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1.  Exenatide once weekly: sustained improvement in glycemic control and cardiometabolic measures through 3 years 
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive metabolic disease necessitating therapies with sustained efficacy and safety over time. Exenatide once weekly (ExQW), an extended-release formulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide, has demonstrated improvements in glycemic and cardiometabolic measures from 30 weeks to 2 years of treatment. Here, the efficacy and safety of treatment with ExQW for 3 years are described.
Patients were initially randomized to receive either ExQW (2 mg) or exenatide twice daily for 30 weeks. Following the initial 30 weeks, all patients were treated with ExQW in an open-label extension. Analyses of primary glycemic endpoints, beta-cell function, and cardiometabolic measures were assessed for patients who completed 3 years of ExQW treatment and for the intention-to-treat population. Safety and tolerability analyses were provided for the intention-to-treat population.
Sixty-six percent of the intention-to-treat population (n = 295) completed 3 years of treatment (n = 194). At 3 years, a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (least squares mean ± standard error) of −1.6% ± 0.08% was observed, with 55% and 33% of patients achieving hemoglobin A1c targets of <7% and ≤6.5%, respectively. Consistent with a sustained reduction in hemoglobin A1c, improvements in beta-cell function were also observed. Body weight was significantly reduced by −2.3 ± 0.6 kg. Reductions in blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were also observed. Adverse events reported most frequently during both controlled and uncontrolled periods included diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting of mostly mild intensity. The incidence of these adverse events decreased over time. Incidence of minor hypoglycemia was low and no major hypoglycemia was observed.
ExQW produced clinically meaningful improvements in glycemic control that were durable through 3 years of treatment. Significant improvements in cardiometabolic measurements were also observed. ExQW was well-tolerated during long-term treatment and no new adverse events were noted.
Trial registration NCT00308139.
PMCID: PMC3555554  PMID: 23358123
diabetes; exenatide; GLP-1 receptor agonist; hyperglycemia; DURATION-1
2.  Health and economic outcomes for exenatide once weekly, insulin, and pioglitazone therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a simulation analysis 
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are at risk of long-term vascular complications. In trials, exenatide once weekly (ExQW), a GLP-1R agonist, improved glycemia, weight, blood pressure (BP), and lipids in patients with T2DM. We simulated potential effects of ExQW on vascular complications, survival, and medical costs over 20 years versus standard therapies.
Patients and methods
The Archimedes model was used to assess outcomes for ~25,000 virtual patients with T2DM (NHANES 1999–2006 [metformin ± sulfonylureas, age 57 years, body mass index 33 kg/m2, weight 94 kg, duration T2DM 9 years, hemoglobin A1c [A1C] 8.1%]). The effects of three treatment strategies were modeled and compared to moderate-adherence insulin therapy: advancement to high-adherence insulin at A1C ≥ 8% (treat to target A1C < 7%) and addition of pioglitazone (PIO) or ExQW from simulation start. ExQW effects on A1C, weight, BP, and lipids were modeled from clinical trial data. Costs, inflated to represent 2010 $US, were derived from Medicare data,, and publications. As ExQW was investigational, we omitted ExQW, PIO, and insulin pharmacy costs.
By year 1, ExQW treatment decreased A1C (~1.5%), weight (~2 kg), and systolic BP (~5 mmHg). PIO and high-adherence insulin decreased A1C by ~1%, increased weight, and did not affect systolic BP. After 20 years, A1C was ~7% with all strategies. ExQW decreased rates of cardiovascular and microvascular complications more than PIO or high-adherence insulin versus moderate-adherence insulin. Over 20 years, ExQW treatment resulted in increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of ~0.3 years/person and cost savings of $469/life-year versus moderate adherence insulin. For PIO or high-adherence insulin, QALYs were virtually unchanged, and costs/life-year versus moderate-adherence insulin increased by $69 and $87, respectively.
This long-term simulation demonstrated that ExQW treatment may decrease rates of cardiovascular and some microvascular complications of T2DM. Increased QALYs, and decreased costs were also projected.
PMCID: PMC3346268  PMID: 22566747
diabetes; modeling; exenatide; pioglitazone; insulin; cardiovascular risk
3.  Exenatide once weekly treatment maintained improvements in glycemic control and weight loss over 2 years 
The once-weekly (QW) formulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide has been demonstrated to improve A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, serum lipid profiles, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes through 52 weeks of treatment. In this report, we describe the 2-year results of the open-label, open-ended extension to the DURATION-1 trial of exenatide QW for type 2 diabetes.
A 2-stage protocol was used: patients received either exenatide QW (2 mg) or exenatide twice daily for 30 weeks (5 μg for the first 4 weeks and 10 μg thereafter), followed by 1.5 years of treatment with exenatide QW (2 mg), for a total of 2 years (104 weeks) of exenatide treatment. Of the 295 (intent-to-treat [ITT]) patients who entered the trial, 73% (n = 216) completed 2 years of treatment (completer population). Baseline characteristics (mean ± SE) for these patients were: A1C, 8.2 ± 0.1%; FPG, 168.4 ± 43.0 mg/dL; body weight, 101.1 ± 18.7 kg; and diabetes duration, 7 ± 5 years.
In the completer population, significant improvements (LS mean ± SE [95% CI]) were maintained after 2 years of treatment in A1C (-1.71 ± 0.08% [-1.86 to -1.55%]), FPG (-40.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL [-45.7 to -34.5 mg/dL]), and body weight (-2.61 ± 0.52 kg [-3.64 to -1.58 kg]) compared with baseline. The percentages of patients who achieved an A1C of <7.0% and ≤6.5% at 2 years were 60% and 39%, respectively. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP; -3.0 ± 1.0 mmHg [-4.9 to -1.1 mmHg]) was maintained through 2 years of treatment. Serum lipid profiles were also significantly improved, including triglycerides (geometric LS mean change from baseline, -15 ± 2.7% [-21% to -10%]), total cholesterol (-8.6 ± 2.8 mg/dL [-14.0 to -3.1 mg/dL]), and low-density lipoproteins (-4.5 ± 2.2 mg/dL [-8.9 to -0.01 mg/dL]). Changes in A1C, body weight, FPG, SBP, and lipids in the ITT population were similar to those seen in the completer population. Nausea (predominantly mild in intensity) was the most common adverse event, although the frequency and intensity of nausea decreased over time. No severe hypoglycemia was observed.
Exenatide QW was well tolerated during the 2-year treatment period. This study demonstrated sustained glucose control and weight loss throughout 2 years of treatment with exenatide QW.
Trial Registration NCT00308139
PMCID: PMC3112417  PMID: 21529363
4.  Randomized Comparison of Pramlintide or Mealtime Insulin Added to Basal Insulin Treatment for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2009;32(9):1577-1582.
To compare the efficacy and safety of adding mealtime pramlintide or rapid-acting insulin analogs (RAIAs) to basal insulin for patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes.
In a 24-week open-label, multicenter study, 113 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to addition of mealtime pramlintide (120 μg) or a titrated RAIA to basal insulin and prior oral antihyperglycemic drugs (OADs). At screening, patients were insulin naive or had been receiving <50 units/day basal insulin for <6 months. The basal insulin dosage was titrated from day 1, seeking fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥70–<100 mg/dl. Pramlintide and an RAIA were initiated on day 1 and week 4, respectively. The proportion of patients achieving A1C ≤7.0% without weight gain or severe hypoglycemia at week 24 was the primary end point.
More pramlintide- than RAIA-treated patients achieved the primary end point (30 vs. 11%, P = 0.018) with a similar dose of basal insulin. Pramlintide and an RAIA yielded similar mean ± SEM values for FPG and A1C at 24 weeks (122 ± 7 vs. 123 ± 5 mg/dl and 7.2 ± 0.2 vs. 7.0 ± 0.1%, respectively) and similar least squares mean reductions from baseline to end point (−31 ± 6 vs. −34 ± 6 mg/dl and −1.1 ± 0.2 vs. −1.3 ± 0.2%, respectively). RAIAs but not pramlintide caused weight gain (+4.7 ± 0.7 vs. +0.0 ± 0.7 kg, P < 0.0001). Fewer patients reported mild to moderate hypoglycemia with pramlintide than with the RAIA (55 vs. 82%), but more patients reported nausea (21 vs. 0%). No severe hypoglycemia occurred in either group.
In patients taking basal insulin and OADs, premeal fixed-dose pramlintide improved glycemic control as effectively as titrated RAIAs. The pramlintide regimen sometimes caused nausea but no weight gain and less hypoglycemia.
PMCID: PMC2732154  PMID: 19502544

Results 1-4 (4)