deficiency suffer from developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (IQ < 70) despite seizure control. An observational study showed that adjunct treatment with a lysine-restricted diet is safe, results in partial normalization of lysine intermediates in body fluids, and may have beneficial effects on seizure control and psychomotor development.
Methods: In analogy to the NICE guideline process, the international PDE Consortium, an open platform uniting scientists and clinicians working in the field of this metabolic epilepsy, during four workshops (2010–2013) developed a recommendation for a lysine-restricted diet in PDE, with the aim of standardizing its implementation and monitoring of patients. Additionally, a proposal for a further observational study is suggested.
Results: (1) All patients with confirmed ATQ deficiency are eligible for adjunct treatment with lysine-restricted diet, unless treatment with pyridoxine alone has resulted in complete symptom resolution, including normal behavior and development. (2) Lysine restriction should be started as early as possible; the optimal duration remains undetermined. (3) The diet should be implemented and the patient be monitored according to these recommendations in order to assure best possible quality of care and safety.
Discussion: The implementation of this recommendation will provide a unique and a much needed opportunity to gather data with which to refine the recommendation as well as improve our understanding of outcomes of individuals affected by this rare disease. We therefore propose an international observational study that would utilize freely accessible, online data sharing technologies to generate more evidence.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this chapter (doi:10.1007/8904_2014_296) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4270869  PMID: 24748525
3.  Macro-AST: misleading finding in an adolescent with MCAD-deficiency 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:119.
MCAD-deficiency is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation now included in many newborn screening programms using MS/MS. During prolonged catabolic episodes, patients may suffer from metabolic decompensation with dysfunction of liver, skeletal- and heart muscle as well as brain. In anabolism, neither clinical symptoms nor biochemical signs of organ dysfunction occur.
Case presentation
We report a female patient with MCAD-deficiency in whom at the age of 11 years isolated AST-elevation was found without any clinical or biochemical signs of organ dysfunction. We showed by polyethylene glycol precipitation that macro-AST formation was responsible for this biochemical finding. AST was probably complexed with immunoglobulins possibly related to an allergic disposition. Macro-AST formation is not a special feature of MCAD-deficiency but rather a non-specific, coincidental finding which also occurs in healthy individuals. The general practitioner consulted by the patient before coming to our outpatient clinic for inborn errors of metabolism was worried that isolated AST-elevation indicated cell damage in MCAD-deficiency. He ordered further diagnostic tests like ultrasound, ECG and echocardiography without any pathology.
In isolated AST-elevation, macro-AST has to be considered in order to avoid unnecessary, costly and invasive evaluation. This is not only true for healthy persons but for patients with chronic diseases like MCAD as well.
PMCID: PMC3503801  PMID: 22935320
Macro-AST; MCAD-deficiency; Liver; Heart; Muscle; Immunoglobulin
4.  Enzyme replacement therapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at diagnosis in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I: results of a European consensus procedure 
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder that results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans causing progressive multi-organ dysfunction. Its clinical spectrum is very broad and varies from the severe Hurler phenotype (MPS I-H) which is characterized by early and progressive central nervous system (CNS) involvement to the attenuated Scheie phenotype (MPS I-S) with no CNS involvement. Indication, optimal timing, safety and efficacy of the two available treatment options for MPS I, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), are subject to continuing debate. A European consensus procedure was organized to reach consensus about the use of these two treatment strategies.
A panel of specialists, including 8 specialists for metabolic disorders and 7 bone marrow transplant physicians, all with acknowledged expertise in MPS I, participated in a modified Delphi process to develop consensus-based statements on MPS I treatment. Fifteen MPS I case histories were used to initiate the discussion and to anchor decisions around either treatment mode. Before and at the meeting all experts gave their opinion on the cases (YES/NO transplantation) and reasons for their decisions were collected. A set of draft statements on MPS I treatment options composed by a planning committee were discussed and revised during the meeting until full consensus.
Full consensus was reached on several important issues, including the following: 1) The preferred treatment for patients with MPS I-H diagnosed before age 2.5 yrs is HSCT; 2) In individual patients with an intermediate phenotype HSCT may be considered if there is a suitable donor. However, there are no data on efficacy of HSCT in patients with this phenotype; 3) All MPS I patients including those who have not been transplanted or whose graft has failed may benefit significantly from ERT; 4) ERT should be started at diagnosis and may be of value in patients awaiting HSCT.
This multidisciplinary consensus procedure yielded consensus on the main issues related to therapeutic choices and research for MPS I. This is an important step towards an international, collaborative approach, the only way to obtain useful evidence in rare diseases.
PMCID: PMC3170181  PMID: 21831279
5.  Mitochondrial DNA Depletion and Respiratory Chain Activity in Primary Human Subcutaneous Adipocytes Treated with Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors▿  
Mitochondrial dysfunction as a consequence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion due to therapy with nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism leading to lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of NRTI treatment on mtDNA abundance and the activities of respiratory chain complexes in primary human subcutaneous preadipocytes (phsPA). We studied adipocyte phenotypes, viability, and differentiation (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α [C/EBPα] and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] expression) and adiponectin production, mtDNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial mass, and respiratory chain enzyme and citrate synthase activities in both proliferating and differentiating phsPA. Cells were exposed to zidovudine (6 μM), stavudine (d4T; 3 μM), and zalcitabine (ddC; 0.1 μM) for 8 weeks. NRTI-induced mtDNA depletion occurred in proliferating and differentiating phsPA after exposure to therapeutic drug concentrations of d4T and ddC. At these concentrations, ddC and d4T led to an almost 50% decrease in the number of mtDNA copies per cell without major impact on adipocyte differentiation. Despite mtDNA depletion by NRTI, the activities of the respiratory chain complexes, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the mitochondrial mass were found to be unaffected. Severe NRTI-mediated mtDNA depletion in phsPA is not inevitably associated with impaired respiratory chain activity or altered mitochondrial membrane potential.
PMCID: PMC2798495  PMID: 19805555

Results 1-5 (5)