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author:("iversen, Unni")
1.  Exploring the relationship between bone density and severity of distal radius fragility fracture in women 
Bone mineral density (BMD) has been shown to be a consistent and independent risk factor for distal radius fracture. Inconsistent data have been reported on the association between BMD and severity of distal radius fracture. Our primary aim was to explore if there is an association between cortical BMD at the hand and the severity of fragility distal radius fracture.
Consecutively recruited females aged ≥50 years with fragility fracture at the distal radius (n = 110) from a county hospital were included. Cortical hand BMD was assessed by the digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) method. X-rays of the fracture were scored by experienced orthopedic surgeons for fracture severity according to the Müller AO classification of long bones and radiographic parameters such as ulnar variance and dorsal angle.
A weak association between lower DXR BMD and increased ulnar variance and dorsal angle was found but not with the AO scoring system for fracture type. A history of glucocorticoid (GC) use but not DXR-BMD was found to be significantly associated with the presence of having an intra- or extra-articular fracture.
Our data indicate that bone material properties which are impaired by GC use are more important for fracture severity than BMD.
PMCID: PMC4423629  PMID: 25030810
Bone mineral density; Digital X-ray radiogrammetry; Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; Distal radius; Fracture; Severity
2.  Cortical Hand Bone Porosity and Its Association with Distal Radius Fracture in Middle Aged and Elderly Women 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68405.
Reduced bone mineral density (BMD), assessed by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), is a well-known risk factor for fragility fracture. A large proportion of patients with fracture have only slightly reduced BMD. Assessment of other bone structure features than BMD may improve identification of individuals at increased fracture risk. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR), which is a feasible tool for measurement of metacarpal cortical bone density, also gives an estimate of cortical bone porosity. Our primary aim was to explore the association between cortical porosity in the hand assessed by DXR and distal radius fracture.
This case-control study included 123 women >50 years with distal radius fracture, and 170 controls. DXR was used to measure metacarpal BMD (DXR-BMD), cortical porosity (DXR-porosity), thickness (DXR-CT) and bone width (DXR-W) of the hand. Femoral neck BMD was measured by DXA.
The fracture group had a statistically significant lower DXR-BMD (0.492 vs. 0.524 g/cm2 p<0.001), higher cortical DXR-porosity (0.01256 vs. 0.01093, p<0.001), less DXR-CT (0.148 vs. 0.161cm, p<0.001) and lower femoral neck DXA-BMD (0.789 vs. 0.844 g/cm2, p = 0.001) than the controls. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, a significant association with distal radius fracture (OR, 95% CI) was found for body mass index (0.930, 0.880–0.983), DXA-BMD (0.996, 0.995–0.999), DXR-BMD (0.990, 0.985–0.998), DXR-porosity (1.468, 1.278–1.687) and DXR-CT (0.997, 0.996–0.999). In an adjusted model, DXR-porosity remained the only variable associated with distal radius fracture (1.415, 1.194–1.677).
DXR derived porosity is associated with fracture at distal radius and might be a sensitive marker for skeletal fragility.
PMCID: PMC3700909  PMID: 23844197
3.  Circulating interleukin-8 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are increased in women with ovarian carcinoma 
Results in Immunology  2012;2:190-195.
Elevated serum levels of several cytokines have been reported in ovarian cancer. We have previously found a diagnostic and prognostic value of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF).
The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of multiple serum cytokines in women with ovarian tumors, and to examine possible associations between serum levels of cytokines and the previously analyzed HGF. Preoperative levels of multiple cytokines were quantified by serum-based immunoassays in 113 women with a pelvic mass: 57 carcinomas, 23 borderline tumors, and 33 benign ovarian tumors. The results were related to clinicopathological parameters. Univariate and multivariate analyses of five-year overall survival were performed.
The women with ovarian carcinoma had significantly higher preoperative serum levels of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) than women with benign ovarian tumors. Serum IL-8 and PAI-1 levels were positively correlated to serum levels of HGF. In a multivariate analysis of five-year overall survival, IL-8 had a prognostic impact.
Serum levels of IL-8 and PAI-1 were elevated in women with ovarian carcinoma compared to women with benign ovarian tumors, and positively correlated to serum HGF levels in women with ovarian tumors. IL-8 also seemed to have a prognostic impact.
PMCID: PMC3862343  PMID: 24371583
Ovarian cancer; Plasma markers; Interleukin-8; Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; Hepatocyte growth factor
4.  Skeletal Effects of the Saturated 3-Thia Fatty Acid Tetradecylthioacetic Acid in Rats 
PPAR Research  2011;2011:436358.
This study explores the skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)pan agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). Rats, without (Study I) and with ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (Study II), were given TTA or vehicle daily for 4 months. Bone markers in plasma, whole body and femoral bone mineral density and content (BMD and BMC), and body composition were examined. Histomorphometric and biomechanical analyses (Study I) and biomechanical and μCT analyses (Study II) of the femur were performed. Normal rats fed TTA had higher femoral BMD and increased total and cortical area in femur compared to controls. The ovariectomized groups had decreased BMD and impaired microarchitecture parameters compared to SHAM. However, the TTA OVX group maintained femoral BMC, trabecular thickness in the femoral head, and cortical volume in the femoral metaphysis as SHAM. TTA might increase BMD and exert a light preventive effect on estrogen-related bone loss in rats.
PMCID: PMC3236357  PMID: 22190907
5.  The proliferation markers Ki-67/MIB-1, phosphohistone H3, and survivin may contribute in the identification of aggressive ovarian carcinomas 
The identification of new proliferation markers could have clinical implications in ovarian carcinoma by stratifying patients for treatment and follow-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of the proliferation markers Ki-67/MIB-1, phosphorylated histone H3 (PHH3), and survivin in epithelial ovarian tumors. Ninety women with a pelvic mass who underwent surgery at the Department of Gynecological Oncology were included: 68 ovarian carcinomas, 11 borderline tumors, and 11 ovarian cystadenomas. We performed mitotic count and immunohistochemical analyses of Ki-67/MIB-1, PHH3, and survivin, related to clinicopathological parameters. Uni- and multivariate analyses of five-year overall survival were performed. We found statistically significant correlations between mitotic count, Ki-67/MIB-1, PHH3, and survivin. The expression of all proliferation markers was significantly higher in the carcinomas than in the borderline and benign tumors (p<0.05). There was, however an overlap of indices between the different malignancy groups. Women with advanced stage cancers (FIGO stage III and IV) had significantly higher tumor expression of all markers compared to patients with early stage cancers (FIGO stage I and II). Women with advanced disease and complete chemotherapy response had higher Ki67/MIB-1 expression than women without complete chemotherapy response. All markers had an impact on survival in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analysis, however, only age and stage of disease reached statistical significance as prognostic factors. In conclusion, the proliferation markers Ki-67/MIB-1, PHH3, and survivin are positively correlated with each other and with tumor grade, and may contribute in the identification of aggressive ovarian carcinomas.
PMCID: PMC3127066  PMID: 21738816
Ovarian carcinoma; ovary; survival; Ki-67/MIB-1; PHH3; survivin; proliferation; diagnosis
6.  The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist fenofibrate maintains bone mass, while the PPAR gamma agonist pioglitazone exaggerates bone loss, in ovariectomized rats 
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk, while PPARalpha activation seems to have positive skeletal effects. To further explore these effects we have examined the effect of the PPARalpha agonists fenofibrate and Wyeth 14643, and the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone, on bone mineral density (BMD), bone architecture and biomechanical strength in ovariectomized rats.
Fifty-five female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five groups. One group was sham-operated and given vehicle (methylcellulose), the other groups were ovariectomized and given vehicle, fenofibrate, Wyeth 14643 and pioglitazone, respectively, daily for four months. Whole body and femoral BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and biomechanical testing of femurs, and micro-computed tomography (microCT) of the femoral shaft and head, were performed.
Whole body and femoral BMD were significantly higher in sham controls and ovariectomized animals given fenofibrate, compared to ovariectomized controls. Ovariectomized rats given Wyeth 14643, maintained whole body BMD at sham levels, while rats on pioglitazone had lower whole body and femoral BMD, impaired bone quality and less mechanical strength compared to sham and ovariectomized controls. In contrast, cortical volume, trabecular bone volume and thickness, and endocortical volume were maintained at sham levels in rats given fenofibrate.
The PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate, and to a lesser extent the PPARaplha agonist Wyeth 14643, maintained BMD and bone architecture at sham levels, while the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone exaggerated bone loss and negatively affected bone architecture, in ovariectomized rats.
PMCID: PMC3127763  PMID: 21615901
7.  Long-term therapy in COPD: any evidence of adverse effect on bone? 
Patients with COPD have high risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Hip and vertebral fractures might impair mobility, and vertebral fractures further reduce lung function. This review discusses the evidence of bone loss due to medical treatment opposed to disease severity and risk factors for COPD, and therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in these patients. A review of the English-language literature was conducted using the MEDLINE database until June 2009. Currently used bronchodilators probably lack adverse effect on bone. Oral corticosteroids (OCS) increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation in a dose response relationship, but the fracture risk is increased more than reflected by bone densitometry. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been associated with both increased bone loss and fracture risk. This might be a result of confounding by disease severity, but high doses of ICS have similar effects as equipotent doses of OCS. The life-style factors should be modified, use of regular OCS avoided and use of ICS restricted to those with evidenced effect and probably kept at moderate doses. The health care should actively reveal risk factors, include bone densitometry in fracture risk evaluation, and give adequate prevention and treatment for osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC2771707  PMID: 19888355
COPD; corticosteroids; bronchodilators; bone mineral density; osteoporosis; fractures
8.  Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist fenofibrate and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone 
All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPARα agonist fenofibrate (FENO) and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on bone in intact female rats.
Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle), fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied.
The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1.
We show opposite skeletal effects of PPARα and γ agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPARα activation.
PMCID: PMC2678137  PMID: 19331671

Results 1-8 (8)