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1.  Risk factors for adverse reactions from contrast agents for computed tomography 
Background
Symptoms of an adverse reaction to contrast agents for computed tomography are diverse ranging, and sometimes serious. The goal of this study is to create a scoring rule to predict adverse reactions to contrast agents used in computed tomography.
Methods
This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients undergoing contrast enhanced CT scan for 7 years. The subjects were randomly divided into either a derivation or validation group. Baseline data and clinically relevant factors were collected from the electronic chart. Primary outcome was any acute adverse reactions to contrast media, observed for during 24 hours after administration. All potential candidate predictors were included in a forward stepwise logistic regression model. Prediction scores were assigned based on β coefficient. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn, and the area under the curve (AUC) and incidence of acute adverse reactions at each point were obtained. The same process was performed in the validation group.
Results
36,472 patients underwent enhanced CT imaging: 20,000 patients in the derivation group and 16,472 in the validation group. A total of 409 (2.0%, 95% CI:1.9-2.3) and 347 (2.1%, 95% CI:1.9-2.3) acute adverse reactions were seen in the derivation and validation groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prior adverse reaction to contrast agents, urticaria, an allergic history to drugs other than contrast agents, contrast agent concentration >70%, age <50 years, and total contrast agent dose >65 g were significant predictors of an acute adverse reaction. AUC was 0.70 (95% CI:0.67-0.73) and 0.67 (95% CI:0.64-0.70) in the derivation and validation groups.
Conclusions
We suggest a prediction model consisting of six predictors for acute adverse reactions to contrast agents used in CT.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-13-18
PMCID: PMC3562527  PMID: 23363607
2.  The optimal screening interval for gastric cancer using esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy in Japan 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:144.
Background
Gastric cancer is one of the most significant diseases, and esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) is one of screening methods for gastric cancer. This study was conducted to identify the optimal screening interval for gastric cancer using EGD in healthy adults.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 3,723 healthy participants without a known diagnosis of gastric cancer at baseline from January 2005 to December 2010. Participants underwent annual health screenings, including EGD, at the Center for Preventive Medicine at St Luke’s International Hospital, a community teaching hospital in Japan. Participants with cytological abnormalities underwent further examination. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to analyze the longitudinal data. We decided 0.5% of incidence of gastric cancer as a cutoff point for interval.
Results
The mean age (SD) of the participants was 55 (11) years, and 1,879 (50.5%) were male. During the study period, gastric cancer was detected in 35 participants. However, the incidence varied based on their ages. In the age groups <40, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years old, the 5-year cumulative incidences (95%CI) of gastric cancer were 0% (0-0%), 0.3% (0.1-1.0%), 1.0% (0.5-1.8%), 1.4% (0.8-2.4%) and 1.9% (0.8-3.8%), respectively. The odds ratios of the incidence of gastric cancer per year, which were evaluated using GEE models for the age groups 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years old, were 1.51 (95%CI: 0.91-2.49), 1.94 (95%CI: 1.31-2.86), 1.59 (95%CI: 1.23-2.06) and 1.46 (95%CI: 1.06-2.02), respectively.
Conclusions
A screening for gastric cancer using EGD may be appropriate annually for healthy people over 70 years old, every two or three years for people 60–69 years old and every four years for people 50–59 years old. People younger than 50 years old may only need repeat screenings every five years or more.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-144
PMCID: PMC3503735  PMID: 23072453
3.  Behavior of Adult Influenza Patients during the 2009 Pandemic after Outpatient Clinic Presentations at a Hospital in Tokyo, Japan 
Tropical Medicine and Health  2011;39(3):83-85.
The 2009 pandemic of novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) highlighted the importance of community mitigation measures such as voluntary isolation. During the pandemic, we investigated the voluntary isolation behavior of patients with influenza during the 7-day period after they visited an outpatient clinic at a hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on patients diagnosed with influenza. Of a total of 14 patients, 13 (93%) visited a workplace, school or other potentially crowded setting at least once in the 7-day period after presentation. Five patients (36%) visited a potentially crowded setting either with a fever or on the day after having a fever. The voluntary isolation behavior of Japanese people with influenza did not necessarily adhere to the Japanese government recommendation that people with influenza-like illness stay home for 7 days following the onset of symptoms.
doi:10.2149/tmh.2011-09
PMCID: PMC3191776  PMID: 22028614
influenza; disease outbreaks; behavior; patient; health policy

Results 1-3 (3)