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1.  Enhancing field GP engagement in hospital-based studies. Rationale, design, main results and participation in the diagest 3-GP motivation study 
BMC Family Practice  2012;13:63.
Background
Diagest 3 was a study aimed at lowering the risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years after childbirth. Women with gestational diabetes were enrolled in the study. After childbirth, the subjects showed little interest in the structured education programme and did not attend workshops. Their general practitioners (GPs) were approached to help motivate the subjects to participate in Diagest 3, but the GPs were reluctant. The present study aimed to understand field GPs’ attitudes towards hospital-based studies, and to develop strategies to enhance their involvement and reduce subject drop-out rates.
Methods
We used a three-step process: step one used a phenomenological approach exploring the beliefs, attitudes, motivations and environmental factors contributing to the GPs’ level of interest in the study. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews and coded by hand and with hermeneutic software to develop distinct GP profiles. Step two was a cross-sectional survey by questionnaire to determine the distribution of the profiles in the GP study population and whether completion of an attached case report form (CRF) was associated with a particular GP profile. In step three, we assessed the impact of the motivation study on participation rates in the main study.
Results
Fifteen interviews were conducted to achieve data saturation. Theorisation led to the definition of 4 distinct GP profiles. The response rate to the questionnaire was 73%, but dropped to 52% when a CRF was attached. The link between GP profiles and the rate of CRF completion remains to be verified. The GPs provided data on the CRF that was of comparable quality to those collected in the main trial. Our analysis showed that the motivation study increased overall participation in the main study by 23%, accounting for 16% (24/152) of all final visits for 536 patients who were initially enrolled in the Diagest 3 study.
Conclusions
When a hospital-led study explores issues in primary care, its design must anticipate GP participation early in the trial. Based on our questionnaire response rates, we found that one in two GPs were willing to participate in our hospital-led study, regardless of their initial attitudes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-13-63
PMCID: PMC3441219  PMID: 22721372
General practice; Biomedical research; Behavioural research; Research design; Cooperative behaviour; Social identification
2.  Comparison of Once- Versus Twice-Daily Administration of Insulin Detemir, Used With Mealtime Insulin Aspart, in Basal-Bolus Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(1):32-37.
OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to compare effects of insulin detemir once daily versus twice a day in a basal-bolus insulin regimen.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In this open-label, 7-month study, 520 patients with type 1 diabetes were randomly assigned to receive detemir once daily or twice daily with mealtime insulin aspart. Insulin doses were titrated over 1 month, with patients followed up over the subsequent 3 months. Thereafter, patients were able to switch from one regimen to the other, with an additional nonrandomized 3-month follow-up, to a total of 7 months. The primary end point was A1C at 4 months, with noninferiority defined as a difference <0.4% between groups.
RESULTS—A1C at 4 months was 8.1 ± 0.9 versus 8.0 ± 1.0% with once- and twice-daily detemir, respectively, with an adjusted between-group difference of 0.12% (95% CI −0.01 to 0.25%), showing noninferiority for once-daily dosing. Similar results were found in the per protocol population. Improvement in A1C was similar in both groups (−0.4 ± 0.8 vs. −0.5 ± 0.8%; P = 0.09, NS) but with differences in the 7-point glucose profile. Detemir doses were lower (29 ± 18 vs. 39 ± 20 units/day, P < 0.001), but aspart doses were higher (34 ± 17 vs. 26 ± 14 IU/day, P < 0.001) with once-daily detemir. At 7 months, A1C decreased slightly in patients switched from once-daily to twice-daily administration (8.2 ± 0.8 vs. 8.0 ± 0.8%; P = 0.34, NS) in association with increased total insulin doses (P < 0.05), but A1C increased in those switched from twice-daily to once-daily administration (7.2 ± 0.9 vs. 7.6 ± 0.8%, P < 0.05) in association with decreased doses (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—Although some individuals may benefit from twice-daily dosing, the most suitable routine starting schedule for detemir in a basal-bolus regimen for type 1 diabetes is once-daily injection.
doi:10.2337/dc08-0332
PMCID: PMC2606825  PMID: 18945928
3.  Muscle Oxygen Supply Impairment during Exercise in Poorly Controlled Type 1 Diabetes 
ABSTRACT
Purpose
Aerobic fitness, as reflected by maximal oxygen (O2) uptake (V˙O2max), is impaired in poorly controlled patients with type 1 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this impairment remain to be explored. This study sought to investigate whether type 1 diabetes and high levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) influence O2 supply including O2 delivery and release to active muscles during maximal exercise.
Methods
Two groups of patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes (T1D-A, n = 11, with adequate glycemic control, HbA1c <7.0%; T1D-I, n = 12 with inadequate glycemic control, HbA1c >8%) were compared with healthy controls (CON-A, n = 11; CON-I, n = 12, respectively) matched for physical activity and body composition. Subjects performed exhaustive incremental exercise to determine V˙O2max. Throughout the exercise, near-infrared spectroscopy allowed investigation of changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin in the vastus lateralis. Venous and arterialized capillary blood was sampled during exercise to assess arterial O2 transport and factors able to shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
Results
Arterial O2 content was comparable between groups. However, changes in total hemoglobin (i.e., muscle blood volume) was significantly lower in T1D-I compared with that in CON-I. T1D-I also had impaired changes in deoxyhemoglobin levels and increase during high-intensity exercise despite normal erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Finally, V˙O2max was lower in T1D-I compared with that in CON-I. No differences were observed between T1D-A and CON-A.
Conclusions
Poorly controlled patients displayed lower V˙O2max and blunted muscle deoxyhemoglobin increase. The latter supports the hypotheses of increase in O2 affinity induced by hemoglobin glycation and/or of a disturbed balance between nutritive and nonnutritive muscle blood flow. Furthermore, reduced exercise muscle blood volume in poorly controlled patients may warn clinicians of microvascular dysfunction occurring even before overt microangiopathy.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000424
PMCID: PMC4323553  PMID: 24983346
AEROBIC FITNESS; GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN; OXYGEN DELIVERY; OXYGEN RELEASE; SKELETAL MUSCLE

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