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1.  Plasmid-based Survivin shRNA and GRIM-19 carried by attenuated Salmonella suppresses tumor cell growth 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;14(4):536-545.
Persistent activation of Survivin and its overexpression contribute to the formation, progression and metastasis of several different tumor types. Therefore, Survivin is an ideal target for RNA interference mediated-growth inhibition. Blockade of Survivin using specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) can significantly reduce prostate tumor growth. RNA interference does not fully ablate target gene expression, owing to the idiosyncrasies associated with shRNAs and their targets. To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Survivin-specific shRNA, we employed a combinatorial expression of Survivin-specific shRNA and gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19). Then, the GRIM-19 coding sequences and Survivin-specific shRNAs were used to create a dual expression plasmid vector and were carried by an attenuated strain of Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to treat prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. We found that the co-expressed Survivin-specific shRNA and GRIM-19 synergistically and more effectively inhibited prostate tumor proliferation and survival, when compared with treatment with either single agent alone in vitro and in vivo. This study has provided a novel cancer gene therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC3720080  PMID: 22580637
GRIM-19; prostate cancer; RNAi; Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium; Survivin; tumor cell growth
2.  Laparoscopic vs open extended right hemicolectomy for colon cancer 
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy (LERH) for colon cancer.
METHODS: Since its establishment in 2009, the Southern Chinese Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgical Study (SCLCSS) group has been dedicated to promoting patients’ quality of life through minimally invasive surgery. The multicenter database was launched by combining existing datasets from members of the SCLCSS group. The study enrolled 220 consecutive patients who were recorded in the multicenter retrospective database and underwent either LERH (n = 119) or open extended right hemicolectomy (OERH) (n = 101) for colon cancer. Clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes, and oncologic outcomes were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), history of previous abdominal surgery, tumor location, and tumor stage between the two groups. The blood loss was lower in the LERH group than in the OERH group [100 (100-200) mL vs 150 (100-200) mL, P < 0.0001]. The LERH group was associated with earlier first flatus (2.7 ± 1.0 d vs 3.2 ± 0.9 d, P < 0.0001) and resumption of liquid diet (3.6 ± 1.0 d vs 4.2 ± 1.0 d, P < 0.0001) compared to the OERH group. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the LERH group (11.4 ± 4.7 d vs 12.8 ± 5.6 d, P = 0.009) than in the OERH group. The complication rate was 11.8% and 17.6% in the LERH and OERH groups, respectively (P = 0.215). Both 3-year overall survival [LERH (92.0%) vs OERH (84.4%), P = 0.209] and 3-year disease-free survival [LERH (84.6%) vs OERH (76.6%), P = 0.191] were comparable between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: LERH with D3 lymphadenectomy for colon cancer is a technically feasible and safe procedure, yielding comparable short-term oncologic outcomes to those of open surgery.
PMCID: PMC4069319  PMID: 24976728
Colon cancer; Laparoscopic surgery; Extended right hemicolectomy; D3 lymphadenectomy; Survival
3.  Laser-Assisted Subepithelial Keratectomy versus Laser In Situ Keratomileusis in Myopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
ISRN Ophthalmology  2014;2014:672146.
This systematic review was to compare the clinical outcomes between laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Primary parameters included mean manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), MRSE within ±0.50 diopters, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) ≥20/20, and loss of ≥1 line of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Secondary parameters included flap complications and corneal haze. Twelve clinical controlled trials were identified and used for comparing LASEK (780 eyes) to LASIK (915 eyes). There were no significant differences in visual and refractive outcomes between the two surgeries for low to moderate myopia. The incidence of loss of ≥1 line of BCVA was significantly higher in moderate to high myopia treated by LASEK than LASIK in the mid-term and long-term followup. The efficacy (MRSE and UCVA) of LASEK appeared to be a significant worsening trend in the long-term followup. Corneal haze was more severe in moderate to high myopia treated by LASEK than LASIK in the mid-term and long-term followup. The flap-related complications still occurred in LASIK, but the incidence was not significantly higher than that in LASEK. LASEK and LASIK were safe and effective for low to moderate myopia. The advantage of LASEK was the absence of flap-related complications, and such procedure complication may occur in LASIK and affect the visual results. The increased incidence of stromal haze and regression in LASEK significantly affected the visual and refractive results for high myopia.
PMCID: PMC4058142  PMID: 24977054
4.  Relationships between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Nocturnal Enuresis in Five- to Seven-Year-Old Children 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99316.
Vitamin D has been recognized to contribute to various physiological processes. However, no study has investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in children with nocturnal enuresis (NE) in the English literature.
In the present study, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in five- to seven-year-old children with NE and compared with those in non-enuretic children to investigate whether there was any relationship between 25(OH)D and NE as the first time in the literature.
Two hundred forty-seven five- to seven-year-old children were recruited from Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, and the structured questionnaire was administered to the parents of all children. Low 25(OH)D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 20 ng/ml.
The prevalence of NE was 7.3% in the group of children with 25(OH)D concentrations that exceeded 20 ng/ml; this prevalence was much lower than the 17.5% observed in the group of children with 25(OH)D concentrations below 20 ng/ml (p<0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, serum 25(OH)D (≥20 ng/ml) was significantly associated with NE and represented a protective factor against NE (OR = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.092, 1.0, P<0.05). A nonlinear relationship between 25(OH)D and NE was observed. The prevalence of NE decreased with increasing 25(OH)D concentrations above 19 ng/ml. Additionally, children exhibiting higher frequencies of bedwetting had lower 25(OH)D concentrations [5–7 times/week: 18.3±4.8; 2–4 times/week: 20.9±4.1; 0–1 times/week: 23.6±6.4 (ng/ml), P<0.05)].
Low 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk of NE in children aged five to seven years.
PMCID: PMC4050058  PMID: 24911026
5.  Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome induced by bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in colorectal cancer 
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a rare brain-capillary leak syndrome, characterized by clinical symptoms of headache, visual loss, seizures and altered mental functioning. This syndrome is usually reversible and is associated with hypertension, nephropathy, and use of immunosuppressive medication and cytotoxic agents. We describe two rare cases of RPLS occurring in colorectal cancer, both of which presented with coma, that we believe can be directly attributed to bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the angiogenesis of tumours by specifically blocking vascular endothelial growth factor. We analysed the clinical features, risk factors and outcomes of RPLS in these two patients, and although no typical finding was identified on imaging examination, we found that inadequate blood pressure control was one of the risk factors leading to RPLS and that supportive treatment including intensive blood pressure control improved outcomes. Due to the increasing use of bevacizumab in colorectal cancer, clinicians should be aware of this potential complication.
PMCID: PMC4047361  PMID: 24914397
Bevacizumab; Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome; Colorectal cancer; Hypertension; Coma
6.  c-Ski Inhibits Autophagy of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by oxLDL and PDGF 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98902.
Autophagy is increasingly being recognized as a critical determinant of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) biology. Previously, we have demonstrated that c-Ski inhibits VSMC proliferation stimulated by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), but it is not clear whether c-Ski has the similar protective role against other vascular injury factors and whether regulation of autophagy is involved in its protective effects on VSMC. Accordingly, in this study, rat aortic A10 VSMCs were treated with 40 µg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or 20 ng/ml platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), both of which were autophagy inducers and closely related to the abnormal proliferation of VSMCs. Overexpression of c-Ski in A10 cells significantly suppressed the oxLDL- and PDGF- induced autophagy. This action of c-Ski resulted in inhibiting the cell proliferation, the decrease of contractile phenotype marker α-SMA expression while the increase of synthetic phenotype marker osteopontin expression stimulated by oxLDL or PDGF. Inversely, knockdown of c-Ski by RNAi enhanced the stimulatory effects of oxLDL or PDGF on A10 cell growth and phenotype transition. And further investigation found that inhibition of AKT phosphorylation to downregulate proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, was involved in the regulation of autophagy and associated functions by c-Ski in the oxLDL- and PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. Collectively, c-Ski may play an important role in inhibiting autophagy to protect VSMCs against some harsh stress including oxLDL and PDGF.
PMCID: PMC4041777  PMID: 24887307
7.  Deficiency of Lipid Phosphatase SHIP Enables Long Term Reconstitution of Hematopoietic Inductive Bone Marrow Microenvironment 
Developmental cell  2013;25(4):333-349.
Dysfunctional bone marrow (BM) microenvironment is thought to contribute to the development of hematologic diseases. However, functional replacement of pathologic BM microenvironment through BM transplantation has not been possible. Furthermore, the study of hematopoietic inductive BM microenvironment is hampered by the lack of a functional non-hematopoietic reconstitution system. Here we show that deficiency of SH2-containing inositol-5′-phosphatase-1 (SHIP) in non-hematopoietic host microenvironment enables its functional reconstitution by wild-type donor cells. This microenvironment reconstitution normalizes hematopoiesis in peripheral blood and BM, also alleviates pathology of spleen and lung in the SHIP deficient recipients. SHIP deficient BM contains a significantly smaller population of multipotent stromal cells with distinct properties which may contribute to the reconstitution by wild-type cells. We further demonstrated that it is the non-hematopoietic donor cells that are responsible for the reconstitution. Thus, we have established a non-hematopoietic BM microenvironment reconstitution system to functionally study specific cell types in hematopoietic niches.
PMCID: PMC3673722  PMID: 23725762
8.  Association Studies of ERCC1 Polymorphisms with Lung Cancer Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97616.
Excision repair cross-complimentary group 1 (ERCC1) is an essential component of the nucleotide excision repair system that is responsible for repairing damaged DNA. Functional genetic variations in the ERCC1 gene may alter DNA repair capacity and modulate cancer risk. The putative roles of ERCC1 gene polymorphisms in lung cancer susceptibility have been widely investigated. However, the results remain controversial.
An updated meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether lung cancer risk could be attributed to the following ERCC1 polymorphisms: rs11615 (T>C), rs3212986 (C>A), rs3212961 (A>C), rs3212948 (G>C), rs2298881 (C>A).
Several major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus) and the Chinese Biomedical database were searched for eligible studies. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the strength of associations.
Sixteen studies with 10,106 cases and 13,238 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled ORs from 11 eligible studies (8,215 cases vs. 11,402 controls) suggested a significant association of ERCC1 rs11615 with increased risk for lung cancer (homozygous: CC versus TT, OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04–1.48, P = 0.02). However, such an association was disproportionately driven by a single study. Removal of that study led to null association. Moreover, initial analyses suggested that ERCC1 rs11615 exerts a more profound effect on the susceptibility of non-smokers to lung cancer than that of smokers. Moreover, no statistically significant association was found between remaining ERCC1 polymorphisms of interest and lung cancer risk, except for rs3212948 variation (heterozygous: CG vs.GG, OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67–0.90, P = 0.001; dominant: CG/CC vs.GG, OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69–0.91, P = 0.001).
Overall, this meta-analysis suggests that ERCC1 rs3212948 G>C, but not others, is a lung cancer risk-associated polymorphism. Carefully designed studies with large sample size involving different ethnicity, smoking status, and cancer types are needed to validate these findings.
PMCID: PMC4026486  PMID: 24841208
9.  Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):235.
In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.
PMCID: PMC4026190  PMID: 24899871
Single-atom doping; Substitutional; Single-atom manipulation; Atomic precision; Metal surface
10.  Inhibition of B7-1 (CD80) by RhuDex® reduces lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in human atherosclerotic lesions 
Atherosclerosis is based on a chronic inflammatory process including the innate and adaptive immune response. Costimulatory molecules and their receptors provide decisive signals for antigen-specific cell activation. The contribution of B7-related pathways to atherosclerosis has hardly been explored.
In the present study, we investigated the contribution of B7-1 to inflammation and tissue injury in the human plaque microenvironment in order to identify possible target structures of future therapeutic agents ex vivo and in vitro.
Carotid artery plaque stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) could be significantly inhibited by RhuDex®, a specific inhibitor of the costimulatory molecule B7-1 ex vivo (P<0.001). Coculture of antigen-presenting cells with T-cells demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of RhuDex® derived from reduced T-cell activation. In addition, incubation of monocytes/macrophages with LPS and RhuDex® resulted in an inhibitory negative feedback on antigen-presenting cells. Signaling pathways affected by RhuDex® seem to be nuclear transcription factor kappa B, activator protein-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2.
The present data support B7-1 alone as an important costimulatory molecule in the context of LPS-mediated inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions. Due to its marked inhibitory effects, RhuDex® may be a useful therapy to modulate the inflammatory milieu in atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC4026407  PMID: 24872677
B7; CD86; costimulation; atherosclerosis
11.  Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for the Treatment of Clinically Presumed Fungal Keratitis 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:963287.
This retrospective study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for clinically presumed fungal keratitis. Forty-seven eyes of 47 consecutive patients underwent manual superficial debridement and PTK. All corneal lesions were located in the anterior stroma and were resistant to medication therapy for at least one week. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review with at least six months of follow-up data available. After PTK, infected corneal lesions were completely removed and the clinical symptoms resolved in 41 cases (87.2%). The mean ablation depth was 114.39 ± 45.51 μm and diameter of ablation was 4.06 ± 1.07 mm. The mean time for healing of the epithelial defect was 8.8 ± 5.6 days. Thirty-four eyes (82.9%) showed an improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of two or more lines. PTK complications included mild to moderate corneal haze, hyperopic shift, irregular astigmatism, and thinning cornea. Six eyes (12.8%) still showed progressed infection, and conjunctival flap covering, amniotic membrane transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty were given. PTK is a valuable therapeutic alternative for superficial infectious keratitis. It can effectively eradicate lesions, hasten reepithelialization, and restore and preserve useful visual function. However, the selection of surgery candidates should be conducted carefully.
PMCID: PMC4033497  PMID: 24891945
12.  Helicobacter pylori isolates from ethnic minority patients in Guangxi: Resistance rates, mechanisms, and genotype 
AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistance to clarithromycin among ethnic minority patients in Guangxi, explore the underlying mechanisms, and analyze factors influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates.
METHODS: H. pylori strains were isolated, cultured and subjected to drug sensitivity testing. The 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori isolates was amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing to detect point mutations. REP-PCR was used for genotyping of H. pylori isolates, and NTsys_2 software was used for clustering analysis based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Factors potentially influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates were analyzed.
RESULTS: The rate of clarithromycin resistance was 31.3%. A2143G and A2144G mutations were detected in the 23S rRNA gene of all clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates. At a genetic distance of 78%, clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates could be divided into six groups. Significant clustering was noted among H. pylori isolates from patients with peptic ulcer or gastritis.
CONCLUSION: The rate of clarithromycin resistance is relatively high in ethnic minority patients in Guangxi. Main mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance are A2143G and A2144G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates can be divided into six groups based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Several factors such as disease type may influence the genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates.
PMCID: PMC4000514  PMID: 24782630
Helicobacter pylori; Antibiotic resistance; Mechanism; Clarithromycin; Genotype
13.  Reduction of Phosphorylated Synapsin I (Ser-553) Leads to Spatial Memory Impairment by Attenuating GABA Release after Microwave Exposure in Wistar Rats 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e95503.
Abnormal release of neurotransmitters after microwave exposure can cause learning and memory deficits. This study investigated the mechanism of this effect by exploring the potential role of phosphorylated synapsin I (p-Syn I).
Wistar rats, rat hippocampal synaptosomes, and differentiated (neuronal) PC12 cells were exposed to microwave radiation for 5 min at a mean power density of 30 mW/cm2. Sham group rats, synaptosomes, and cells were otherwise identically treated and acted as controls for all of the following post-exposure analyses. Spatial learning and memory in rats was assessed using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) navigation task. The protein expression and presynaptic distribution of p-Syn I and neurotransmitter transporters were examined via western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy, respectively. Levels amino acid neurotransmitter release from rat hippocampal synaptosomes and PC12 cells were measured using high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) at 6 hours after exposure, with or without synapsin I silencing via shRNA transfection.
In the rat experiments, there was a decrease in spatial memory performance after microwave exposure. The expression of p-Syn I (ser-553) was decreased at 3 days post-exposure and elevated at later time points. Vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was significantly elevated after exposure. The GABA release from synaptosomes was attenuated and p-Syn I (ser-553) and VGAT were both enriched in small clear synaptic vesicles, which abnormally assembled in the presynaptic terminal after exposure. In the PC12 cell experiments, the expression of p-Syn I (ser-553) and GABA release were both attenuated at 6 hours after exposure. Both microwave exposure and p-Syn I silencing reduced GABA release and maximal reduction was found for the combination of the two, indicating a synergetic effect.
p-Syn I (ser-553) was found to play a key role in the impaired GABA release and cognitive dysfunction that was induced by microwave exposure.
PMCID: PMC3990695  PMID: 24743689
14.  Impaired β Cell Function in Chinese Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Hyperlipidemia 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2014;2014:493039.
The objective is to explore the effects of hyperlipidemia on β cell function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 208 patients were enrolled in the study and were divided into newly diagnosed T2DM with hyperlipidemia (132 patients) and without hyperlipidemia (76 patients). Demographic data, glucose levels, insulin levels, lipid profiles, homeostasis model assessment for β cell function index (HOMA-β), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were compared between the two groups. We found that comparing with those of normal lipid levels, the subjects of newly diagnosed T2DM with hyperlipidemia were younger, and had declined HOMA-β. However, the levels of HOMA-β were comparable regardless of different lipid profiles (combined hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), decreased fasting insulin level (FINS), and high triglyceride (TG) were independent risk factors of β cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed T2DM. Therefore, the management of dyslipidemia, together with glucose control, may be beneficial for T2DM with hyperlipidemia.
PMCID: PMC4009333  PMID: 24829924
15.  Verification of Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Dosing Algorithms in Han-Chinese Patients Undertaking Mechanic Heart Valve Replacement 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94573.
To study the performance of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in the initial and the stable warfarin treatment phases in a cohort of Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement.
We searched PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases for selecting pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing models. Patients with mechanic heart valve replacement were consecutively recruited between March 2012 and July 2012. The predicted warfarin dose of each patient was calculated and compared with the observed initial and stable warfarin doses. The percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of their actual therapeutic dose (percentage within 20%), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were utilized to evaluate the predictive accuracy of all the selected algorithms.
A total of 8 algorithms including Du, Huang, Miao, Wei, Zhang, Lou, Gage, and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) model, were tested in 181 patients. The MAE of the Gage, IWPC and 6 Han-Chinese pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms was less than 0.6 mg/day in accuracy and the percentage within 20% exceeded 45% in all of the selected models in both the initial and the stable treatment stages. When patients were stratified according to the warfarin dose range, all of the equations demonstrated better performance in the ideal-dose range (1.88–4.38 mg/day) than the low-dose range (<1.88 mg/day). Among the 8 algorithms compared, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a lower MAE and higher percentage within 20% in both the initial and the stable warfarin dose prediction and in the low-dose and the ideal-dose ranges.
All of the selected pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing regimens performed similarly in our cohort. However, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a better potential for warfarin prediction in the initial and the stable treatment phases in Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement.
PMCID: PMC3984158  PMID: 24728385
16.  5-Aminosalicylates Reduce the Risk of Colorectal Neoplasia in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: An Updated Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94208.
Although the chemopreventive effect of 5-aminosalicylates on patients with ulcerative colitis has been extensively studied, the results remain controversial. This updated review included more recent studies and evaluated the effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylates use on colorectal neoplasia prevention in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Up to July 2013, we searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SinoMed of China for all relevant observational studies (case-control and cohort) about the effect of 5-aminosalicylates on the risk of colorectal neoplasia among patients with ulcerative colitis. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were extracted from each study. A random-effects model was used to generate pooled ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed.
Seventeen studies containing 1,508 cases of colorectal neoplasia and a total of 20,193 subjects published from 1994 to 2012 were analyzed. 5-aminosalicylates use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis (OR 0.63; 95%CI 0.48–0.84). Pooled OR of a higher average daily dose of 5-aminosalicylates (sulfasalazine ≥ 2.0 g/d, mesalamine ≥ 1.2 g/d) was 0.51 [0.35–0.75]. Pooled OR of 5-aminosalicylates use in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis was 1.00 [0.53–1.89].
Our pooled results indicated that 5-aminosalicylates use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis, especially in the cases with a higher average daily dose of 5-aminosalicylates use. However, the chemopreventive benefit of 5-aminosalicylates use in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis was limited.
PMCID: PMC3978022  PMID: 24710620
17.  Combining Automatic Tube Current Modulation with Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Chest CT Screening 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e92414.
To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM).
Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200) were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each), with a noise index (NI) of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR) in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured, and effective dose (ED) was recorded.
Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (P<0.001), and SNR decreased with increasing NI (P<0.001). These values improved with increased ASIR levels (P<0.001). Images from all 4 groups were clinically diagnosable. Images with NI = 30 and 50% ASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79±1.17, 1.69±0.59, 0.74±0.29, and 0.37±0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15), the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively.
Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.
PMCID: PMC3972172  PMID: 24691208
18.  Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets 
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens.
PMCID: PMC4013587  PMID: 24699046
lipoic acid; aflatoxin; alleviate; inflammation; chickens
19.  LFG-500 Inhibits the Invasion of Cancer Cells via Down-Regulation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB Signaling Pathway 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91332.
Cancer cell invasion, one of the crucial events in local growth and metastatic spread of tumors, possess a broad spectrum of mechanisms, especially altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases. LFG-500 is a novel synthesized flavonoid with strong anti-cancer activity, whose exact molecular mechanism remains incompletely understood. This current study was designed to examine the effects of LFG-500 on tumor metastasis using in vitro and in vivo assays. LFG-500 could inhibit adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Meanwhile, it reduced the activities and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via suppressing the transcriptional activation of NF-κB rather than AP-1 or STAT3. Moreover, LFG-500 repressed TNF-α induced cell invasion through inhibiting NF-κB and subsequent MMP-9 activity. Further elucidation of the mechanism revealed that PI3K/AKT but not MAPK signaling pathway was involved in the inhibitory effect of LFG-500 on NF-κB activation. LFG-500 could also suppress lung metastasis of B16F10 murine melanoma cells in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrated that LFG-500 could block cancer cell invasion via down-regulation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provides new evidence for the anti-cancer activity of LFG-500.
PMCID: PMC3950212  PMID: 24618693
20.  The effect of NF-κB antisense oligonucleotide on transdifferentiation of fibroblast in lung tissue of mice injured by bleomycin 
Molecular Biology Reports  2014;41:4043-4051.
To investigate the influence of NF-κB antisense oligonucleotide on transdifferentiation of fibroblast in the pathological process of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. 6 h before molding of C57BL/6 model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice, NF-κB antisense oligonucleotide was injected from caudal vein. Then the lung tissue was collected for primary culture as well as model group and control group. Cultured cells were used for immunocytochemical staining of p65, IκB-α and α-SMA proteins as well as in situ hybridization staining of p65 and IκB-α. Then image analysis was carried out. The expressions of all the indicators were expressed as mean optical density. Compared with the control group, the expressions of p65 protein, IκB-α protein and α-SMA protein of model group were increased, as well as the expressions of p65 mRNA and IκB-α mRNA (P < 0.05). Compared with model group, the expressions of all indicators of intervention group were decreased (P < 0.05). P65 protein and p65 mRNA were positively correlated with the expression of α-SMA protein respectively. p65 protein and p65 mRNA were positively correlated with the expressions of IκB-α protein and IκB-α mRNA respectively. NF-κB antisense oligonucleotide can inhibit the transdifferentiation of fibroblast towards myofibroblast in the pathological process of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.
PMCID: PMC4033808  PMID: 24584660
Fibroblast; Myofibroblast; NF-κB; IkB-α; α-SMA; NF-κB antisense oligonucleotide
21.  The Effect of Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements on Age-Related Cataracts: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
Nutrients  2014;6(3):931-949.
Antioxidant vitamins supplements have been suggested as a strategy to decrease the risk of age-related cataract development. However, the results from observational studies and interventional trials of associations between antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and cataract development have been inconsistent. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of multivitamin/mineral supplements for decreasing the risk of age-related cataracts by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. In September 2013, we searched multiple databases to identify relevant studies including both cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Twelve prospective cohort studies and two RCTs were included. Pooled results from the cohort studies indicated that multivitamin/mineral supplements have a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the risk of nuclear cataracts (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64–0.82), cortical cataracts (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68–0.94), and any cataracts (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.39–0.93). In addition, there were no decreases in the risk of posterior capsular cataracts (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.72–1.20) or cataract surgery (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.92–1.08). The two RCTs demonstrated that multivitamin/mineral supplements could decrease the risk of nuclear cataracts. There is sufficient evidence to support the role of dietary multivitamin/mineral supplements for the decreasing the risk of age-related cataracts.
PMCID: PMC3967170  PMID: 24590236
dietary supplements; cataract; vitamins; minerals; meta-analysis
22.  The neuroprotective effect of picroside II via regulating the expression of myelin basic protein after cerebral ischemia injury in rats 
BMC Neuroscience  2014;15:25.
To explore the neuroprotective effect and optimize the therapeutic dose and time window of picroside II by orthogonal test and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in cerebral ischemic injury in rats. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was used to establish forebrain ischemia models. The successful rat models were grouped according to orthogonal experimental design and injected picroside II intraperitoneally at different ischemic time with different doses. Myelin sheath fast green staining(FGS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe nerve fiber myelin; the expression of MBP was tested qualitatively and quantitatively by immunohistochemical assay (IHC) and Western blot (WB); Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the transcription level of MBP mRNA.
The protective effect of picroside II was presented by increasing the expression of MBP and decreasing demyelination after cerebral ischemic injury. The best therapeutic time window and dose was (1) ischemia 2.0 h with picroside II 10 mg/kg body weight according to the results of FGS, IHC and WB; (2) ischemia 1.5 h with picroside II 20 mg/kg according to the analysis of RT-PCR.
Given the principle of the longest time window and the lowest therapeutic dose, the optimized therapeutic dose and time window should be injecting picroside II intraperitoneally with 10-20 mg/kg body weight at ischemia 1.5-2.0 h in cerebral ischemic injury.
PMCID: PMC3926676  PMID: 24524292
Picroside II; Therapeutic dose; Time window; Cerebral ischemia; MBP; Rats
23.  XRCC1 Arg399Gln Polymorphism Confers Risk of Breast Cancer in American Population: A Meta-Analysis of 10846 Cases and 11723 Controls 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86086.
In the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene, a polymorphism, Arg399Gln (rs25487), has been shown to change neoconservative amino acid and thus result in alternation of DNA repair capacity. Numerous studies have investigated the association between Arg399Gln and breast cancer risk in the American population, but yielding inconsistent results. This study aimed to clarify the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to breast cancer.
Literatures were searched in multiple databases including PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, EBSCO and ScienceDirect databases up to April 2013. A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall odds ratio (OR), by integrating data from 18 case control studies of 10846 cases and 11723 controls in the American population.
Overall, significant association was observed between the Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer risk under the random-effects model (OR for dominant model = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.24, Pheterogeneity = 0.003; OR for additive model = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01–1.14, Pheterogeneity = 0.017). Further sensitivity analysis supported the robust stability of this current result by showing similar ORs before and after removal of a single study.
This meta-analysis suggests that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism may significantly contribute to susceptibility of breast cancer in the American population.
PMCID: PMC3904848  PMID: 24489692
24.  Training Set Selection for the Prediction of Essential Genes 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86805.
Various computational models have been developed to transfer annotations of gene essentiality between organisms. However, despite the increasing number of microorganisms with well-characterized sets of essential genes, selection of appropriate training sets for predicting the essential genes of poorly-studied or newly sequenced organisms remains challenging. In this study, a machine learning approach was applied reciprocally to predict the essential genes in 21 microorganisms. Results showed that training set selection greatly influenced predictive accuracy. We determined four criteria for training set selection: (1) essential genes in the selected training set should be reliable; (2) the growth conditions in which essential genes are defined should be consistent in training and prediction sets; (3) species used as training set should be closely related to the target organism; and (4) organisms used as training and prediction sets should exhibit similar phenotypes or lifestyles. We then analyzed the performance of an incomplete training set and an integrated training set with multiple organisms. We found that the size of the training set should be at least 10% of the total genes to yield accurate predictions. Additionally, the integrated training sets exhibited remarkable increase in stability and accuracy compared with single sets. Finally, we compared the performance of the integrated training sets with the four criteria and with random selection. The results revealed that a rational selection of training sets based on our criteria yields better performance than random selection. Thus, our results provide empirical guidance on training set selection for the identification of essential genes on a genome-wide scale.
PMCID: PMC3899339  PMID: 24466248
25.  A new stem-neopterygian fish from the Middle Triassic of China shows the earliest over-water gliding strategy of the vertebrates 
Flying fishes are extraordinary aquatic vertebrates capable of gliding great distances over water by exploiting their enlarged pectoral fins and asymmetrical caudal fin. Some 50 species of extant flying fishes are classified in the Exocoetidae (Neopterygii: Teleostei), which have a fossil record no older than the Eocene. The Thoracopteridae is the only pre-Cenozoic group of non-teleosts that shows an array of features associated with the capability of over-water gliding. Until recently, however, the fossil record of the Thoracopteridae has been limited to the Upper Triassic of Austria and Italy. Here, we report the discovery of exceptionally well-preserved fossils of a new thoracopterid flying fish from the Middle Triassic of China, which represents the earliest evidence of an over-water gliding strategy in vertebrates. The results of a phylogenetic analysis resolve the Thoracopteridae as a stem-group of the Neopterygii that is more crown-ward than the Peltopleuriformes, yet more basal than the Luganoiiformes. As the first record of the Thoracopteride in Asia, this new discovery extends the geographical distribution of this group from the western to eastern rim of the Palaeotethys Ocean, providing new evidence to support the Triassic biological exchanges between Europe and southern China. Additionally, the Middle Triassic date of the new thoracopterid supports the hypothesis that the re-establishment of marine ecosystems after end-Permian mass extinction is more rapid than previously thought.
PMCID: PMC3574442  PMID: 23118437
Thoracopteridae; Exocoetidae; flying fish; predator-driven evolution; Triassic

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