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1.  Relationship between Younger Age, Autoimmunity, Cardiometabolic Risk, Oxidative Stress, HAART, and Ischemic Stroke in Africans with HIV/AIDS 
ISRN Cardiology  2011;2011:897908.
Background and Purpose. It now appears clear that both HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease such as stroke. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence, the risk factors, and the cardiometabolic comorbidities of stroke in HIV/AIDS Central African patients. Methods. This hospital-based cross-sectional study collected clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of black Central African heterosexual, intravenous drug nonuser, and HIV/AIDS patients. Results. There were 54 men and 62 women, with a female to male ratio of 1.2 : 1. All were defined by hypercoagulability and oxidative stress. Hemorrhagic stroke was reported in 1 patient, ischemic stroke in 17 patients, and all stroke subtypes in 18 patients (15%). Younger age <45 years (P = .003), autoimmunity (P < .0001), and metabolic syndrome defined by IDF criteria (P < .0001) were associated with ischemic stroke. Conclusions. Clustering of several cardiometabolic factors, autoimmunity, oxidative stress, and lifestyle changes may explain accelerated atherosclerosis and high risk of stroke in these young black Africans with HIV/AIDS. Prevention and intervention programs are needed.
doi:10.5402/2011/897908
PMCID: PMC3262512  PMID: 22347662
2.  Advanced age, altered level of consciousness and a new diagnosis of diabetes are independently associated with hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic crisis 
Background
There is limited literature on hypernatreamia in the setting of hyperglycaemic crisis. This is despite the fact that the presence of hypernatreamia may impact on the classification of hyperglycaemic crisis and its management particularly with regards to the nature of fluid therapy. We determined the prevalence of hypernatreamia and its associated factors at presentation for hyperglycaemic crisis.
Methods
This was a retrospective review of data for hyperglycaemic crisis admissions in Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. The prevalence of hypernatreamia (uncorrected Serum Sodium at presentation >145 mmol/L) was determined. Hyperosmolality was defined by calculated effective osmolality >320 mosmols/Kg. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken using variables that were statistically significant in univariate analysis to ascertain those that were independently associated (Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI)) with hypernatreamia.
Results
The prevalence of hypernatreamia in our admissions for hyperglycaemic crisis was 11.7% (n = 32/273 including 171 females and 102 males). All admissions with hypernatreamia met the criteria for hyperosmolality. Age ≥ 60 years (OR = 3.9 95% CI 1.3-12.3; P = 0.018), Altered level of consciousness (OR = 8.8 95% CI 2.3-32.8; P < 0.001) and a new diagnosis of diabetes (OR = 3.7 95%CI 1.2-11.5; P = 0.025) were independently associated with hypernatreamia.
Conclusion
The prevalence rate of hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic admissions was high with all hypernatreamic admissions meeting the criteria for hyperosmolality. Advanced age, altered conscious level and a new diagnosis of diabetes were independently associated with hypernatreamia.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-8
PMCID: PMC3103444  PMID: 21501465
Hypernatreamia; Hyperglyceamic crisis; prevalence; determinants; South Africa
3.  Caractéristiques sociodémographiques et sémiologiques de la sphère ORL des patients avec infection par le VIH/SIDA à Kinshasa, RD Congo 
Background
L’absence de données congolaises relatives à l’épidémiologie, aux plaintes et signes cliniques de la sphère ORL dans l’infection par le VIH en consultation d’otorhinolaryngologie justifie l’initiation de la présente étude. L’objectif de notre étude était de décrire les aspects sociodémographiques et sémiologiques de la sphère ORL chez les patients avec infection à VIH/SIDA dans le service d’ORL de l’hôpital Général de Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo.
Méthodes
Etude transversale réalisée entre Janvier et Avril 2009 dans le service d’ORL de l’Hôpital Général de Kinshasa, RDC.
Résultats
Au total, 52 patients infectés par le VIH/SIDA et d’âge moyen de 40,6±13 ans ont été enquêtés. Le sexe féminin, la tranche d’âge de 30 -40 ans, les mariés et les veufs, les nantis et les plus scolarisés étaient les caractéristiques observées chez les patients infectés par le VIH/SIDA. Les céphalées et la rhinorrhée sous toutes ses formes, l’hypertrophie de la parotide, les adénopathies cervicales constituaient les aspects sémiologiques les plus rencontrés.
Conclusion
La connaissance des aspects sociodémographiques et sémiologiques est indispensable dans le diagnostic précoce de l’infection par le VIH/SIDA.
PMCID: PMC3172645  PMID: 21918702
Afrique sub-Saharienne; céphalées; rhinorrhée; VIH/SIDA

Results 1-3 (3)