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1.  Early outcome of off-pump versus on-pump coronary revascularization 
Introduction
The use of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or without CPB technique (off-pump) can be associated with different mortality and morbidity and their outcomes remain uncertain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the early outcome of on-pump versus off-pump CABG.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective database review of 13866 patients (13560 patients undergoing on-pump CABG and 306 patients undergoing off-pump CABG) at Tehran Heart Center between January 2002 and January 2007. We compared preoperative, operative, and postoperative characteristics between them.
Results
In-hospital mortality in the on-pump group was 0.8% compared to 0.7% in the off-pump group (P=0.999) and in-hospital morbidity was 11.7% and 6.5%, respectively (OR: 1.533, 95%CI: 0.902-2.605, P=0.114). Postoperative atrial fibrillation was more prevalent in on-pump versus off-pump surgery (6.0% vs 3.0%, P=0.028), however there were no statistical significant differences in other postoperative complications with regard to cardiac arrest (P=0.733), prolonged ventilation (P=0.363), brain stroke (P=0.999), renal failure (P=0.525), and postoperative bleeding (P=0.999). The mean length of stay in hospital (P=0.156) and in ICU (P=0.498) was also similar between the two groups.
Conclusion
The results from an Iranian population-based study showed similar early mortality and morbidity of off-pump CABG in comparison to on-pump surgery.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2014.17.309.1723
PMCID: PMC4198433  PMID: 25328605
Coronary artery bypass grafting; Off-pump; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Outcome
2.  The Role of Vitamin D Deficiency and Vitamin D Receptor Genotypes on the Degree of Collateralization in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:304250.
We determined the association of vitamin D deficiency and the FokI polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in 760 patients who underwent angiography due to suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Angiography and the Rentrop scoring system were used to classify the severity of CAD in each patient and to grade the extent of collateral development, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the FokI VDR gene polymorphism. The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was significantly higher in patients with at least one stenotic coronary artery compared to those without any stenotic coronary arteries. Severe vitamin D deficiency was not independently associated with collateralization, but it was significantly associated with the VDR genotypes. In turn, VDR genotype was independently associated with the degree of collateralization; the Rentrop scores were the highest in FF, intermediate in Ff, and the lowest in the ff genotype. The results show that FokI polymorphism is independently associated with collateralization. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in patients with CAD that may result from FokI polymorphism. Therefore, maintaining a normal vitamin D status should be a high priority for patients with CAD.
doi:10.1155/2014/304250
PMCID: PMC3963370  PMID: 24729966
3.  Knowledge Management in Cardiac Surgery: The Second Tehran Heart Center Adult Cardiac Surgery Database Report 
Background:
The Adult Cardiac Surgery Databank (ACSD) of Tehran Heart Center was established in 2002 with a view to providing clinical prediction rules for outcomes of cardiac procedures, developing risk score systems, and devising clinical guidelines. This is a general analysis of the collected data.
Methods:
All the patients referred to Tehran Heart Center for any kind of heart surgery between 2002 and 2008 were included, and their demographic, medical, clinical, operative, and postoperative data were gathered. This report presents general information as well as in-hospital mortality rates regarding all the cardiac procedures performed in the above time period.
Results:
There were 24959 procedures performed: 19663 (78.8%) isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgeries (CABGs); 1492 (6.0%) isolated valve surgeries; 1437 (5.8%) CABGs concomitant with other procedures; 832 (3.3%) CABGs combined with valve surgeries; 722 (2.9%) valve surgeries concomitant with other procedures; 545 (2.2%) surgeries other than CABG or valve surgery; and 267 (1.1%) CABGs concomitant with valve and other types of surgery. The overall mortality was 205 (1.04%), with the lowest mortality rate (0.47%) in the isolated CABGs and the highest (4.49%) in the CABGs concomitant with valve surgeries and other types of surgery. Meanwhile, the overall mortality rate was higher in the female patients than in the males (1.90% vs. 0.74%, respectively).
Conclusion:
Isolated CABG was the most prevalent procedure at our center with the lowest mortality rate. However, the overall mortality was more prevalent in our female patients. This database can serve as a platform for the participation of the other countries in the region in the creation of a regional ACSD.
PMCID: PMC3524323  PMID: 23304179
Coronary artery bypass; Database; Iran
4.  Short- and Mid-Term Results of Triple-Valve Surgery with an Evaluation of Postoperative Quality of Life 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2009;36(2):125-130.
The decision to proceed with triple-valve surgery should take into account reasonable estimates of the risk of the surgery and of the potential benefit to be gained. In the present study, we reviewed our experience with triple-valve surgery, focusing on short-term death and morbidity, mid-term survival, and postoperative quality of life.
Among 107 patients with multiple-valve disease who underwent triple-valve surgery at Tehran University Heart Center from January 2002 through December 2007, 100 patients with complete, recorded data were entered into the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics and in-hospital postoperative complications were considered. Among 66 patients whose mid-term operative outcomes we were able to determine, these results were evaluated, together with their quality of life, during a mean follow-up period of 45.0 ± 12.4 months.
In-hospital mortality and morbidity rates were 5% and 61%, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate for the 66 monitored patients was 82.6%. Freedom from readmission was 77.3%, and freedom from rehospitalization was 89.4%. Freedom from thromboembolism was 87.8%, and freedom from anticoagulant-related hemorrhage was 91.3%. In the quality-of-life assessment, suitable physical and social activities were reported in 65.1% and 60.6% of patients, respectively. Although 63.6% of patients were satisfied with the results of the operation, only 51.5% were able to continue their work.
Despite patients' satisfaction with early outcomes of triple-valve surgery and their acceptable mid-term survival rates, the improvement of quality of life after surgery is still far from ideal.
PMCID: PMC2676605  PMID: 19436805
Heart valve diseases/surgery; morbidity; quality of life; survival rate; treatment outcome; triple-valve surgery
5.  Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection 
Background
Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules.
Methods
35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (<0.24 μIU/ml) and normal thyroid hormone levels. Ethanol injections were performed once every 1–4 weeks. Ethanol injections were stopped when serum T3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection.
Results
Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 ± 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 ± 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P < 0.001]. All patients had normal thyroid hormone levels at 3 and 6 months follow-up [P < 0.001 relative to baseline]. sTSH levels increased from 0.09 ± 0.02 μIU/ml to 0.65 ± 0.8 μIU/ml at the end of therapy [P < 0.05]. Only 3 patients had persistent sTSH suppression at 6 months post-therapy. T4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-2-3
PMCID: PMC140013  PMID: 12470301
Hot Thyroid Nodules; Treatment; Ethanol; Thyrotoxicosis; Ultrasonography

Results 1-5 (5)