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1.  Safety and Efficacy of Once-Weekly Exenatide Compared With Insulin Glargine Titrated to Target in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Over 84 Weeks 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(4):683-689.
OBJECTIVE
We recently reported that after 26 weeks, exenatide once weekly (EQW) resulted in superior A1C reduction, reduced hypoglycemia, and progressive weight loss compared with daily insulin glargine (IG) in patients with type 2 diabetes who were taking metformin alone or with sulfonylurea. This 84-week extension study assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of EQW versus IG.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-arm, parallel trial assessed change in A1C, proportions of patients achieving A1C <7.0 and ≤6.5%, body weight, incidence of hypoglycemia, and overall safety.
RESULTS
Of 415 patients who completed 26 weeks, 390 (194 EQW and 196 IG patients) entered the extension study. At 84 weeks, A1C decreased from baseline (8.3%) by −1.2% for EQW vs. −1.0% for IG (P = 0.029). The proportions of patients who achieved end point A1C targets <7.0 and ≤6.5% were 44.6% for EQW patients vs. 36.8% for IG patients (P = 0.084) and 31.3% for EQW patients vs. 20.2% for IG patients (P = 0.009), respectively. Patients taking EQW lost 2.1 kg of body weight, whereas those taking IG gained 2.4 kg (P < 0.001). Among patients taking metformin plus sulfonylurea, the incidence of minor hypoglycemia was 24% for EQW patients vs. 54% for IG patients (P < 0.001); among patients taking metformin alone, it was 8% for EQW patients vs. 32% for IG patients (P < 0.001). Among adverse events occurring in ≥5% of patients, diarrhea and nausea occurred more frequently (P < 0.05) in the EQW group than in the IG group (12 vs. 6% and 15 vs. 1%, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
After 84 weeks, patients treated with EQW continued to experience better glycemic control with sustained overall weight loss and a lower risk of hypoglycemia than patients treated with IG.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1233
PMCID: PMC3308312  PMID: 22357185
2.  Encapsulation of Exenatide in Poly-(d,l-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) Microspheres Produced an Investigational Long-Acting Once-Weekly Formulation for Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics  2011;13(11):1145-1154.
Abstract
Exenatide once-weekly (EQW [2 mg s.c.]) is under development as monotherapy as an adjunct to diet and exercise or as a combination therapy with an oral antidiabetes drug(s) in adults with type 2 diabetes. This long-acting formulation contains the active ingredient of the original exenatide twice-daily (EBID) formulation encapsulated in 0.06-mm-diameter microspheres of medical-grade poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG). After mechanical suspension and subcutaneous injection by the patient, EQW microspheres hydrate in situ and adhere to one another to form an amalgam. A small amount of loosely bound surface exenatide, typically less than 1%, releases in the first few hours, whereas drug located in deeper interstices diffuses out more slowly (time to maximum, ∼2 weeks). Fully encapsulated exenatide (i.e., drug initially inaccessible to diffusion) releases over a still longer period (time to maximum, ∼7 weeks) as the PLG matrix hydrolyzes into lactic acid and glycolic acid, which are subsequently eliminated as carbon dioxide and water. For EQW, plasma exenatide concentrations reach the therapeutic range by 2 weeks and steady state by 6–7 weeks. This gradual approach to steady state seems to improve tolerability, as nausea is less frequent with EQW than EBID. EQW administrations may be associated with palpable skin nodules that generally resolve without further medical intervention. In comparative trials, EQW improved hemoglobin A1c more than EBID, sitagliptin, pioglitazone, or insulin glargine and reduced fasting plasma glucose more than EBID. Weight loss due to EQW or EBID was similar. EQW is the first glucose-lowering agent that is administered once weekly.
doi:10.1089/dia.2011.0050
PMCID: PMC3202891  PMID: 21751887
3.  Effects of Exenatide and Lifestyle Modification on Body Weight and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Subjects With and Without Pre-Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(6):1173-1175.
OBJECTIVE
To assess the effects of exenatide on body weight and glucose tolerance in nondiabetic obese subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Obese subjects (n = 152; age 46 ± 12 years, female 82%, weight 108.6 ± 23.0 kg, BMI 39.6 ± 7.0 kg/m2, IGT or IFG 25%) were randomized to receive exenatide (n = 73) or placebo (n = 79), along with lifestyle intervention, for 24 weeks.
RESULTS
Exenatide-treated subjects lost 5.1 ± 0.5 kg from baseline versus 1.6 ± 0.5 kg with placebo (exenatide − placebo, P < 0.001). Placebo-subtracted difference in percent weight reduction was −3.3 ± 0.5% (P < 0.001). Both groups reduced their daily calorie intake (exenatide, −449 cal; placebo, −387 cal). IGT or IFG normalized at end point in 77 and 56% of exenatide and placebo subjects, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Exenatide plus lifestyle modification decreased caloric intake and resulted in weight loss in nondiabetic obesity with improved glucose tolerance in subjects with IGT and IFG.
doi:10.2337/dc09-1203
PMCID: PMC2875418  PMID: 20332357
4.  DURATION-1: Exenatide Once Weekly Produces Sustained Glycemic Control and Weight Loss Over 52 Weeks 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(6):1255-1261.
OBJECTIVE
In the Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION-1) study, the safety and efficacy of 30 weeks of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly (exenatide QW; 2 mg) was compared with exenatide BID in 295 patients with type 2 diabetes. We now report the safety and efficacy of exenatide QW in 1) patients who continued treatment for an additional 22 weeks (52 weeks total) and 2) patients who switched from exenatide BID to exenatide QW after 30 weeks.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In this randomized, multicenter, comparator-controlled, open-label trial, 258 patients entered the 22-week open-ended assessment phase (n = 128 QW-only; n = 130 BID→QW). A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids, safety, and tolerability were assessed.
RESULTS
Patients continuing exenatide QW maintained A1C improvements through 52 weeks (least squares mean −2.0% [95% CI −2.1 to −1.8%]). Patients switching from exenatide BID to exenatide QW achieved further A1C improvements; both groups exhibited the same A1C reduction and mean A1C (6.6%) at week 52. At week 52, 71 and 54% of all patients achieved A1C <7.0% and ≤6.5%, respectively. In both treatment arms, FPG was reduced by >40 mg/dl, and body weight was reduced by >4 kg after 52 weeks. Nausea occurred less frequently in this assessment period and was predominantly mild. No major hypoglycemia was observed.
CONCLUSION
Exenatide QW elicited sustained improvements in glycemic control and body weight through 52 weeks of treatment. Patients switching to exenatide QW experienced further improvements in A1C and FPG, with sustained weight loss.
doi:10.2337/dc09-1914
PMCID: PMC2875434  PMID: 20215461
5.  Exenatide once weekly treatment maintained improvements in glycemic control and weight loss over 2 years 
Background
The once-weekly (QW) formulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide has been demonstrated to improve A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, serum lipid profiles, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes through 52 weeks of treatment. In this report, we describe the 2-year results of the open-label, open-ended extension to the DURATION-1 trial of exenatide QW for type 2 diabetes.
Methods
A 2-stage protocol was used: patients received either exenatide QW (2 mg) or exenatide twice daily for 30 weeks (5 μg for the first 4 weeks and 10 μg thereafter), followed by 1.5 years of treatment with exenatide QW (2 mg), for a total of 2 years (104 weeks) of exenatide treatment. Of the 295 (intent-to-treat [ITT]) patients who entered the trial, 73% (n = 216) completed 2 years of treatment (completer population). Baseline characteristics (mean ± SE) for these patients were: A1C, 8.2 ± 0.1%; FPG, 168.4 ± 43.0 mg/dL; body weight, 101.1 ± 18.7 kg; and diabetes duration, 7 ± 5 years.
Results
In the completer population, significant improvements (LS mean ± SE [95% CI]) were maintained after 2 years of treatment in A1C (-1.71 ± 0.08% [-1.86 to -1.55%]), FPG (-40.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL [-45.7 to -34.5 mg/dL]), and body weight (-2.61 ± 0.52 kg [-3.64 to -1.58 kg]) compared with baseline. The percentages of patients who achieved an A1C of <7.0% and ≤6.5% at 2 years were 60% and 39%, respectively. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP; -3.0 ± 1.0 mmHg [-4.9 to -1.1 mmHg]) was maintained through 2 years of treatment. Serum lipid profiles were also significantly improved, including triglycerides (geometric LS mean change from baseline, -15 ± 2.7% [-21% to -10%]), total cholesterol (-8.6 ± 2.8 mg/dL [-14.0 to -3.1 mg/dL]), and low-density lipoproteins (-4.5 ± 2.2 mg/dL [-8.9 to -0.01 mg/dL]). Changes in A1C, body weight, FPG, SBP, and lipids in the ITT population were similar to those seen in the completer population. Nausea (predominantly mild in intensity) was the most common adverse event, although the frequency and intensity of nausea decreased over time. No severe hypoglycemia was observed.
Conclusions
Exenatide QW was well tolerated during the 2-year treatment period. This study demonstrated sustained glucose control and weight loss throughout 2 years of treatment with exenatide QW.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00308139
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-9
PMCID: PMC3112417  PMID: 21529363
6.  Assessment of Pancreatic β-Cell Function: Review of Methods and Clinical Applications 
Current Diabetes Reviews  2014;10(1):2-42.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by a progressive failure of pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) with insulin resistance. Once insulin over-secretion can no longer compensate for the degree of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia becomes clinically significant and deterioration of residual β-cell reserve accelerates. This pathophysiology has important therapeutic implications. Ideally, therapy should address the underlying pathology and should be started early along the spectrum of decreasing glucose tolerance in order to prevent or slow β-cell failure and reverse insulin resistance. The development of an optimal treatment strategy for each patient requires accurate diagnostic tools for evaluating the underlying state of glucose tolerance. This review focuses on the most widely used methods for measuring BCF within the context of insulin resistance and includes examples of their use in prediabetes and T2DM, with an emphasis on the most recent therapeutic options (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists). Methods of BCF measurement include the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA); oral glucose tolerance tests, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), and meal tolerance tests; and the hyperglycemic clamp procedure. To provide a meaningful evaluation of BCF, it is necessary to interpret all observations within the context of insulin resistance. Therefore, this review also discusses methods utilized to quantitate insulin-dependent glucose metabolism, such as the IVGTT and the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp procedures. In addition, an example is presented of a mathematical modeling approach that can use data from BCF measurements to develop a better understanding of BCF behavior and the overall status of glucose tolerance.
doi:10.2174/1573399810666140214093600
PMCID: PMC3982570  PMID: 24524730
β-cell function; DPP-4 inhibitor; euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp; GLP-1 receptor agonist; glucose tolerance test; hyperglycemic clamp; meal tolerance test.

Results 1-6 (6)