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1.  Self-medication with antibiotics in rural population in Greece: a cross-sectional multicenter study 
BMC Family Practice  2010;11:58.
Background
Self-medication is an important driver of antimicrobial overuse as well as a worldwide problem. The aim of the present study was to estimate the use of antibiotics, without medical prescription, in a sample of rural population presenting in primary care in southern Greece.
Methods
The study included data from 1,139 randomly selected adults (545 men/594 women, mean age ± SD: 56.2 ± 19.8 years), who visited the 6 rural Health Centres of southern Greece, between November 2009 and January 2010. The eligible participants were sought out on a one-to-one basis and asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire.
Results
Use of antibiotics within the past 12 months was reported by 888 participants (77.9%). 508 individuals (44.6%) reported that they had received antibiotics without medical prescription at least one time. The major source of self-medication was the pharmacy without prescription (76.2%). The antibiotics most frequently used for self-medication were amoxicillin (18.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (15.4%), cefaclor (9.7%), cefuroxim (7.9%), cefprozil (4.7%) and ciprofloxacin (2.3%). Fever (41.2%), common cold (32.0%) and sore throat (20.6%) were the most frequent indications for the use of self-medicated antibiotics.
Conclusion
In Greece, despite the open and rapid access to primary care services, it appears that a high proportion of rural adult population use antibiotics without medical prescription preferably for fever and common cold.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-11-58
PMCID: PMC2924846  PMID: 20691111
2.  Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in type 2 diabetic subjects with and without microalbuminuria 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:169.
Background
Diabetic subjects, especially women, show high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of ASB in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) with and without microalbuminuria (MA).
Findings
A hundred diabetic subjects with MA (53 males/47 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 65.5 ± 11.1 years) and 100 diabetic subjects without MA (52 males/48 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 65.4 ± 11.3 years), consecutively attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of our hospital were recruited in the study. Subjects with overt diabetic nephropathy or nephropathy from other causes were excluded. In addition, subjects with symptoms of urinary track infection or use of antimicrobial drugs in the last 14 days were excluded by the study.
Diabetic subjects with MA showed increased prevalence of ASB compared to diabetic subjects without MA (21% versus 8%, P < 0.001, respectively). Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen isolated in diabetic subjects with and without MA (12% versus 3.0%, P = 0.01, respectively) followed by Proteus mirabilis (6% versus 5%, P = 0.75, respectively) and Klebsiella spp (5% versus 1%, P = 0.09, respectively). Univariate logistic analysis showed that ASB was associated with the presence of coronary artery disease [odds ratio (OR): 0.29, 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI): 0.09-0.95, P = 0.04] and gender (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02-0.35, P < 0.001) in the diabetic study group with MA.
Conclusions
ASB is more prevalent among T2D subjects with MA. Screening for ASB is warranted in diabetic patients especially if pyuria is detected in urine analysis since ASB has been found to be a risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-169
PMCID: PMC2894846  PMID: 20565718
3.  Familial history of diabetes and clinical characteristics in Greek subjects with type 2 diabetes 
Background
A lot of studies have showed an excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim, therefore, of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of familial history of T2D in Greek patients, and to evaluate its potential effect on the patient's metabolic control and the presence of diabetic complications.
Methods
A total of 1,473 T2D patients were recruited. Those with diabetic mothers, diabetic fathers, diabetic relatives other than parents and no known diabetic relatives, were considered separately.
Results
The prevalence of diabetes in the mother, the father and relatives other than parents, was 27.7, 11.0 and 10.7%, respectively. Patients with paternal diabetes had a higher prevalence of hypertension (64.8 vs. 57.1%, P = 0.05) and lower LDL-cholesterol levels (115.12 ± 39.76 vs. 127.13 ± 46.53 mg/dl, P = 0.006) than patients with diabetes in the mother. Patients with familial diabetes were significantly younger (P < 0.001), with lower age at diabetes diagnosis (P < 0.001) than those without diabetic relatives. Patients with a diabetic parent had higher body mass index (BMI) (31.22 ± 5.87 vs. 30.67 ± 5.35 Kg/m2, P = 0.08), higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (49.8 vs. 44.6%, P = 0.06) and retinopathy (17.9 vs. 14.5%, P = 0.08) compared with patients with no diabetic relatives. No difference in the degree of metabolic control and the prevalence of chronic complications were observed.
Conclusion
The present study showed an excess maternal transmission of T2D in a sample of Greek diabetic patients. However, no different influence was found between maternal and paternal diabetes on the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients except for LDL-cholesterol levels and presence of hypertension. The presence of a family history of diabetes resulted to an early onset of the disease to the offspring.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-9-12
PMCID: PMC2680864  PMID: 19397813
4.  Prevalence, and associated risk factors, of self-reported diabetes mellitus in a sample of adult urban population in Greece: MEDICAL Exit Poll Research in Salamis (MEDICAL EXPRESS 2002) 
BMC Public Health  2004;4:2.
Background
The continuous monitoring and future prediction of the growing epidemic of diabetes mellitus worldwide presuppose consistent information about the extent of the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and to identify associated risk factors in a sample of adult urban Greek population.
Methods
A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in municipality of Salamis, Greece, during an election day (2002). The study sample consisted of 2805 participants, aged 20–94 years. Data were collected using a standardized short questionnaire that was completed by a face-to-face interview. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of diabetes with potential risk factors.
Results
The overall prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was 8.7% (95% CI 7.7–9.8%). After age adjustment for the current adult population (2001 census) of Greece, the projection prevalence was calculated to 8.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified as independent risk factors: increasing age (odds ratio, OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.08), male sex (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.04–1.95), overweight and obesity (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.29–3.01 and OR = 3.76, 95% CI 2.41–5.86, respectively), family history of diabetes (OR = 6.91, 95% CI 5.11–9.34), hypertension (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.60–2.99) and, among women, lower educational level (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.22–5.63). The prevalence of overweight and obesity, based on self-reported BMI, were 44.2% and 18.4%, respectively. Moreover, the odds for diabetes in obese subjects with family history were 25-fold higher than those with normal weight and without family history of diabetes, while the odds in overweight subjects with family history of diabetes were 15-fold higher.
Conclusions
Our findings indicated that the prevalence of diabetes is high in Greek population. It is suggested that the main modifiable contributing factor is obesity, whose effect is extremely increased upon positive heredity presence.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-4-2
PMCID: PMC368436  PMID: 15028111

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