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author:("kiddy, Clare")
2.  Intracluster correlation coefficients for sample size calculations related to cardiovascular disease prevention and management in primary care practices 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:89.
Background
Few studies have comprehensively reported intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates for outcomes collected in primary care settings. Using data from a large primary care study, we aimed to: a) report ICCs for process-of-care and clinical outcome measures related to cardiovascular disease management and prevention, and b) investigate the impact of practice structure and rurality on ICC estimates.
Methods
We used baseline data from the Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC) trial to estimate ICC values. Data on 5,140 patients from 84 primary care practices across Eastern Ontario, Canada were collected through chart abstraction. ICC estimates were calculated using an ANOVA approach and were calculated for all patients and separately for patient subgroups defined by condition (i.e., coronary artery disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking). We compared ICC estimates between practices in which data were collected from a single physician versus those that had multiple participating physicians and between urban versus rural practices.
Results
ICC estimates ranged from 0 to 0.173, with a median of 0.056. The median ICC estimate for dichotomous process outcomes (0.088) was higher than that for continuous clinical outcomes (0.035). ICC estimates calculated for single physician practices were higher than those for practices with multiple physicians for both process (average 3.9-times higher) and clinical measures (average 1.9-times higher). Urban practices tended to have higher process-of-care ICC estimates than rural practices, particularly for measuring lipid profiles and estimated glomerular filtration rates.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive summary of cardiovascular-related ICCs to be reported from Canadian primary care practices. Differences in ICC estimates based on practice structure and location highlight the importance of understanding the context in which external ICC estimates were determined prior to their use in sample size calculations. Failure to choose appropriate ICC estimates can have substantial implications for the design of a cluster randomized trial.
doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1042-y
PMCID: PMC4369059  PMID: 25888958
Intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC); Cardiovascular disease; Primary care
3.  Improving awareness, accountability, and access through health coaching 
Canadian Family Physician  2015;61(3):e158-e164.
Abstract
Objective
To assess patients’ experiences with and perceptions of health coaching as part of their ongoing care.
Design
A qualitative research design using semistructured interviews that were recorded and transcribed verbatim.
Setting
Ottawa, Ont.
Participants
Eleven patients (> 18 years of age) enrolled in a health coaching pilot program who were at risk of or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Patients’ perspectives were assessed with semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted with 11 patients at the end of the pilot program, using a stratified sampling approach to ensure maximum variation.
Main findings
All patients found the overall experience with the health coaching program to be positive. Patients believed the health coaching program was effective in increasing awareness of how diabetes affected their bodies and health, in building accountability for their health-related actions, and in improving access to care and other health resources.
Conclusion
Patients perceive one-on-one health coaching as an acceptable intervention in their ongoing care. Patients enrolled in the health coaching pilot program believed that there was an improvement in access to care, health literacy, and accountability, all factors considered to be precursors to behavioural change.
PMCID: PMC4369629  PMID: 25932483
4.  Challenges of self-management when living with multiple chronic conditions 
Canadian Family Physician  2014;60(12):1123-1133.
Abstract
Objective
To explore the perspectives of patients who live with multiple chronic conditions as they relate to the challenges of self-management.
Data sources
On September 30, 2013, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL using relevant key words including chronic disease, comorbidity, multimorbidity, multiple chronic conditions, self-care, self-management, perspective, and perception.
Study selection
Three reviewers assessed and extracted the data from the included studies after study quality was rated. Qualitative thematic synthesis method was then used to identify common themes. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria, with most coming from the United States.
Synthesis
Important themes raised by people living with multiple chronic conditions related to their ability to self-manage included living with undesirable physical and emotional symptoms, with pain and depression highlighted. Issues with conflicting knowledge, access to care, and communication with health care providers were raised. The use of cognitive strategies, including reframing, prioritizing, and changing beliefs, was reported to improve people’s ability to self-manage their multiple chronic conditions.
Conclusion
This study provides a unique view into patients’ perspectives of living with multiple chronic conditions, which are clearly linked to common functional challenges as opposed to specific diseases. Future policy and programming in self-management support should be better aligned with patients’ perspectives on living with multiple chronic conditions. This might be achieved by ensuring a more patient-centred approach is adopted by providers and health service organizations.
PMCID: PMC4264810  PMID: 25642490
6.  Quality of cardiovascular disease care in Ontario’s primary care practices: a cross sectional study examining differences in guideline adherence by patient sex 
BMC Family Practice  2014;15:123.
Background
Women are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease, often experiencing poorer outcomes following a cardiovascular event. Evidence points to inequities in processes of care as a potential contributing factor. This study sought to determine whether any sex differences exist in adherence to process of care guidelines for cardiovascular disease within primary care practices in Ontario, Canada.
Methods
This is a secondary analysis of pooled cross-sectional baseline data collected through a larger quality improvement initiative known as the Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC). Chart abstraction was performed for 4,931 patients from 84 primary care practices in Eastern Ontario who had, or were at high risk of, cardiovascular disease. Measures examining adherence to guidelines associated with nine areas of cardiovascular care (coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), stroke/transient ischemic attack, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking cessation, and weight management) were collected. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate sex differences, adjusting for age, physician remuneration, and rurality.
Results
Women were significantly less likely to have their lipid profiles taken (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.33), be prescribed lipid lowering medication for dyslipidemia (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.20-1.97), and to be prescribed ASA following stroke (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.39-1.75). Women with PVD were significantly less likely to be prescribed ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.25-2.41) and lipid lowering medications (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.46-2.62) or ASA (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.43-1.78). However, women were more likely to have two blood pressure measurements taken and to be referred to a dietician or weight loss program. Male patients with diabetes were less likely to be prescribed glycemic control medication (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.86).
Conclusions
Sex disparities exist in the quality of cardiovascular care in Canadian primary care practices, which tend to favour men. Women with PVD have a particularly high risk of not receiving appropriate medications. Our findings indicate that improvements in care delivery should be made to address these issues, particularly with regard to the prescribing of recommended medications for women, and preventive measures for men.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-123
PMCID: PMC4069341  PMID: 24938405
Sex equity; Primary care; Cardiovascular disease; Guideline adherence
7.  Health coaching in primary care: a feasibility model for diabetes care 
BMC Family Practice  2014;15:60.
Background
Health coaching is a new intervention offering a one-on-one focused self-management support program. This study implemented a health coaching pilot in primary care clinics in Eastern Ontario, Canada to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of integrating health coaching into primary care for patients who were either at risk for or diagnosed with diabetes.
Methods
We implemented health coaching in three primary care practices. Patients with diabetes were offered six months of support from their health coach, including an initial face-to-face meeting and follow-up by email, telephone, or face-to-face according to patient preference. Feasibility was assessed through provider focus groups and qualitative data analysis methods.
Results
All three sites were able to implement the program. A number of themes emerged from the focus groups, including the importance of physician buy-in, wide variation in understanding and implementing of the health coach role, the significant impact of different systems of team communication, and the significant effect of organizational structure and patient readiness on Health coaches’ capacity to perform their role.
Conclusions
It is feasible to implement health coaching as an integrated program within small primary care clinics in Canada without adding additional resources into the daily practice. Practices should review their organizational and communication processes to ensure optimal support for health coaches if considering implementing this intervention.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-60
PMCID: PMC4021256  PMID: 24708783
8.  A pragmatic comparison of two diabetes education programs in improving type 2 diabetes mellitus outcomes 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:186.
Background
Although it is clear that education programs constitute key elements of improved diabetes management, uncertainty exists regarding the optimal method of delivering that education. In addition to the lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate delivery methods for these programs, there is a paucity of research which evaluates these methods in terms of specific clinical outcomes. This pragmatic study compares the effectiveness of two distinct diabetes education programs in improving clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting.
Results
The two diabetes education classes (n = 80 enrolled) retrospectively evaluated were ‘the ABC’s of Diabetes’ (one 2-hour didactic teaching session) and ‘Conversation Maps’ (3 highly interactive weekly classes, 6 hours in total). Eligible participants (n = 32) had their charts reviewed and outcome measures (i.e., glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), low density lipoprotein (LDL), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and weight) recorded 1 year prior to and 6 months following the class. Pre- and post-class outcome measures were compared. A trend towards lower HbA1c was observed after completion of both classes, with an average reduction of 0.2%, and 0.6% after 6 months in the ‘ABC’s of Diabetes’ class and ‘Conversation Maps’ class respectively. A significant decrease in weight was observed 6 months after the ‘ABC’s of Diabetes’ class (p = 0.028), and in LDL after the ‘Conversation Maps’ class (p = 0.049). Patients with HbA1c ≥ 8% showed a drop of 1.1% in HbA1c 3 months after either class (p = 0.004).
Conclusions
No significant difference in outcomes was found between the two diabetes education classes assessed. There was a trend towards improved glycemic control after both classes, and patients with high HbA1c levels demonstrated statistically significant improvements. This indicates that shorter sessions using didactic teaching methods may be equally effective in producing improvements in diabetes self-management as more intensive course formats.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-186
PMCID: PMC3986621  PMID: 24674666
Type 2 diabetes; Self-management; Education program
9.  Primary care quality improvement from a practice facilitator’s perspective 
BMC Family Practice  2014;15:23.
Background
Practice facilitation has proven to be effective at improving care delivery. Practice facilitators are healthcare professionals who work with and support other healthcare providers. To the best of our knowledge, very few studies have explored the perspective of facilitators. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the barriers that facilitators face during the facilitation process and to identify approaches used to overcome these barriers to help practices move towards positive change.
Methods
We conducted semi-structured interviews with four practice facilitators who worked with 84 primary care practices in Eastern Ontario, Canada over a period of five years (2007–2012). The transcripts were analyzed independently by three members of the research team using an open coding technique. A qualitative data analysis using immersion/crystallization technique was applied to interpret the interview transcripts.
Results
Common barriers identified by the facilitators included accessibility to the practice (e.g., difficulty scheduling meetings, short meetings), organizational behaviour (team organization, team conflicts, etc.), challenges with practice engagement (e.g., lack of interest, lack of trust), resistance to change, and competing priorities. To help practices move towards positive change the facilitators had to tailor their approach, integrate themselves, be persistent with practices, and exhibit flexibility.
Conclusions
The consensus on redesigning and transforming primary care in North America and around the world is rapidly growing. Practice facilitation has been pivotal in materializing the transformation in the way primary care practices deliver care. This study provides an exclusive insight into facilitator approaches which will assist the design and implementation of small- and large-scale facilitation interventions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-23
PMCID: PMC3931473  PMID: 24490746
Practice facilitation; Practice facilitators; Cardiovascular health; Primary care; Quality improvement; Practice culture
10.  What is the impact of primary care model type on specialist referral rates? A cross-sectional study 
BMC Family Practice  2014;15:22.
Background
Several new primary care models have been implemented in Ontario, Canada over the past two decades. These practice models differ in team structure, physician remuneration, and group size. Few studies have examined the impact of these models on specialist referrals. We compared specialist referral rates amongst three primary care models: 1) Enhanced Fee-for-service, 2) Capitation- Non-Interdisciplinary (CAP-NI), 3) Capitation – Interdisciplinary (CAP-I).
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional study using health administrative data from primary care practices in Ontario from April 1st, 2008 to March 31st, 2010. The analysis included all family physicians providing comprehensive care in one of the three models, had at least 100 patients, and did not have a prolonged absence (eight consecutive weeks). The primary outcome was referral rate (# of referrals to all medical specialties/1000 patients/year). A multivariable clustered Poisson regression analysis was used to compare referral rates between models while adjusting for provider (sex, years since graduation, foreign trained, time in current model) and patient (age, sex, income, rurality, health status) characteristics.
Results
Fee-for-service had a significantly lower adjusted referral rate (676, 95% CI: 666-687) than the CAP-NI (719, 95% confidence interval (CI): 705-734) and CAP-I (694, 95% CI: 681-707) models and the interdisciplinary CAP-I group had a 3.5% lower referral rate than the CAP-NI group (RR = 0.965, 95% CI: 0.943-0.987, p = 0.002). Female and Canadian-trained physicians referred more often, while female, older, sicker and urban patients were more likely to be referred.
Conclusions
Primary care model is significantly associated with referral rate. On a study population level, these differences equate to 111,059 and 37,391 fewer referrals by fee-for-service versus CAP-NI and CAP-I, respectively – a difference of $22.3 million in initial referral appointment costs. Whether a lower rate of referral is more appropriate or not is not known and requires further investigation. Physician remuneration and team structure likely account for the differences; however, further investigation is also required to better understand whether other organizational factors associated with primary care model also impact referral.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-22
PMCID: PMC3933232  PMID: 24490703
Primary care; Specialist referral; Capitation; Primary care model
11.  An Overview of Practice Facilitation Programs in Canada: Current Perspectives and Future Directions 
Healthcare Policy  2013;8(3):58-67a.
Practice facilitation has proven to be effective in improving the quality of primary care. A practice facilitator is a health professional, usually external to the practice, who regularly visits the practice to provide support in change management that targets improvements in the delivery of care. Our environmental scan shows that several initiatives across Canada utilize practice facilitation as a quality improvement method; however, many are conducted in isolation as there is a lack of coordinated effort, knowledge translation and dissemination in this field across the country. We recommend that investments be made in capacity building, knowledge exchange and facilitator training, and that partnership building be considered a priority in this field.
PMCID: PMC3999561  PMID: 23968627
12.  Ten Steps to Establishing an e-Consultation Service to Improve Access to Specialist Care 
Telemedicine Journal and e-Health  2013;19(12):982-990.
Abstract
There is dissatisfaction among primary care physicians, specialists, and patients with respect to the consultation process. Excessive wait times for receiving specialist services and inefficient communication between practitioners result in decreased access to care and jeopardize patient safety. We created and implemented an electronic consultation (e-consultation) system in Eastern Ontario to address these problems and improve the consultation process. The e-consultation system has passed through the proof-of-concept and pilot study stages and has effectively reduced unnecessary referrals while receiving resoundingly positive feedback from physician-users. Using our experience, we have outlined the 10 steps to developing an e-consultation service. We detail the technical, administrative, and strategic considerations with respect to (1) identifying your partners, (2) choosing your platform, (3) starting as a pilot project, (4) designing your product, (5) ensuring patient privacy, (6) thinking through the process, (7) fostering relationships with your participants, (8) being prepared to provide physician payment, (9) providing feedback, and (10) planning the transition from pilot to permanency. In following these 10 steps, we believe that the e-consultation system and its associated improvements on the consultation process can be effectively implemented in other healthcare settings.
doi:10.1089/tmj.2013.0056
PMCID: PMC3850434  PMID: 24073898
e-health; information management; telemedicine; telehealth; e-consultation
13.  Utilization, Benefits, and Impact of an e-Consultation Service Across Diverse Specialties and Primary Care Providers 
Telemedicine Journal and e-Health  2013;19(10):733-738.
Abstract
Background Access to specialist advice remains a barrier for primary care providers (PCPs) and their patients. Virtual consultations have been used to expedite access. There are few studies demonstrating the utilization and impact of such services. We established a regional e-consultation service that was used across a wide range of specialty services and PCPs. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected all e-consultations submitted from April 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. Utilization data collected included number of e-consultations submitted, specialist response, and time required for the specialist to complete the e-consultation. Perceived benefit to the PCPs and their patients and the impact on care delivery were determined from a close-out survey. Results: Fifty-nine PCPs submitted 406 e-consultations to 16 specialty services. The specialist provided an answer without requesting further information in 89% of cases, with >90% of cases taking <15 min for the specialist to complete. Seventy-five percent of cases were answered in <3 days. The service was perceived as highly beneficial to providers and patients in>90% of cases. In 43% of submitted cases a traditional referral was originally contemplated but was now avoided. Conclusions: We successfully implemented an e-consultation service across diverse PCPs and specialty services that was highly valued. Almost half of referrals submitted would have required a face-to-face consultation if the service had not been available. Thus e-consultation has tremendous potential for improving access to specialist advice in a much more timely manner than the traditional referral–consultation process.
doi:10.1089/tmj.2013.0007
PMCID: PMC3787335  PMID: 23980939
e-health; dermatology; telemedicine
14.  Into the abyss: diabetes process of care indicators and outcomes of defaulters from a Canadian tertiary care multidisciplinary diabetes clinic 
Background
Continuity of care is essential for good quality diabetes management. We recently found that 46% of patients defaulted from care (had no contact with the clinic for 18 months after a follow-up appointment was ordered) in a Canadian multidisciplinary tertiary care diabetes clinic. The primary aim was to compare characteristics, diabetes processes of care, and outcomes from referral to within 1 year after leaving clinic or to the end of the follow-up period among those patients who defaulted, were discharged or were retained in the clinic.
Methods
Retrospective cohort study of 193 patients referred to the Foustanellas Endocrine and Diabetes Center (FEDC) for type 2 diabetes from January 1, 2005 to June 30, 2005. The FEDC is the primary academic referral centre for the Ottawa Region and provides multidisciplinary diabetes management. Defaulters (mean age 58.5 ± 12.5 year, 60% M) were compared to patients who were retained in the clinic (mean age 61.4 ± 10.47 years, 49% M) and those who were formally discharged (mean age 61.5 ± 13.2 years, 53.3% M). The chart audit population was then individually linked on an individual patient basis for laboratory testing, physician visits billed through OHIP, hospitalizations and emergency room visits using Ontario health card numbers to health administrative data from the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care at the Institute for Clinical and Evaluative Sciences (ICES).
Results
Retained and defaulted patients had significantly longer duration of diabetes, more microvascular complications, were more likely to be on insulin and less likely to have a HbA1c < 7.0% than patients discharged from clinic. A significantly lower proportion of patients who defaulted from tertiary care received recommended monitoring for their diabetes (HbA1c measurements, lipid measurements, and periodic eye examinations), despite no difference in median number of visits to a primary care provider (PCP). Emergency room visits were numerically higher in the defaulters group.
Conclusions
Patients defaulting from a tertiary care diabetes hospital do not receive the recommended monitoring for their diabetes management despite attending PCP appointments. Efforts should be made to minimize defaulting in this group of individuals.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-303
PMCID: PMC3750860  PMID: 23938105
15.  Building access to specialist care through e-consultation 
Open Medicine  2013;7(1):e1-e8.
Background
Limited access to specialist care remains a major barrier to health care in Canada, affecting patients and primary care providers alike, in terms of both long wait times and inequitable availability. We developed an electronic consultation system, based on a secure web-based tool, as an alternative to face-to-face consultations, and ran a pilot study to evaluate its effectiveness and acceptability to practitioners.
Methods
In a pilot program conducted over 15 months starting in January 2010, the e-consultation system was tested with primary care providers and specialists in a large health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. We collected utilization data from the electronic system itself (including quantitative data from satisfaction surveys) and qualitative information from focus groups and interviews with providers.
Results
Of 18 primary care providers in the pilot program, 13 participated in focus groups and 9 were interviewed; in addition, 10 of the 11 specialists in the program were interviewed. Results of our evaluation showed good uptake, high levels of satisfaction, improvement in the integration of referrals and consultations, and avoidance of unnecessary specialist visits. A total of 77 e-consultation requests were processed from 1 Jan. 2010 to 1 Apr. 2011. Less than 10% of the referrals required face-to-face follow-up. The most frequently noted benefits for patients (as perceived by providers) included improved access to specialist care and reduced wait times. Primary care providers valued the ability to assist with patient assessment and management by having access to a rapid response to clinical questions, clarifying the need for diagnostic tests or treatments, and confirming the need for a formal consultation. Specialists enjoyed the improved interaction with primary care providers, as well as having some control in the decision on which patients should be referred.
Interpretation
This low-cost referral system has potential for broader implementation, once payment models for physicians are adapted to cover e-consultation.
PMCID: PMC3654501  PMID: 23687533
16.  Quality of cardiovascular disease care in Ontario, Canada: missed opportunities for prevention - a cross sectional study 
Background
Primary care plays a key role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined primary care practice adherence to recommended care guidelines associated with the prevention and management of CVD for high risk patients.
Methods
We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data collected from 84 primary care practices participating in a large quality improvement initiative in Eastern Ontario from 2008 to 2010. We collected medical chart data from 4,931 patients who either had, or were at high risk of developing CVD to study adherence rates to recommended guidelines for CVD care and to examine the proportion of patients at target for clinical markers such as blood pressure, lipid levels and hemoglobin A1c.
Results
Adherence to preventive care recommendations was poor. Less than 10% of high risk patients received a waistline measurement, half of the smokers received cessation advice, and 7.7% were referred to a smoking cessation program. Gaps in care exist for diabetes and kidney disease as 54.9% of patients with diabetes received recommended hemoglobin-A1c screenings, and only 55.8% received an albumin excretion test. Adherence rates to recommended guidelines for coronary artery disease, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were high (>75%); however <50% of patients were at target for blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol levels (37.1% and 49.7% respectively), and only 59.3% of patients with diabetes were at target for hemoglobin-A1c.
Conclusions
There remain significant opportunities for primary care providers to engage high risk patients in prevention activities such as weight management and smoking cessation. Despite high adherence rates for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary artery disease, a significant proportion of patients failed to meet treatment targets, highlighting the complexity of caring for people with multiple chronic conditions.
Trial Registration
NCT00574808
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-74
PMCID: PMC3477034  PMID: 22970753
Cardiovascular disease; Primary care; Diabetes; Evidence-based care; Preventive care; Quality of care
17.  The patient’s voice: an exploratory study of the impact of a group self-management support program 
BMC Family Practice  2012;13:65.
Background
Given the potential value of self-management support programs for people with chronic diseases, it is vital to understand how they influence participants’ health attitudes and behaviours. The Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP), the most well-known and widely studied such program, is funded in many provinces and jurisdictions throughout Canada. However, there is little published evidence on its impact in the Canadian health-care system. We studied participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford program in one Ontario health region so we could assess its value to the health region. The study asked: What are participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford CDSMP?
Methods
This mixed methods exploratory study held four focus groups approximately one year after participants attended a Stanford program workshop. At the beginning of each session, participants filled out a survey on the type and frequency of community and health resources used for their self-management. During the sessions, a moderator guided the discussion, asking about such things as long-term impact of the program on their lives and barriers to self-management of their chronic conditions.
Results
Participants perceived diverse effects of the workshop: from having a profound impact on one area to affecting all aspects of their lives. A change in physical activity patterns was the most prominent behaviour change, noted by over half the participants. Other recurrent effects included an improved sense of social connection and better coping skills. Barriers to self-management were experienced by almost all participants with several dominant themes emerging including problems with the health system and patient-physician interaction. Participants reported a wide variety of resources used in their self-management, and in some cases, an increase in use was noted for some resources.
Conclusions
Self-management support is, at its core, a complex and patient-centred concept, so a diversity of outcomes to match the diversity of participants should be expected. As these interventions move into different target populations and communities, it is essential that we continue to explore through multiple research methods, the effects, and their meaning to participants, ensuring the optimal investment of resources for the very individuals these interventions aim to serve.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-13-65
PMCID: PMC3431243  PMID: 22748018
Chronic disease; Self-management; Diabetes; Community health
18.  Comparison of primary care models in the prevention of cardiovascular disease - a cross sectional study 
BMC Family Practice  2011;12:114.
Background
Primary care providers play an important role in preventing and managing cardiovascular disease. This study compared the quality of preventive cardiovascular care delivery amongst different primary care models.
Methods
This is a secondary analysis of a larger randomized control trial, known as the Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC) through Outreach Facilitation. Using baseline data collected through IDOCC, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 82 primary care practices from three delivery models in Eastern Ontario, Canada: 43 fee-for-service, 27 blended-capitation and 12 community health centres with salary-based physicians. Medical chart audits from 4,808 patients with or at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease were used to examine each practice's adherence to ten evidence-based processes of care for diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, weight management, and smoking cessation care. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for age, sex, rurality, number of cardiovascular-related comorbidities, and year of data collection were used to compare guideline adherence amongst the three models.
Results
The percentage of patients with diabetes that received two hemoglobin A1c tests during the study year was significantly higher in community health centres (69%) than in fee-for-service (45%) practices (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.4 [95% CI 1.4-4.2], p = 0.001). Blended capitation practices had a significantly higher percentage of patients who had their waistlines monitored than in fee-for-service practices (19% vs. 5%, AOR = 3.7 [1.8-7.8], p = 0.0006), and who were recommended a smoking cessation drug when compared to community health centres (33% vs. 16%, AOR = 2.4 [1.3-4.6], p = 0.007). Overall, quality of diabetes care was higher in community health centres, while smoking cessation care and weight management was higher in the blended-capitation models. Fee-for-service practices had the greatest gaps in care, most noticeably in diabetes care and weight management.
Conclusions
This study adds to the evidence suggesting that primary care delivery model impacts quality of care. These findings support current Ontario reforms to move away from the traditional fee-for-service practice.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00574808
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-12-114
PMCID: PMC3215648  PMID: 22008366
19.  Improved delivery of cardiovascular care (IDOCC) through outreach facilitation: study protocol and implementation details of a cluster randomized controlled trial in primary care 
Background
There is a need to find innovative approaches for translating best practices for chronic disease care into daily primary care practice routines. Primary care plays a crucial role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. There is, however, a substantive care gap, and many challenges exist in implementing evidence-based care. The Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC) project is a pragmatic trial designed to improve the delivery of evidence-based care for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease in primary care practices using practice outreach facilitation.
Methods
The IDOCC project is a stepped-wedge cluster randomized control trial in which Practice Outreach Facilitators work with primary care practices to improve cardiovascular disease prevention and management for patients at highest risk. Primary care practices in a large health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada, were eligible to participate. The intervention consists of regular monthly meetings with the Practice Outreach Facilitator over a one- to two-year period. Starting with audit and feedback, consensus building, and goal setting, the practices are supported in changing practice behavior by incorporating chronic care model elements. These elements include (a) evidence-based decision support for providers, (b) delivery system redesign for practices, (c) enhanced self-management support tools provided to practices to help them engage patients, and (d) increased community resource linkages for practices to enhance referral of patients. The primary outcome is a composite score measured at the level of the patient to represent each practice's adherence to evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular care. Qualitative analysis of the Practice Outreach Facilitators' written narratives of their ongoing practice interactions will be done. These textual analyses will add further insight into understanding critical factors impacting project implementation.
Discussion
This pragmatic, stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial with both quantitative and process evaluations demonstrates innovative methods of implementing large-scale quality improvement and evidence-based approaches to care delivery. This is the first Canadian study to examine the impact of a large-scale multifaceted cardiovascular quality-improvement program in primary care. It is anticipated that through the evaluation of IDOCC, we will demonstrate an effective, practical, and sustainable means of improving the cardiovascular health of patients across Canada.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00574808
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-6-110
PMCID: PMC3197547  PMID: 21952084
20.  Development of the Champlain primary care cardiovascular disease prevention and management guideline 
Canadian Family Physician  2011;57(6):e202-e207.
Abstract
Problem addressed
A well documented gap remains between evidence and practice for clinical practice guidelines in cardiovascular disease (CVD) care.
Objective of program
As part of the Champlain CVD Prevention Strategy, practitioners in the Champlain District of Ontario launched a large quality-improvement initiative that focused on increasing the uptake in primary care practice settings of clinical guidelines for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and CVD risk factors.
Program description
The Champlain Primary Care CVD Prevention and Management Guideline is a desktop resource for primary care clinicians working in the Champlain District. The guideline was developed by more than 45 local experts to summarize the latest evidence-based strategies for CVD prevention and management, as well as to increase awareness of local community-based programs and services.
Conclusion
Evidence suggests that tailored strategies are important when implementing specific practice guidelines. This article describes the process of creating an integrated clinical guideline for improvement in the delivery of cardiovascular care.
PMCID: PMC3114691  PMID: 21673196
21.  Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of physicians and practices for primary care health services research at one centre 
Background
While some research has been conducted examining recruitment methods to engage physicians and practices in primary care research, further research is needed on recruitment methodology as it remains a recurrent challenge and plays a crucial role in primary care research. This paper reviews recruitment strategies, common challenges, and innovative practices from five recent primary care health services research studies in Ontario, Canada.
Methods
We used mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to gather data from investigators and/or project staff from five research teams. Team members were interviewed and asked to fill out a brief survey on recruitment methods, results, and challenges encountered during a recent or ongoing project involving primary care practices or physicians. Data analysis included qualitative analysis of interview notes and descriptive statistics generated for each study.
Results
Recruitment rates varied markedly across the projects despite similar initial strategies. Common challenges and creative solutions were reported by many of the research teams, including building a sampling frame, developing front-office rapport, adapting recruitment strategies, promoting buy-in and interest in the research question, and training a staff recruiter.
Conclusions
Investigators must continue to find effective ways of reaching and involving diverse and representative samples of primary care providers and practices by building personal connections with, and buy-in from, potential participants. Flexible recruitment strategies and an understanding of the needs and interests of potential participants may also facilitate recruitment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-109
PMCID: PMC3017524  PMID: 21144048
23.  Methods for a study of Anticipatory and Preventive multidisciplinary Team Care in a family practice 
Canadian Family Physician  2010;56(2):e73-e83.
BACKGROUND
T o examine the methodology used to evaluate whether focusing the work of nurse practitioners and a pharmacist on frail and at-risk patients would improve the quality of care for such patients.
DESIGN
Evaluation of methodology of a randomized controlled trial including analysis of quantitative and qualitative data over time and analysis of cost-effectiveness.
SETTING
A single practice in a rural area near Ottawa, Ont.
PARTICIPANTS
A total of 241 frail patients, aged 50 years and older, at risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes.
INTERVENTION
At-risk patients were randomly assigned to receive Anticipatory and Preventive Team Care (from their family physicians, 1 of 3 nurse practitioners, and a pharmacist) or usual care.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
The principal outcome for the study was the quality of care for chronic disease management. Secondary outcomes included other quality of care measures and evaluation of the program process and its cost-effectiveness. This article examines the effectiveness of the methodology used. Quantitative data from surveys, administrative databases, and medical records were supplemented with qualitative information from interviews, focus groups, work logs, and study notes.
CONCLUSION
Three factors limit our ability to fully demonstrate the potential effects of this team structure. For reasons outside our control, the intervention duration was shorter than intended; the practice’s physical layout did not facilitate interactions between the care providers; and contamination of the intervention effect into the control arm cannot be excluded. The study used a randomized design, relied on a multifaceted approach to evaluating its effects, and used several sources of data.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER
NCT00238836 (CONSORT).
PMCID: PMC2821256  PMID: 20154234
24.  Randomized controlled trial of Anticipatory and Preventive multidisciplinary Team Care 
Canadian Family Physician  2009;55(12):e76-e85.
ABSTRACT
OBJECTIVE
T o examine whether quality of care (QOC) improves when nurse practitioners and pharmacists work with family physicians in community practice and focus their work on patients who are 50 years of age and older and considered to be at risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes.
DESIGN
Randomized controlled trial.
SETTING
A family health network with 8 family physicians, 5 nurses, and 11 administrative personnel serving 10 000 patients in a rural area near Ottawa, Ont.
PARTICIPANTS
Patients 50 years of age and older at risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes (N = 241).
INTERVENTIONS
At-risk patients were randomly assigned to receive usual care from their family physicians or Anticipatory and Preventive Team Care (APTCare) from a collaborative team composed of their physicians, 1 of 3 nurse practitioners, and a pharmacist.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Quality of care for chronic disease management (CDM) for diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
RESULTS
Controlling for baseline demographic characteristics, the APTCare approach improved CDM QOC by 9.2% (P < .001) compared with traditional care. The APTCare intervention also improved preventive care by 16.5% (P < .001). We did not observe significant differences in other secondary outcome measures (intermediate clinical outcomes, quality of life [Short-Form 36 and health-related quality of life scales], functional status [instrumental activities of daily living scale] and service usage).
CONCLUSION
Additional resources in the form of collaborative multidisciplinary care teams with intensive interventions in primary care can improve QOC for CDM in a population of older at-risk patients. The appropriateness of this intervention will depend on its cost-effectiveness.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT00238836 (CONSORT)
PMCID: PMC2793206  PMID: 20008582
25.  Can after-hours family medicine clinics represent an alternative to emergency departments? 
Canadian Family Physician  2009;55(11):1106-1107.e4.
ABSTRACT
OBJECTIVE
To explore patients’ motivations for seeking care in the emergency department (ED) after hours and their willingness to consult their family physicians instead, if their family physicians had been available.
DESIGN
Survey using an 8-item questionnaire.
SETTING
Two tertiary care hospital EDs in Ottawa, Ont, from June 4 to 22, 2007, between 5 pm and 9 pm.
PARTICIPANTS
A total of 151 ambulatory patients. Patients who arrived by ambulance or who bypassed those waiting were excluded.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Patients’ self-reported motivation for seeking after-hours care in the ED, the perceived urgency of their medical complaints, and their willingness to have sought care from their family physicians instead, if they had been available.
RESULTS
There were 218 eligible patients during the study period. Among the 151 respondents (69.3% response rate), 141 qualified for the study. Of the qualified respondents, 57.4% would have chosen to consult their family physicians instead if they had been available. The most common reason for choosing the ED was the perceived need for services unavailable at family medicine clinics, such as specialist consultation or diagnostic imaging. There were no differences in the perceived urgency of patients’ medical conditions or the amount of time they were willing to wait before physician assessment between those who would have been willing to seek care from their family physicians and those who would not have been willing.
CONCLUSION
After-hour family medicine clinics provide a desirable primary care service that most patients would choose over the ED if more were available.
PMCID: PMC2776805  PMID: 19910600

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