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1.  Lack of adherence to hypertension treatment guidelines among GPs in southern Sweden-A case report-based survey 
BMC Family Practice  2012;13:34.
Background
General practitioners (GPs) often fail to correctly adhere to guidelines for the treatment of hypertension. The reasons for this are unclear, but could be related to lack of knowledge in assessing individual patients' cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to investigate how GPs in southern Sweden adhere to clinical guidelines for the treatment of hypertension when major cardiovascular risk factors are taken into consideration.
Method
A questionnaire with five genuine cases of hypertension with different cardiovascular risk profiles was sent to a random sample of GPs in southern Sweden (n = 109) in order to investigate the attitude towards blood pressure (BP) treatment when major cardiovascular risk factors were present.
Results
In general, GPs who responded tended to focus on the absolute target BP rather than assessing the entire cardiovascular risk factor profile. Thus, cases with the highest risk of cardiovascular disease were not treated accordingly. However, there was also a tendency to overtreat the lowest risk individuals. Furthermore, the BP levels for initiating pharmacological treatment varied widely (systolic BP 140-210 mmHg). ACE inhibitors (70%) were the most common first choice of pharmacological treatment.
Conclusion
In this study, GPs in Southern Sweden were suggesting, for different cases, either under- or overtreatment in relation to current guidelines for treatment of hypertension. On reason may be that they failed to correctly assess individual cardiovascular risk factor profiles.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-13-34
PMCID: PMC3391982  PMID: 22536853
Hypertension; Adherence; Guidelines; Treatment; Primary care
2.  Marital status and occupation in relation to short-term case fatality after a first coronary event - a population based cohort 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:235.
Background
Although marital status and low occupation level has been associated with mortality, the relationship with case fatality rates (CFR) after a coronary event (CE) is unclear. This study explored whether incidence of CE and short-term CFR differ between groups defined in terms of marital status and occupation, and if this could be explained by biological and life-style risk factors.
Methods
Population-based cohort study of 33,224 subjects (67% men), aged 27 to 61 years, without history of myocardial infarction, who were enrolled between 1974 and 1992. Incidence of CE, and CFR (death during the first day or within 28 days after CE, including out-of-hospital deaths) was examined over a mean follow-up of 21 years.
Results
A total of 3,035 men (6.0 per 1000 person-years) and 507 women (2.4 per 1000) suffered a first CE during follow-up. CFR (during the 1st day) was 29% in men and 23% in women. After risk factor adjustments, unmarried status in men, but not in women, was significantly associated with increased risk of suffering a CE [hazard ratios (HR) 1.10, 95% CI: 0.97-1.24; 1.42: 1.27-1.58 and 1.77: 1.31-2.40 for never married, divorced and widowed, respectively, compared to married]. Unmarried status, in both gender, was also related with an increased CFR (1st day), taking potential confounders into account (odds ratio (OR) 2.14, 95% CI: 1.63-2.81; 1.91: 1.50-2.43 and 1.49: 0.77-2.89 for never married, divorced and widowed, respectively, compared to married men. Corresponding figures for women was 2.32: 0.93-5.81; 1.87: 1.04-3.36 and 2.74: 1.03-7.28. No differences in CFR (1st day) were observed between occupational groups in neither gender.
Conclusions
In this population-based Swedish cohort, short-term CFR was significantly related to unmarried status in men and women. This relationship was not explained by biological-, life-style factors or occupational level.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-235
PMCID: PMC2874781  PMID: 20459706
3.  Barriers to adherence to hypertension guidelines among GPs in southern Sweden: A survey 
Objective
To evaluate barriers to adherence to hypertension guidelines among publicly employed general practitioners (GPs).
Design
Questionnaire-based survey distributed to GPs in 24 randomly selected primary care centres in the Region of Skåne in southern Sweden.
Subjects
A total of 109 GPs received a self-administered questionnaire and 90 of them responded.
Main outcome measures
Use of risk assessment programmes. Reasons to postpone or abstain from pharmacological treatment for the management of hypertension.
Results
Reported managing of high blood pressure (BP) varied. In all, 53% (95% CI 42–64%) of the GPs used risk assessment programmes and nine out of 10 acknowledged blood pressure target levels. Only one in 10 did not inform the patients about these levels. The range for immediate initiating pharmacological treatment was a systolic BP 140–220 (median 170) mmHg and diastolic BP 90–110 (median 100) mmHg. One-third (32%; 95% CI 22–42%) of the GPs postponed or abstained from pharmacological treatment of hypertension due to a patient's advanced age. No statistically significant associations were observed between GPs’ gender, professional experience (i.e. in terms of specialist family medicine and by number of years in practice), and specific reasons to postpone or abstain from pharmacological treatment of hypertension.
Conclusion
These data suggest that GPs accept higher blood pressure levels than recommended in clinical guidelines. Old age of the patient seems to be an important barrier among GPs when considering pharmacological treatment for the management of hypertension.
doi:10.1080/02813430802202111
PMCID: PMC3409603  PMID: 18609250
Barriers; family practice; guidelines; hypertension; primary care; survey

Results 1-3 (3)