Enterovesical fistulas are not uncommon in patients with inflammatory or malignant colonic disease, however, fistulas secondary to primary bladder carcinomas are extremely rare. We herein reported a patient presenting with intractable urinary tract infection due to enterovesical fistula formation caused by a squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. This patient underwent en bloc resection of the bladder dome and involved ileum, and recovered uneventfully without urinary complaint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature.
Enterovesical fistula; Squamous cell carcinoma; Urinary bladder; Malignant fistula
Objective and Background
The roles of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection (CI) in carcinogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remained controversial. To gain new insights into this issue, we investigated the postoperative prognostic value of HBVCI in HCV-associated HCC.
A study cohort of 115 liver tissues obtained from the noncancerous parts of surgically removed HCV-associated HCCs were subjected to virological analysis in a tertiary care setting. Assayed factors included clinicopathological variables, tissue amounts of viral genomes, genotypic characterization of viruses, as well as the presence of overt (serum HBsAg positive) or occult (serum HBsAg negative but tissue HBV-DNA positive) HBVCI. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate postoperative survivals.
Of the 115 patients, overt and occult HBVCIs were detected in 35 and 16 patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size >3 cm (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 2.079 [95% confidence interval, 1.149∼3.761]), alpha-fetoprotein >8 ng/mL (AHR, 5.976 [2.007∼17.794]) albumin <4 g/dL(AHR, 2.539 [1.399∼4.606]), ALT >50 U/L (AHR,1.086 [1.006∼1.172]), presence of occult HBVCI (AHR, 2.708 [1.317∼5.566]), and absence of overt HBVCI (AHR, 2.216 [1.15∼4.269]) were independently associated with unfavorable disease-free survival. Patients with occult HBVCI had a shorter disease-free (P = 0.002), a shorter overall survival (P = 0.026), a higher bilirubin level (P = 0.003) and a higher prevalence of precore G1896A mutation (P = 0.006) compared with those with overt HBVCI.
Occult and overt HBVCI served as independent predictors for postoperative survival in HCV-associated HCC.
The expression of CK19 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with a poor outcome. However, few studies have investigated the expression profile of CK19 in regional lymph nodes (LNs) of HCC after hepatic resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of CK19 in primary liver tumor and regional LNs of HCC with and without lymph node metastasis (LNM).
The expression of CK19 in patients with (n = 16) and without LNM (n = 26) was examined using immunohistochemical staining. Both the primary tumor and LN specimen were studied for their CK19 expression. Clinico-pathological variables and prognostic significance were analyzed.
Immunopositivity of CK19 in primary liver tumor was significantly correlated with LNM (P = 0.005) and tumor non-encapsulation (P <0.005). Univariate analysis showed that CK19 expression in primary liver tumor, CK19 expression in regional LN, vascular invasion, daughter nodules, positive resection margin and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage significantly decreased overall survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that daughter nodules (P = 0.001) and CK19 expression in regional LN (P = 0.002) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival.
This study showed that CK19 expression in regional LN of HCC was associated with LNM and an extremely poor outcome after operation. It is of clinical significance to identify these patients at risk for more aggressive HCC, and multi-modality treatment could be helpful to improve their dismal outcome.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lymph node metastasis; CK19
Gastric cancer patients undergoing curative-intent surgical resection were evaluated to assess the prognostic value of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression/amplification. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was not found to be an independent prognostic factor.
Opinions regarding the impact of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 overexpression or HER-2 amplification on the prognosis of gastric cancer patients are mixed. The present study attempted to clarify this issue by investigating a large cohort of surgical patients.
We investigated 1,036 gastric cancer patients undergoing curative-intent resection. Their surgical specimens were evaluated for HER-2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and those with HER-2 expression levels of 2+ were additionally subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Data on demographic and clinicopathological features and relevant prognostic factors in these patients were analyzed.
HER-2 positivity was noted in 64 (6.1%) of 1,036 gastric cancer patients, including 46 patients whose HER-2 expression level was 3+ on IHC and 18 patients whose FISH results were positive. On univariate analysis, HER-2 positivity was more often associated with differentiated histology, intestinal type, and negative resection margins, whereas only differentiated histology was independently associated with HER-2 positivity in a logistic regression model. For stage I–IV gastric cancer, HER-2 was not a prognostic factor. In a subpopulation study, although HER-2 positivity emerged as a favorable prognostic factor for stage III–IV gastric cancer on univariate analysis, it failed to be an independent prognostic factor after multivariate adjustment.
The prevalence of HER-2 positivity, determined using standardized assays and scoring criteria in a large cohort of gastric cancer patients after resection, was 6.1%. HER-2 positivity was phenotypically associated with differentiated histology. HER-2 is not an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; HER-2; Prognosis; IHC; FISH
Gastric subepithelial tumors are usually asymptomatic and observed incidentally during endoscopic examination. Although most of these tumors are considered benign, some have a potential for malignant transformation, particularly those originating from the muscularis propria layer. For this type of tumor, surgical resection is the standard treatment of choice. With recent advent of endoscopic resection techniques and devices, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been considered as an alternative way of treatment. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a modified ESD technique with enucleation for removal of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer, and to evaluate its efficacy and safety.
From November 2009 to May 2011, a total of 16 patients received a modified ESD with enucleation for their subepithelial tumors. All tumors were smaller than 5 cm and originated from the muscularis propria layer of the stomach, as shown by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The procedure was conducted with an insulated-tip knife 2. Patient’s demographics, tumor size and pathological diagnosis, procedure time, procedure-related complication, and treatment outcome were reviewed.
Fifteen of the sixteen tumors were successful complete resection. The mean tumor size measured by EUS was 26.1 mm (range: 20–42 mm). The mean procedure time was 52 minutes (range: 30–120 minutes). Endoscopic features of the 4 tumors were pedunculated and 12 were sessile. Their immunohistochemical diagnosis was c-kit (+) stromal tumor in 14 patients and leiomyoma in 2 patients. There was no procedure-related perforation or overt bleeding. During a mean follow up duration of 14.8 months (range: 6–22 months), there was no tumor recurrence or metastasis.
Using a modified ESD with enucleation for treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria layer and larger than 2 cm, complete resection can be successfully performed without serious complication. It is a safe and effective alternative to surgical therapy for these tumors of 2 to 5 cm in size.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Endoscopic ultrasonography
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated end-stage liver diseases are the leading causes of liver transplantation (LT) in Taiwan. Relapse of hepatitis B occurs after LT, raising the risk of graft failure and reducing patient survival. Although several oral antiviral agents have been approved for anti-HBV treatment, lamivudine (LAM) remained to be the most widely used preventive regimen in Taiwan. While several clinical predictors have been identified for hepatitis B relapse, the predictive roles of the histopathological characteristics in liver explants as well as the genotypic features of the viruses in pre-LT serum samples have not been assessed. Between September 2002 and August 2009, 150 consecutive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive patients undergoing LT were included for outcome analysis following assessment of the clinicopathological and virological factors prior to LT. Kaplan-Meier analyses discovered that pre-operative LAM treatment ≤3 months; membranous distribution and higher expression of tissue HBsAg in liver explants; preoperative viral load ≧106 copies/ml; and presence of large fragment (>100 base pairs) pre-S deletion (LFpreSDel) correlated significantly with hepatitis B relapse. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the presence of LFpreSDel (P = 0.001) and viral load ≧106 copies/mL (P = 0.023) were independent predictors for hepatitis B relapse. In conclusion, besides high viral load, LFpreSDel mutation is an important independent predictor for hepatitis B relapse after LT. More aggressive preventive strategies should be applied for patients carrying these risk factors.
Molecular methods for predicting prognosis in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are urgently needed, considering its high recurrence rate and tendency for metastasis. The present study investigated the genetic basis of variations in gene expression associated with poor prognosis in OSCC using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 and Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays. We identified recurrent DNA amplifications scattered from 8q22.2 to 8q24.3 in 112 OSCC specimens. These amplicons demonstrated significant associations with increased incidence of extracapsular spread, development of second primary malignancies, and poor survival. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, in a validation panel consisting of 295 cases, confirmed these associations. Assessment of the effects of copy number variations (CNVs) on genome-wide variations in gene expression identified a total of 85 CNV-associated transcripts enriched in the MYC-centered regulatory network. Twenty-four transcripts associated with increased risk of second primary malignancies, tumor relapse, and poor survival. Besides MYC itself, a novel dysregulated MYC module plays a key role in OSCC carcinogenesis. This study identified a candidate molecular signature associated with poor prognosis in OSCC patients, which may ultimately facilitate patient-tailored selection of therapeutic strategies.
AIM: To analyze the predictive factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in early gastric cancer (EGC).
METHODS: Data from patients surgically treated for gastric cancers between January 1994 and December 2007 were retrospectively collected. Clinicopathological factors were analyzed to identify predictive factors for LNM.
RESULTS: Of the 2936 patients who underwent gastrectomy and lymph node dissection, 556 were diagnosed with EGC and included in this study. Among these, 4.1% of patients had mucosal tumors (T1a) with LNM while 24.3% of patients had submucosal tumors with LNM. Univariate analysis found that female gender, tumors ≥ 2 cm, tumor invasion to the submucosa, vascular and lymphatic involvement were significantly associated with a higher rate of LNM. On multivariate analysis, tumor size, lymphatic involvement, and tumor with submucosal invasion were associated with LNM.
CONCLUSION: Tumor with submucosal invasion, size ≥ 2 cm, and presence of lymphatic involvement are predictive factors for LNM in EGC.
Early gastric cancer; Lymph node metastasis; Endoscopic treatment; Endoscopic submucosa dissection; Depth of tumor invasion
AIM: To clarify the benefit of surgical excision for patients with extrahepatic metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 140 patients with pathologically proven extrahepatic metastases of HCC and evaluated the outcomes of those who had undergone surgical resection (SR) for extrahepatic metastatic lesions. Prognoses made on the basis of extrahepatic metastatic sites were also examined.
RESULTS: The survival rates of patients who underwent SR of extrahepatic metastases were significantly better than those of patients who did not receive SR. For the SR group, 1- and 3-year survival rates were 24% and 7%, respectively, while for the non-resection group, the survival rates were 8% and 0%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Survival rates related to metastatic sites were also significantly superior after SR of extrahepatic metastases: median survivals were 32 mo with lung metastasis, 10 mo with bone metastasis, 6.1 mo with brain metastasis.
CONCLUSION: SR can provide survival benefits for patients with 1 or 2 isolated extrahepatic metastases and who concurrently exhibit good hepatic functional reserve and general performance status as well as successful treatment of intrahepatic HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatic resection; Extrahepatic metastases; Surgical resection; Outcome
CD133 was detected in several types of cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which raised the possibility of stem cell origin in a subset of cancers. However, reappearance of embryonic markers in de-differentiated malignant cells was commonly observed. It remained to be elucidated whether CD133-positive HCCs were indeed of stem cell origin or they were just a group of poorly differentiated cells acquiring an embryonic marker. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of CD133 expression in HCC in an area endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to gain insights on this issue.
154 HCC patients receiving total removal of HCCs were included. 104 of them (67.5%) were positive for HBV infection. The cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues were subjected for Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis for CD133 expression. The data were correlated with clinical parameters, patient survivals, and p53 expression.
Of 154 patients, 24 (15.6%) had CD133 expression in HCC. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that CD133 expression was negatively correlated with the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 0.337 (95%CI 0.126 - 0.890) and 0.084 (95%CI 0.010 - 0.707), respectively. On the other hand, p53 expression was positively associated with the presence of HBsAg in univariate analysis. The unadjusted odds ratio was 4.203 (95%CI 1.110 - 18.673). Survival analysis indicated that both CD133 and p53 expression in HCC predicted poor disease-free survival (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively), whereas only CD133 expression predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.001). Cox proportional hazard model showed that p53 and CD133 expression were two independent predictors for disease-free survival. The hazard ratios were 1.697 (95% CI 1.318 - 2.185) and 2.559 (95% CI 1.519 - 4.313), respectively (P < 0.001 for both).
In area where HBV infection accounts for the major attributive risk of HCC, CD133 expression in HCC was negatively associated with the presence of HBsAg, implicating a non-viral origin of CD133-positive HCC. Additionally, CD133 expression predicted poor disease-free survival independently of p53 expression, arguing for two distinguishable hepatocarcinogenesis pathways.
T cell reactivity to minor histocompatibility (mH) antigens is responsible for rejection of HLA-matched allografts, limiting the effectiveness of transplantation for the treatment of end-stage organ failure. The deadbox gene Dby is located on the Y chromosome and encodes an mH antigen that prompts rejection of male tissues by female mice. Establishing a network of regulatory T (Treg) cells that is capable of coercing naive cells to adopt a tolerant phenotype offers an attractive strategy for immune intervention in such deleterious immune responses. While various approaches have successfully induced a dominant form of transplantation tolerance, they share the propensity to provoke chronic, incomplete activation of T cells. By identifying the T cell receptor (TCR) contact sites of the dominant epitope of the Dby gene product, we have designed an altered peptide ligand (APL) that delivers incomplete signals to naive T cells from A1 ∞ RAG1–/– mice that are transgenic for a complementary TCR. Administration of this APL to female transgenic mice polarizes T cells toward a regulatory phenotype, securing a form of dominant tolerance to male skin grafts that is capable of resisting rejection by naive lymphocytes. Our results demonstrate that incomplete signaling through the TCR may establish a network of Treg cells that may be harnessed in the service of transplantation tolerance.
Although hepatitis C virus E2 protein can bind to human cells by interacting with a putative viral receptor, CD81, the interaction alone is not sufficient to establish permissiveness for hepatitis C virus infection. Using an Epstein-Barr virus-based extrachromosomal replication system, we have screened through a human liver cDNA library and successfully identified a cDNA capable of supporting hepatitis C virus replication in an otherwise nonpermissive cell line. This cDNA encodes a protein exhibiting homology to a group of proteins derived from various evolutionarily distant species, including Oryza sativa submergence-induced protein 2A. The mRNAs encoding this factor are heterogeneous at the 5′ ends and are ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues, albeit in a very small amount. The longest mRNA contains an in-frame and upstream initiation codon and codes for a larger protein. This 5′-extended form of mRNA was detected in hepatocellular carcinoma, but not in normal liver tissue. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that the hepatic factor was distributed evenly in cells, but occasionally formed aggregations in the peri- or intranuclear areas. In summary, we have identified a hepatic factor capable of supporting hepatitis C virus replication in an otherwise nonpermissive cell line. This factor belongs to a previously uncharacterized protein family. The physiological function of this protein awaits further study.
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic parasites and can cause severe medical complications in infants and immunocompromised individuals. We report here the development of a real-time PCR-based assay for the detection of T. gondii. Oligonucleotide primers and a fluorescence-labeled TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the T. gondii B1 gene. After 40 PCR cycles, the cycle threshold values (CT) indicative of the quantity of the target gene were determined. Typically, a CT of 25.09 was obtained with DNA from 500 tachyzoites of the T. gondii RH strain. The intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.4, 0.16, 0.24, and 0.79% for the four sets of quadruplicate assays, with a mean interassay CV of 0.4%. These values indicate the reproducibility of this assay. Upon optimization of assay conditions, we were able to obtain a standard curve with a linear range (correlation coefficient = 0.9988) across at least 6 logs of DNA concentration. Hence, we were able to quantitatively detect as little as 0.05 T. gondii tachyzoite in an assay. When tested with 30 paraffin-embedded fetal tissue sections, 10 sections (33%) showed a CT of <40 and were scored as positive for this test. These results were consistent with those obtained through our nested-PCR control experiments. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative real-time PCR for detection of T. gondii. The advantages of this technique for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a clinical laboratory are discussed.
EphrinA5, a member of Eph/Ephrin family, possesses two alternative isoforms, large ephrinA5 isoform (ephrinA5L) and small ephrinA5 isoform (ephrinA5S). EphrinA5L is a putative tumor suppressor in several types of human cancers. However, the role of ephrinA5S in hepato-carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the role of ephrinA5 isoforms in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC).
A total of 142 paired HCCs and peritumoral liver tissue was examined for relative expression of ephrinA5L and ephrinA5S by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed their expression in relation to clinical parameters, disease-free survival and overall survival. Functional assays were performed to dissect the possible underlying mechanisms. Both ephrinA5L and ephrinA5S were significantly downregulated in HCCs, as compared to those in peritumoral tissue (p = 0.013 and 0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated that ephrinA5S was positively correlated with old age and histological grade. In multivariate analysis, high ephrinA5S expression in peritumoral tissue had better disease-free survival (p = 0.002) and overall survival (p = 0.045) in patients with HCC after surgical resection. Functional analysis in HCC cell lines revealed that ephrinA5S had a more potent suppressive effect than ephrinA5L on cell proliferation (p<0.05) and migration (p<0.01). Furthermore, forced expression of both ephrinA5 isoforms in HCC cell lines significantly down-regulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression by promoting c-Cbl-mediated EGFR degradation.
EphrinA5S might be a useful prognostic biomarker for HCCs after surgical resection. EphrinA5, especially ephrinA5S, acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocarcinogenesis. Peritumoral small ephrinA5 isoform level could determine the postoperative survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an oncogenic virus causing oropharyngeal cancers and resulting in a favorable outcome after the treatment. The role of HPV in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains ambiguous.
This study aimed to examine the effect of HPV infection on disease control among patients with OSCC following radical surgery with radiation-based adjuvant therapy.
Patients and Method
We prospectively followed 173 patients with advanced OSCC (96% were stage III/IV) who had undergone radical surgery and adjuvant therapy between 2004 and 2006. They were followed between surgery and death or up to 60 months. Surgical specimens were examined using a PCR-based HPV blot test. The primary endpoints were the risk of relapse and the time to relapse; the secondary endpoints were disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival.
The prevalence of HPV-positive OSCC was 22%; HPV-16 (9%) and HPV-18 (7%) were the genotypes most commonly encountered. Solitary HPV-16 infection was a poor predictor of 5-year distant metastases (hazard ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–8.0; P = 0.005), disease-free survival (P = 0.037), disease-specific survival (P = 0.006), and overall survival (P = 0.010), whereas HPV-18 infection had no impact on 5-year outcomes. The rate of 5-year distant metastases was significantly higher in the HPV-16 or level IV/V metastasis group compared with both the extracapsular spread or tumor depth ≥11-mm group and patients without risk factors (P<0.001).
HPV infections in advanced OSCC patients are not uncommon and clinically relevant. Compared with HPV-16-negative advanced OSCC patients, those with a single HPV-16 infection are at higher risk of distant metastases and poor survival despite undergoing radiation-based adjuvant therapy and require a more aggressive adjuvant treatment and a more thorough follow-up.
Comparison of microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in the noncancerous liver tissues adjacent to hepatocelluar carcinomas (HCCs) was a strategy to identify postoperative prognostic predictors in this study. Expression profiles of 270 miRNAs were determined in the paraneoplastic liver tissues of 12 HCC patients with known postoperative prognosis. A panel of candidate miRNA predictors was identified. The prognostic predictive value of these candidate miRNAs was then verified in 216 postoperative HCC patients. Univariate analysis identified 8 and 3 miRNA predictors for recurrence-free (RFS) and overall (OS) survivals, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed high expression levels of miR-155 (HR, 2.002 [1.324–3.027]; P = .001), miR-15a (HR, 0.478 [0.248–0.920]; P = .027), miR-432 (HR, 1.816 [1.203–2.740]; P = .015), miR-486-3p (HR, 0.543 [0.330–0.893]; P = .016), miR-15b (HR, 1.074 [1.002–1.152]; P = .043) and miR-30b (HR, 1.102 [1.025–1.185]; P = .009) were significantly associated with RFS. When clinicopathological predictors were included, multivariate analysis revealed that tumor number and miR-432, miR-486-3p, and miR-30b expression levels remained significant as independent predictors for RFS. Additionally, expression knockdown of miR-155 in J7 and Mahlavu hepatoma cells resulted in decreased cell growth and enhanced cell death in xenograft tumors, suggesting an oncogenic effect of miR-155. In conclusion, significant prognostic miRNA predictors were identified through examination of miRNA expression levels in paraneoplastic liver tissues. Functional analysis of a miRNA predictor, miR-155, suggested that the prognostic miRNA predictors identified under this strategy could serve as potential molecular targets for anticancer therapy.
Development of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) rtA181T/sW172* mutant could occur during prolonged lamivudine (LAM) therapy, conferring cross resistance to adefovir. Recent studies demonstrated an increased oncogenic potential of this mutant in NIH3T3 cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of this finding.
Serum samples from 123 LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B patients were submitted for virological assays. A highly sensitive amplification created restriction enzyme site (ACRES) method was devised to detect small amounts of the rtA181T mutant in the serum. Virological factors including HBV-DNA level, genotype, precore G1896A, BCP A1762T/G1764A, rtM204I/V, rtA181T and pre-S internal deletion mutations as well as clinical variables including subsequent use of rescue drugs were submitted for outcome analysis.
By use of the highly sensitive ACRES method, the rtA181T mutant was detectable in 10 of the 123 LAM-resistant patients. During the mean follow-up period of 26.2 ± 16.4 months (range 2 to 108 months), 3 of the 10 (30.0%) rtA181T-positive patients and 2 of the 113 (1.8%) rtA181T-negative patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the presence of rtA181T mutation (P < 0.001), age > 50 years (P = 0.001), and liver cirrhosis (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with subsequent occurrence of HCC. All 5 HCC patients belonged to the older age and cirrhosis groups.
Emergence of the rtA181T/sW172* mutant in LAM-resistant patients increased the risk of HCC development in the subsequent courses of antiviral therapy.
To discover novel markers for improving the efficacy of pancreatic cancer (PC) diagnosis, the secretome of two PC cell lines (BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2) was profiled. UL16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2), one of the proteins identified in the PC cell secretome, was selected for evaluation as a biomarker for PC detection because its mRNA level was also found to be significantly elevated in PC tissues.
ULBP2 expression in PC tissues from 67 patients was studied by immunohistochemistry. ULBP2 serum levels in 154 PC patients and 142 healthy controls were measured by bead-based immunoassay, and the efficacy of serum ULBP2 for PC detection was compared with the widely used serological PC marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9).
Immunohistochemical analyses revealed an elevated expression of ULPB2 in PC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Meanwhile, the serum levels of ULBP2 among all PC patients (n = 154) and in early-stage cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (p<0.0001). The combination of ULBP2 and CA 19-9 outperformed each marker alone in distinguishing PC patients from healthy individuals. Importantly, an analysis of the area under receiver operating characteristic curves showed that ULBP2 was superior to CA 19-9 in discriminating patients with early-stage PC from healthy controls.
Collectively, our results indicate that ULBP2 may represent a novel and useful serum biomarker for pancreatic cancer primary screening.