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author:("Bao, zhijin")
1.  Inhibiting CB1 receptors improves lipogenesis in an in vitro non-alcoholic fatty liver disease model 
Background
The endocannabinoids system (ECs) mediated mainly by CB1 and CB2 receptors plays an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating lipid metabolism. This study is to further investigate the expression of CB1 and CB2 in the fat accumulation liver cells and to identify possible underlying mechanism by detecting the key lipogenesis factors.
Methods
Sodium oleate and sodium palmitate were added into the HepG2 cell line for forming fat accumulation liver cell. MTT assay was used to test the cell’s cytotoxicity. The accumulation rate of fat in HepG2 cell was analyzed by the fluorescent staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CB1, CB2, SREBP-1c, ChREBP, L-PK, ACC1, FAS, LXRs and RXR were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot before and after the use of the antagonist.
Results
The receptors of CB1 were expressed in HepG2 cells with low levels while in HepG2 fatty liver cells with higher levels (p < 0.05). However, after the application of antagonist, the expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The expressions of SREBP-1c, ChREBP and LXRs were detectable in HepG2 cells and the expressions were increased in HepG2 fatty liver cells (p < 0.05). After using the antagonists, the expressions of SREBP-1c, ChREBP, LXRs, ACC1 and FAS were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). But L-PK and RXR changed little in two groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
Results of the present study demonstrated that CB1 receptors had important pathophysiological effects on the formation of fatty liver. CB1 receptors could be regulated by SREBP-1c, ChREBP and LXRs. Therefore, targeting CB1 receptors for the treatment of NAFLD might have a potential application value.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-173
PMCID: PMC4247673  PMID: 25406988
Endocannabinoids (ECs); Lipogenesis; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); Receptor cannabinoid (CB1,CB2)
2.  Aliskiren-attenuated myocardium apoptosis via regulation of autophagy and connexin-43 in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats 
There are controversies about the mechanism of myocardium apoptosis in hypertensive heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among autophagy, Cx43 and apoptosis in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and establish whether Aliskiren is effective or not for the treatment of myocardium apoptosis. Twenty-one SHRs aged 52 weeks were randomly divided into three groups, the first two receiving Aliskiren at a dose of 10 and 25 mg/kg/day respectively; the third, placebo for comparison with seven Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) as controls. After a 2-month treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart to bw ratios (HW/BW%) and angiotensin II (AngII) concentration were significantly enhanced in SHRs respectively. Apoptotic cardiomyocytes detected with TUNEL and immunofluorescent labelling for active caspase-3 increased nearly fourfolds in SHRs, with a decline in the expression of survivin and AKT activation, and an increase in caspase-3 activation and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Myocardium autophagy, detected with immunofluorescent labelling for LC3-II, increased nearly threefolds in SHRs, with the up-regulation of Atg5, Atg16L1, Beclin-1 and LC3-II. The expression of Cx43 plaque was found to be down-regulated in SHRs. Aliskiren significantly reduced SBP, HW/BW%, AngII concentration and the expression of AT1R. Thus, Aliskiren protects myocardium against apoptosis by decreasing autophagy, up-regulating Cx43. These effects showed a dose-dependent tendency, but no significance. In conclusion, the myocardium apoptosis developed during the hypertensive end-stage of SHRs could be ameliorated by Aliskiren via the regulation of myocardium autophagy and maladaptive remodelling of Cx43.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12273
PMCID: PMC4124010  PMID: 24702827
connexin-43; aged spontaneously hypertensive rats; apoptosis; autophagy; Aliskiren; Survivin; AKT; Caspase3
3.  Rosuvastatin-attenuated heart failure in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats via PKCα/β2 signal pathway 
There are controversies concerning the capacity of Rosuvastatin to attenuate heart failure in end-stage hypertension. The aim of the study was to show whether the Rosuvastatin might be effective or not for the heart failure treatment. Twenty-one spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) aged 52 weeks with heart failure were randomly divided into three groups: two receiving Rosuvastatin at 20 and 40 mg/kg/day, respectively, and the third, placebo for comparison with seven Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) as controls. After an 8-week treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and echocardiographic features were evaluated; mRNA level of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and plasma NT-proBNP concentration were measured; the heart tissues were observed under electron microscope (EM); myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump (SERCA-2) activity and mitochondria cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) activity were measured; the expressions of SERCA-2a, phospholamban (PLB), ryanodine receptor2 (RyR2), sodium–calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 (PPI-1) were detected by Western blot and RT-qPCR; and the total and phosphorylation of protein kinase Cα/β (PKCα/β) were measured. Aged SHRs with heart failure was characterized by significantly decreased left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular fraction shortening, enhanced left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and LV Volume, accompanied by increased plasma NT-proBNP and elevated BNP gene expression. Damaged myofibrils, vacuolated mitochondria and swollen sarcoplasmic reticulum were observed by EM. Myocardium mitochondria CCO and SERCA-2 activity decreased. The expressions of PLB and NCX1 increased significantly with up-regulation of PPI-1 and down-regulation of CaMKII, whereas that of RyR2 decreased. Rosuvastatin was found to ameliorate the heart failure in aged SHRs and to improve changes in SERCA-2a, PLB, RyR2, NCX1, CaMKII and PPI-1; PKCα/β2 signal pathway to be suppressed; the protective effect of Rosuvastatin to be dose dependent. In conclusion, the heart failure of aged SHRs that was developed during the end stage of hypertension could be ameliorated by Rosuvastatin.
doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2012.01632.x
PMCID: PMC4393733  PMID: 22970977
spontaneously hypertensive rat; heart failure; Rosuvastatin; protein kinase Cα/β2; sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump; phospholamban; ryanodine receptor2; sodium–calcium exchanger
4.  Prevalence and factors associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in shanghai work-units 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:123.
Backgrounds
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease in Asians. However, data on prevalence and factors associated with NAFLD in Asians are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in Shanghai employees to assess the relationship between NAFLD and age, gender, metabolic risk factors in this studied population.
Methods
We selected 7152 employees of Shanghai work-units. Each of them underwent detailed medical history-taking, physical examination, laboratory assessments and abdominal ultrasonography. The diagnosis of NAFLD was done according to established criteria. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were applied to detect areas under the ROC curves for each index. Nominal logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for risk factors of NAFLD.
Results
About 38.17% employees had NAFLD, more in men than in women. The prevalence of NAFLD increased with increasing age. In both genders, the prevalence of metabolic factors was higher in the NAFLD group. Body max index, waist circumference, weight-to-height ratio, blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and uric acid were found to have a diagnostic value for NAFLD. Body max index is a better index for diagnosing NAFLD. Uric acid is a new diagnosing index not inferior to lipid metabolic factors. Metabolic factors can increase the risk of NAFLD up to 1.5 ~ 3.8 times.
Conclusions
Older age, male gender, metabolic factors such as obesity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension or type 2 diabetes are risk factors for NAFLD. Prevalence of NAFLD in Shanghai employees is high. Prevention is extremely important. Those achieve the critical point should have early intervention.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-123
PMCID: PMC3499402  PMID: 22978800
Prevalence; Risk factors; Nonalcoholic fatty liver
5.  Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:96.
Background
Coffee consumption has been shown to be associated with cancer of various sites in epidemiological studies. However, there is no comprehensive overview of the substantial body of epidemiologic evidence.
Methods
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of various cancers with respect to frequency of coffee intake. We did random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of cancer associated with 1 cup/day increment of coffee consumption.
Results
59 studies, consisting of 40 independent cohorts, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with individuals who did not or seldom drink coffee per day, the pooled RR of cancer was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82-0.92) for regular coffee drinkers, 0.89 (0.84-0.93) for low to moderate coffee drinkers, and 0.82 (0.74-0.89) for high drinkers. Overall, an increase in consumption of 1 cup of coffee per day was associated with a 3% reduced risk of cancers (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.98). In subgroup analyses, we noted that, coffee drinking was associated with a reduced risk of bladder, breast, buccal and pharyngeal, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, hepatocellular, leukemic, pancreatic, and prostate cancers.
Conclusions
Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that coffee consumption may reduce the total cancer incidence and it also has an inverse association with some type of cancers.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-96
PMCID: PMC3066123  PMID: 21406107

Results 1-5 (5)