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1.  Thyroid disease is a favorable prognostic factor in achieving sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C undergoing combination therapy: A nested case control study 
Background
Interferon-α in combination with ribavirin is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic hepatitis C. It is unknown if the development of autoimmune thyroid disease (TD) during treatment confers an improved chance of achieving sustained virologic response. The aim of this study is to assess the chance of achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients who developed TD during treatment when compared with those who did not.
Methods
We performed a tertiary hospital-based retrospective nested case-control analysis of 19 patients treated for hepatitis C who developed thyroid disease, and 76 controls (matched for age, weight, gender, cirrhosis and aminotransferase levels) who did not develop TD during treatment. Multivariate logistic-regression models were used to compare cases and controls.
Results
The development of TD was associated with a high likelihood of achieving SVR (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 24.6) for the pooled group containing all genotypes. The likelihood of achieving SVR was increased in individuals with genotype 1 HCV infection who developed TD (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 22.3), and all genotype 3 patients who developed TD achieved SVR.
Conclusions
Development of TD during treatment for hepatitis C infection is associated with a significantly increased chance of achieving SVR. The pathophysiogical mechanisms for this observation remain to be determined.
Trial Registration
The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRB12610000830099
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-10
PMCID: PMC3123561  PMID: 21605462
2.  The natural history of interferon-α induced thyroiditis in chronic hepatitis c patients: a long term study 
Thyroid Research  2011;4:2.
Background
Autoimmune thyroid disease is a common complication of patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing combination pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin treatment. A small proportion develops interferon-induced thyroiditis of which the long term natural history is unknown and how it compares with de novo thyroiditis. The aim of the study is to determine the natural history of thyroid disease including antibody profile in this particular setting 36 months from the completion of therapy.
Methods
A cohort of 18 hepatitis C patients (mean age 45 ± 8 years (standard deviation)) who developed exclusively thyroiditis in this setting was followed every 12 months after the completion of therapy for 36 months. Investigations included thyrotropin, free tetra-iodothyronine, free tri-iodothyronine levels and thyroid autoantibodies.
Results
None of the patients developed any long term thyroid disease. Two patients had a prolonged hypothyroid phase of the thyroiditis early after the completion of treatment but recovered fully. The remaining 16 patients remained euthyroid. Similarly, thyroid autoantibodies all declined and returned to reference range.
Conclusions
The long term natural history in this small series of interferon induced thyroiditis was benign. If a larger series confirms a similar outcome then there is no long term residual effect on thyroid function and follow-up testing would not be warranted.
doi:10.1186/1756-6614-4-2
PMCID: PMC3022887  PMID: 21214950
3.  The influence of hepatitis C infection and interferon-α therapy on thyrotropin blocking and stimulating autoantibodies in Graves' ophthalmopathy: a case report 
Thyroid Research  2009;2:12.
Background
Hepatitis C virus is a highly immunogenic pathogen often inducing autoimmune activation changes and this can often be further exacerbated by Interferon therapy. As HCV is lymphocytotropic, it can modulate T cell and B cell antibody responses, affecting many endocrine organs, most commonly the thyroid.
Case presentation
We hereby describe a case of fluctuating and wavering thyrotropin autoantibodies of both stimulating and blocking nature in the setting of Graves's ophthalmopathy, hepatitis C infection and interferon-α, causing hypo- and subsequently hyper-thyroidism. The autoantibody profile was clearly modified during interferon therapy and settled into a new equilibrium at the completion of treatment.
Conclusion
The case highlights the possible existence of a dual thyroid autoantibody population associated with hepatitis C, and its modulation by interferon therapy, which further compounds the difficulties in the assessment thyroid disease in this setting.
doi:10.1186/1756-6614-2-12
PMCID: PMC2791747  PMID: 19954547

Results 1-3 (3)