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1.  The proliferation markers Ki-67/MIB-1, phosphohistone H3, and survivin may contribute in the identification of aggressive ovarian carcinomas 
The identification of new proliferation markers could have clinical implications in ovarian carcinoma by stratifying patients for treatment and follow-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of the proliferation markers Ki-67/MIB-1, phosphorylated histone H3 (PHH3), and survivin in epithelial ovarian tumors. Ninety women with a pelvic mass who underwent surgery at the Department of Gynecological Oncology were included: 68 ovarian carcinomas, 11 borderline tumors, and 11 ovarian cystadenomas. We performed mitotic count and immunohistochemical analyses of Ki-67/MIB-1, PHH3, and survivin, related to clinicopathological parameters. Uni- and multivariate analyses of five-year overall survival were performed. We found statistically significant correlations between mitotic count, Ki-67/MIB-1, PHH3, and survivin. The expression of all proliferation markers was significantly higher in the carcinomas than in the borderline and benign tumors (p<0.05). There was, however an overlap of indices between the different malignancy groups. Women with advanced stage cancers (FIGO stage III and IV) had significantly higher tumor expression of all markers compared to patients with early stage cancers (FIGO stage I and II). Women with advanced disease and complete chemotherapy response had higher Ki67/MIB-1 expression than women without complete chemotherapy response. All markers had an impact on survival in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analysis, however, only age and stage of disease reached statistical significance as prognostic factors. In conclusion, the proliferation markers Ki-67/MIB-1, PHH3, and survivin are positively correlated with each other and with tumor grade, and may contribute in the identification of aggressive ovarian carcinomas.
PMCID: PMC3127066  PMID: 21738816
Ovarian carcinoma; ovary; survival; Ki-67/MIB-1; PHH3; survivin; proliferation; diagnosis
2.  The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist fenofibrate maintains bone mass, while the PPAR gamma agonist pioglitazone exaggerates bone loss, in ovariectomized rats 
Background
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk, while PPARalpha activation seems to have positive skeletal effects. To further explore these effects we have examined the effect of the PPARalpha agonists fenofibrate and Wyeth 14643, and the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone, on bone mineral density (BMD), bone architecture and biomechanical strength in ovariectomized rats.
Methods
Fifty-five female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five groups. One group was sham-operated and given vehicle (methylcellulose), the other groups were ovariectomized and given vehicle, fenofibrate, Wyeth 14643 and pioglitazone, respectively, daily for four months. Whole body and femoral BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and biomechanical testing of femurs, and micro-computed tomography (microCT) of the femoral shaft and head, were performed.
Results
Whole body and femoral BMD were significantly higher in sham controls and ovariectomized animals given fenofibrate, compared to ovariectomized controls. Ovariectomized rats given Wyeth 14643, maintained whole body BMD at sham levels, while rats on pioglitazone had lower whole body and femoral BMD, impaired bone quality and less mechanical strength compared to sham and ovariectomized controls. In contrast, cortical volume, trabecular bone volume and thickness, and endocortical volume were maintained at sham levels in rats given fenofibrate.
Conclusions
The PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate, and to a lesser extent the PPARaplha agonist Wyeth 14643, maintained BMD and bone architecture at sham levels, while the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone exaggerated bone loss and negatively affected bone architecture, in ovariectomized rats.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-11
PMCID: PMC3127763  PMID: 21615901
3.  Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist fenofibrate and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone 
Background
All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPARα agonist fenofibrate (FENO) and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on bone in intact female rats.
Methods
Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle), fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied.
Results
The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1.
Conclusion
We show opposite skeletal effects of PPARα and γ agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPARα activation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-9-10
PMCID: PMC2678137  PMID: 19331671

Results 1-3 (3)