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1.  Who are diabetic foot patients? A descriptive study on 873 patients 
Background
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) as the leading cause of lower limb amputation is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Patient and physician’s education plays a significant role in DFU prevention. While effective treatment and formulation of prevention guidelines for DFU require a thorough understanding of characteristics of DFU patients and their ulcers, there are reports that not only patients’ but also physicians’ information about these characteristics is inadequate. So we conducted this study to investigate these characteristics.
Methods
Necessary data was collected from medical archives of DFU patients admitted between 2002 and 2008 in two university hospitals.
Results
873 patients were included. Mean age was 59.3 ± 11.2 years and most of the patients developed DFU in 5th and 6th decades of their life. 58.1% were men. 28.8% had family history of DM. Mean duration of DM was 172.2 months. Mean duration of DFU was 79.8 days. Only 14.4% of the patients had Hemoglobin A1C < 7%. 69.6% of the patients had history of previous hospitalization due to DM complications. The most prevalent co-morbidities were renal, cardiovascular and ophthalmic ones. Most patients had “ischemic DFU” and DFU in their “right” limb. The most prevalent location of DFU was patients’ toes, with most of them being in the big toe. 28.2% of the patients underwent lower-limb amputations. The amputation rate in the hospital where the “multidisciplinary approach” has been used was lower (23.7% vs. 30.1%).
Conclusions
Number of patients with DFU is increasing. DFU is most likely to develop in middle-aged diabetic patients with a long duration of DM and poor blood sugar control who have other co-morbidities of DM. Male patients are at more risk. Recurrence of DFU is a major point of concern which underscores the importance of patient education to prevent secondary ulcers. As a result, educating medical and nursing personnel, applying screening and prevention guidelines, and allocating more resources are of great importance regarding treatment of DFU patients. Application of the “multidisciplinary approach” can reduce the rate of amputations. Primary care physicians might be furnished with the information presented in the present study.
doi:10.1186/2251-6581-12-36
PMCID: PMC3708818  PMID: 23826947
Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic foot; Ulcer; Patient care
2.  Investigation The Role of Gender on The HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 Association with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Patients 
Cell Journal (Yakhteh)  2013;15(2):108-115.
Objective:
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune and multifactorial disorder. Subsequent analysis on human leukocyte antigen ( HLA) region shows that HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 genes have the strongest association with T1D. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the influence of gender on the HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 association with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Iranian patients in order to determine gender dependent HLA heterogeneity in Iranian T1D patients.
Materials and Methods:
In this case control study, the HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 typing were performed on 105 Iranian T1D patients and 100 healthy controls. The data were evaluated by using Fisher exact test.
Results:
Our results indicate that DRB1*04:01, DQB1*03:02 alleles and DRB1*04:01- DQB1*03:02 haplotype were significantly more frequent in male T1D patients than females. Also, DRB1*03:01, DRB1*15:01, DQB1*06:01 alleles, DQB1*03:01/05:01 genotype, DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 and DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:01 haplotypes were significantly higher in female T1D group than males. Furthermore, our results showed that DRB1*04:01 and DQB1*03:02 alleles were significantly more frequent in male T1D patients 1-5 years old at onset than females with similar condition. The DRB1*03:01 allele and DRB1*03:01- DQB1*02:01 haplotype were significantly higher in female T1D patients 6-10 years old at onset than males with similar condition. The DRB1*15:01 allele and DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:01 haplotype were significantly more frequent in female T1D patients 16-20 years old at onset than males with similar condition.
Conclusion:
Our findings suggest that gender has a significant influence on the distribution of HLA-DR and -DQ alleles, genotypes and haplotypes. Also, distribution of the HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes vary based on the gender of T1D patients in different age at onset.
PMCID: PMC3712770  PMID: 23862111
Type 1 Diabetes; HLA-DRB1; HLA-DQB1; Gender; Age at Onset
3.  The importance of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients 
Hypoglycemia is one of the most important complications of diabetes treatment. The risk of severe hypoglycemia is higher in elderly patients, those having comorbidities such as vascular disease or renal failure, pregnant women and in children with type 1diabetes. Moreover, in type 2 diabetes, progressive insulin deficiency, longer duration of diabetes, and tight glycemic control increase the risk of hypoglycemia as much as type 1 diabetes.Episodes hypoglycemia may lead to impairment of counter-regulatory system, with the potential of development of hypoglycemia unawareness. So, hypoglycemia may increase the vascular events even death in addition to other possible detrimental effects. Glycemic control should be individualized based on patient characteristics with some degree of safety. Recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, blood glucose monitoring, selection of appropriate regimens and educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major issues to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia, and prevent long- term complications.
doi:10.1186/2251-6581-11-17
PMCID: PMC3598174  PMID: 23497433
Diabetes; Hypoglycemia; Complications
4.  Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study 
BMC Neurology  2005;5:24.
Background
Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression.
Methods
In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS) was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography). The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality.
Results
Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, < 0.001 and 0.005). No correlation was found with any atherosclerosis risk factor (high BP, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking).
Conclusion
In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-5-24
PMCID: PMC1343576  PMID: 16336693
5.  Normative data of bone Mineral Density in healthy population of Tehran, Iran: A Cross sectional study 
Background
Osteoporosis is a major problem and is a hidden epidemic disease in the world. Early diagnosis by measurement of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and treatment can prevent and reduce disease complications, especially fractures. As there is no comprehensive study in Iran, this study designed to assess BMD discrepancy in 20–69 yr Tehran population as well as prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia.
Methods
553 people (34% men, 66%women) from 50 Blocks in Tehran randomly selected. The assessment of BMD in spine and femur region performed through DXA method. All subjects clinically examined and their BMIs determined.
Results
The average spinal BMD score in men were more than in women. The peak bone mass of spine bone both in men and women occurred during 20–29 yr and reduction began from the age of 40. At the age of 60 to 69, loose of bone density was 19.6% in lumbar spine and 18.5% in femur of women and also 7.9% in lumbar spine and 14.6% in femur of men. Prevalence of osteoporosis in this age group in lumbar spine and femur was 32.4% and 5.9% in women and 9.4% and 3.1% in men respectively.
Conclusion
In all age groups, peak bone mass was lower than European or American population, whereas the rate of bone loss was as much as the some population and actually this process justifies the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in Tehran population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-6-38
PMCID: PMC1180448  PMID: 15992408
6.  Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran 
BMC Public Health  2004;4:38.
Background
There are multiple studies in different countries regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. These studies showed high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Asian countries. This study tries to elucidate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its influencing factors in population of Tehran.
Methods
1210 subjects 20–64 years old were randomly selected. 25 (OH) D serum levels were measured. Duration of exposure to sunlight, the type of clothing and level of calcium intake and BMI were quantified based on a questionnaire.
Results
A high percentage of vitamin D deficiency was defined in the study population. Prevalence of severe, moderate and mild Vitamin D deficiency was 9.5%, 57.6% and 14.2% respectively. Vitamin D serum levels had no significant statistical relation with the duration of exposure to sunlight, kind of clothing and BMI. Calcium intake in the normal vitamin D group was significantly higher than the other groups (714.67 ± 330.8 mg/day vs 503.39 ± 303.1, 577.93 ± 304.9,595.84 ± 313.6). Vitamin D serum levels in young and middle aged females were significantly lower than the older group.
Conclusions
Vitamin D deficiency has a high prevalence in Tehran. In order to avoid complications of vitamin D deficiency, supplemental dietary intake seems essential.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-4-38
PMCID: PMC517720  PMID: 15327695
vitamin d deficiency; calcium intake; sunlight exposure
7.  Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection 
Background
Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules.
Methods
35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (<0.24 μIU/ml) and normal thyroid hormone levels. Ethanol injections were performed once every 1–4 weeks. Ethanol injections were stopped when serum T3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection.
Results
Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 ± 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 ± 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P < 0.001]. All patients had normal thyroid hormone levels at 3 and 6 months follow-up [P < 0.001 relative to baseline]. sTSH levels increased from 0.09 ± 0.02 μIU/ml to 0.65 ± 0.8 μIU/ml at the end of therapy [P < 0.05]. Only 3 patients had persistent sTSH suppression at 6 months post-therapy. T4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-2-3
PMCID: PMC140013  PMID: 12470301
Hot Thyroid Nodules; Treatment; Ethanol; Thyrotoxicosis; Ultrasonography

Results 1-7 (7)