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1.  Genetic Evidence that Thyroid Hormone is Indispensable for Prepubertal IGF-I Expression and Bone Acquisition in Mice 
Understanding how bone growth is regulated by hormonal and mechanical factors during early growth periods is important for optimizing the attainment of peak bone mass to prevent or postpone the occurance of fragility fractures later in life. Using genetic mouse models that are deficient in thyroid hormone (TH) (Tshr−/− and Duox2−/−), growth hormone (GH) (Ghrhrlit/lit) or both (Tshr−/− ;Ghrhrlit/lit), we demonstrate that there is an important period prior to puberty when the effects of GH are surprisingly small and TH plays a critical role in the regulation of skeletal growth. Daily administration of T3/T4 during days 5 to 14, the time when serum levels of T3 increase rapidly in mice, rescued the skeletal deficit in TH-deficient mice but not in mice lacking both TH and GH. However, treatment of double-mutant mice with both GH and T3/T4 rescued the bone density deficit. Increased body fat in the TH-deficient as well as TH/GH double mutant mice was rescued by T3/T4 treatment during days 5–14. In vitro studies in osteoblasts revealed that T3 in the presence of TH receptor (TR) α1 bound to a TH response element in intron 1 of the IGF-I gene to stimulate transcription. In vivo studies using TRα and TRβ knockout mice revealed evidence for differential regulation of IGF-I expression by the two receptors. Furthermore, blockade of IGF-I action partially inhibited the biological effects of TH, thus suggesting that both IGF-I-dependent and independent mechanisms contribute to TH effects on prepubertal bone acquisition.
PMCID: PMC3399953  PMID: 22513648
Growth Hormone; Osteoblasts; Thyroid hormone receptor alpha; Thyroid hormone receptor beta; Dual oxidase-2, Hypothyroidism; Acid labile subunit; IGF binding protein
2.  Deleterious Effects of Acute Treatment With a Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ Activator in Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion in Pigs 
Diabetes  2003;52(5):1187-1194.
Thiazolidinediones exert electrophysiologic effects in noncardiac cells in vitro, but to date there have been no reports of effects on cardiac rhythm. We previously demonstrated that chronic pretreatment with a thiazolidinedione peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activator, troglitazone, improves recovery of left ventricular (LV) function and substrate metabolism after ischemia and reperfusion, without causing arrhythmias. In this study, we determined whether similar salutary effects are achieved with acute treatment with troglitazone. Anesthetized pigs underwent 90 min of regional LV ischemia and 90 min of reperfusion. Fifteen pigs were treated with troglitazone (10 mg/kg load, 5 mg · kg−1 · h−1 infusion i.v.) beginning 1 h before ischemia. Seven pigs received corresponding vehicle. Plasma troglitazone concentration (mean 5 µg/ml) was similar to that achieved in clinical use of this agent. Before ischemia, acute troglitazone treatment had no effect on LV function, electrocardiogram, or substrate utilization. During ischemia or reperfusion, eight pigs in the troglitazone group died of ventricular fibrillation, compared with no pigs in the vehicle group (P < 0.05). Pigs that developed ventricular fibrillation had shorter QT intervals than survivors of either group. Among survivors, neither LV function nor substrate utilization differed between groups. Acute treatment with troglitazone increases susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Whether thiazolidinediones have proarrhythmic potential in clinical use requires further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3633427  PMID: 12716751
3.  The PPAR-α activator fenofibrate fails to provide myocardial protection in ischemia and reperfusion in pigs 
Rodent studies suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and infarct size; however, effects of PPAR-α activation in large animal models of myocardial I/R are unknown. We determined whether chronic treatment with the PPAR-α activator fenofibrate affects myocardial I/R injury in pigs. Domestic farm pigs were assigned to treatment with fenofibrate 50 mg·kg−1 ·day−1 orally or no drug treatment, and either a low-fat (4% by weight) or a high-fat (20% by weight) diet. After 4 wk, 66 pigs underwent 90 min low-flow regional myocardial ischemia and 120 min reperfusion under anesthetized open-chest conditions, resulting in myocardial stunning. The high-fat group received an infusion of triglyceride emulsion and heparin during this terminal experiment to maintain elevated arterial free fatty acid (FFA) levels. An additional 21 pigs underwent 60 min no-flow ischemia and 180 min reperfusion, resulting in myocardial infarction. Plasma concentration of fenofibric acid was similar to the EC50 for activation of PPAR-α in vitro and to maximal concentrations achieved in clinical use. Myocardial expression of PPAR-α mRNA was prominent but unaffected by fenofibrate treatment. Fenofibrate increased expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-I mRNA in liver and decreased arterial FFA and lactate concentrations (each P < 0.01). However, fenofibrate did not affect myocardial CPT-I expression, substrate uptake, lipid accumulation, or contractile function during low-flow I/R in either the low- or high-fat group, nor did it affect myocardial infarct size. Despite expression of PPAR-α in porcine myocardium and effects of fenofibrate on systemic metabolism, treatment with this PPAR-α activator does not alter myocardial metabolic or contractile responses to I/R in pigs.
PMCID: PMC3633446  PMID: 16339839
nuclear receptor; fibric acid derivative; energy metabolism; cytokine; ventricular function
4.  PPAR-γ activation fails to provide myocardial protection in ischemia and reperfusion in pigs 
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ modulates substrate metabolism and inflammatory responses. In experimental rats subjected to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ activators reduce infarct size and preserve left ventricular function. Troglitazone is the only PPAR-γ activator that has been shown to be protective in I/R in large animals. However, because troglitazone contains both α-tocopherol and thiazolidinedione moieties, whether PPAR-γ activation per se is protective in myocardial I/R in large animals remains uncertain. To address this question, 56 pigs were treated orally for 8 wk with troglitazone (75 mg·kg−1 ·day−1), rosiglitazone (3 mg·kg−1 ·day−1), or α-tocopherol (73 mg·kg−1 ·day−1, equimolar to troglitazone dose) or received no treatment. Pigs were then anesthetized and subjected to 90 min of low-flow regional myocardial ischemia and 90 min of reperfusion. Myocardial expression of PPAR-γ, determined by ribonuclease protection assay, increased with troglitazone and rosiglitazone compared with no treatment. Rosiglitazone had no significant effect on myocardial contractile function (Frank-Starling relations), substrate uptake, or expression of proinflammatory cytokines during I/R compared with untreated pigs. In contrast, preservation of myocardial contractile function and lactate uptake were greater and cytokine expression was attenuated in pigs treated with troglitazone or α-tocopherol compared with untreated pigs. Multivariate analysis indicated that presence of an α-tocopherol, but not a thiazolidinedione, moiety in the test compound was significantly related to greater contractile function and lactate uptake and lower cytokine expression during I/R. We conclude that PPAR-γ activation is not protective in a porcine model of myocardial I/R. Protective effects of troglitazone are attributable to its α-tocopherol moiety. These findings, in conjunction with prior rat studies, suggest interspecies differences in the response to PPAR-γ activation in the heart.
PMCID: PMC3633522  PMID: 15528232
nuclear receptor; thiazolidinedione; energy metabolism; cytokine; ventricular function
5.  Regulatory T cells limit vascular endothelial injury and prevent pulmonary hypertension. 
Circulation research  2011;109(8):867-879.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an incurable disease associated with viral infections and connective tissue diseases. The relationship between inflammation and disease pathogenesis in these disorders remains poorly understood.
To determine whether immune dysregulation due to absent T cell populations directly contributes to the development of PAH.
Methods and Results
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) blockade induced significant pulmonary endothelial apoptosis in T-cell deficient rats but not in immune-reconstituted (IR) rats. T cell-lymphopenia in association with VEGFR2 blockade resulted in periarteriolar inflammation with macrophages, and B cells even prior to vascular remodeling and elevated pulmonary pressures. IR prevented early inflammation and attenuated PAH development. IR with either CD8 T cells alone or with CD4-depleted spleen cells was ineffective in preventing PAH whereas CD4-depleting immunocompetent euthymic animals increased PAH susceptibility. IR with either CD4+CD25hi or CD4+CD25- T cell subsets prior to vascular injury attenuated the development of PAH. Immune reconstitution limited perivascular inflammation and endothelial apoptosis in rat lungs in association with increased FoxP3+-, IL-10- and TGF-β– expressing CD4 cells, and upregulation of pulmonary bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2)-expressing cells, a receptor that activates endothelial cell survival pathways.
PAH may arise when regulatory T cell (Treg) activity fails to control endothelial injury. These studies suggest that regulatory T cells normally function to limit vascular injury and may protect against the development of PAH.
PMCID: PMC3204361  PMID: 21868697
pulmonary arterial hypertension; inflammation; regulatory T cell; bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2
6.  Cardiac HDAC6 Catalytic Activity is Induced in Response to Chronic Hypertension 
Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors block adverse cardiac remodeling in animal models of heart failure. The efficacious compounds target class I, class IIb and, to a lesser extent, class IIa HDACs. It is hypothesized that a selective inhibitor of a specific HDAC class (or an isoform within that class) will provide a favorable therapeutic window for the treatment of heart failure, although the optimal selectivity profile for such a compound remains unknown. Genetic studies have suggested that class I HDACs promote pathological cardiac remodeling, while class IIa HDACs are protective. In contrast, nothing is known about the function or regulation of class IIb HDACs in the heart. We developed assays to quantify catalytic activity of distinct HDAC classes in left and right ventricular cardiac tissue from animal models of hypertensive heart disease. Class I and IIa HDAC activity was elevated in some but not all diseased tissues. In contrast, catalytic activity of the class IIb HDAC, HDAC6, was consistently increased in stressed myocardium, but not in a model of physiologic hypertrophy. HDAC6 catalytic activity was also induced by diverse extracellular stimuli in cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. These findings suggest an unforeseen role for HDAC6 in the heart, and highlight the need for pre-clinical evaluation of HDAC6-selective inhibitors to determine whether this HDAC isoform is pathological or protective in the setting of cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC3113526  PMID: 21539845
Histone deacetylase; hypertension; heart failure
7.  Critical role for Death-Receptor Mediated Apoptotic Signaling in Viral Myocarditis 
Journal of cardiac failure  2010;16(11):901-910.
Apoptosis of cardiac myocytes plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many cardiac diseases including viral myocarditis. The apoptotic signaling pathways that are activated during viral myocarditis and the role that these pathways play in disease pathogenesis have not been clearly delineated.
Methods and Results
We investigated the role of apoptotic signaling pathways following virus infection of primary cardiac myocytes. The death receptor associated initiator caspase, caspase 8, and the effector caspase, caspase 3, were significantly activated following infection of primary cardiac myocytes with myocarditic, but not non-myocarditic, reovirus strains. Furthermore, reovirus-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis was significantly inhibited by soluble death receptors. In contrast, the mitochondrial membrane potential remained unaltered and caspase 9, the initiator caspase associated with mitochondrial apoptotic signaling, was only weakly activated in cardiac myocytes following infection with myocarditic reovirus strains. Inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic signaling had no effect on reovirus-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis. In accordance with our in vitro data, caspase 8, but not caspase 9, was significantly activated in the hearts of reovirus-infected mice.
Death receptor, but not mitochondrial, apoptotic signaling plays a key role in apoptosis following infection of cardiac myocytes with myocarditic reovirus strains.
PMCID: PMC2994069  PMID: 21055654
Apoptosis; Myocarditis; Virus; Death Receptors
8.  Circulating adiponectin levels are lower in Latino versus non-Latino white patients at risk for cardiovascular disease, independent of adiposity measures 
Latinos in the United States have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than non-Latino whites, even after controlling for adiposity. Decreased adiponectin is associated with insulin resistance and predicts T2DM, and therefore may mediate this ethnic difference. We compared total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in Latino versus white individuals, identified factors associated with adiponectin in each ethnic group, and measured the contribution of adiponectin to ethnic differences in insulin resistance.
We utilized cross-sectional data from subjects in the Latinos Using Cardio Health Actions to reduce Risk study. Participants were Latino (n = 119) and non-Latino white (n = 60) men and women with hypertension and at least one other risk factor for CVD (age 61 ± 10 yrs, 49% with T2DM), seen at an integrated community health and hospital system in Denver, Colorado. Total and HMW adiponectin was measured by RIA and ELISA respectively. Fasting glucose and insulin were used to calculate the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Variables independently associated with adiponectin levels were identified by linear regression analyses. Adiponectin's contribution to ethnic differences in insulin resistance was assessed in multivariate linear regression models of Latino ethnicity, with logHOMA-IR as a dependent variable, adjusting for possible confounders including age, gender, adiposity, and renal function.
Mean adiponectin levels were lower in Latino than white patients (beta estimates: -4.5 (-6.4, -2.5), p < 0.001 and -1.6 (-2.7, -0.5), p < 0.005 for total and HMW adiponectin), independent of age, gender, BMI/waist circumference, thiazolidinedione use, diabetes status, and renal function. An expected negative association between adiponectin and waist circumference was seen among women and non-Latino white men, but no relationship between these two variables was observed among Latino men. Ethnic differences in logHOMA-IR were no longer observed after controlling for adiponectin levels.
Among patients with CVD risk, total and HMW adiponectin is lower in Latinos, independent of adiposity and other known regulators of adiponectin. Ethnic differences in adiponectin regulation may exist and future research in this area is warranted. Adiponectin levels accounted for the observed variability in insulin resistance, suggesting a contribution of decreased adiponectin to insulin resistance in Latino populations.
PMCID: PMC3141565  PMID: 21736747
9.  Complement C3 serum levels in anorexia nervosa: a potential biomarker for the severity of disease? 
Anorexia nervosa carries the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Even the most critically ill anorexic patients may present with normal 'standard' laboratory values, underscoring the need for a new sensitive biomarker. The complement cascade, a major component of innate immunity, represents a driving force in the pathophysiology of multiple inflammatory disorders. The role of complement in anorexia nervosa remains poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of complement C3 levels, the extent of complement activation and of complement hemolytic activity in serum, as potential new biomarkers for the severity of anorexia nervosa.
Patients and methods
This was a prospective cohort study on 14 patients with severe anorexia nervosa, as defined by a body mass index (BMI) <14 kg/m2. Serum samples were obtained in a biweekly manner until hospital discharge. A total of 17 healthy subjects with normal BMI values served as controls. The serum levels of complement C3, C3a, C5a, sC5b-9, and of the 50% hemolytic complement activity (CH50) were quantified and correlated with the BMIs of patients and control subjects.
Serum C3 levels were significantly lower in patients with anorexia nervosa than in controls (median 3.7 (interquartile range (IQR) 2.5-4.9) vs 11.4 (IQR 8.9-13.7, P <0.001). In contrast, complement activation fragments and CH50 levels were not significantly different between the two groups. There was a strong correlation between index C3 levels and BMI (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.71, P <0.001).
Complement C3 serum levels may represent a sensitive new biomarker for monitoring the severity of disease in anorexia nervosa. The finding from this preliminary pilot study will require further investigation in future prospective large-scale multicenter trials.
PMCID: PMC3110119  PMID: 21542928
10.  Pulse wave velocity and carotid atherosclerosis in White and Latino patients with hypertension 
Preventive cardiology has expanded beyond coronary heart disease towards prevention of a broader spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. Ethnic minorities are at proportionately greater risk for developing extracoronary vascular disease including heart failure and cerebrovascular disease.
We performed a cross sectional study of Latino and White hypertension patients in a safety-net healthcare system. Framingham risk factors, markers of inflammation (hsCRP, LPpLA2), arterial stiffness (Pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and central aortic pressure), and endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation) were measured. Univariate and multivariable associations between these parameters and an index of extracoronary atherosclerosis (carotid intima media thickness) was performed.
Among 177 subjects, mean age was 62 years, 67% were female, and 67% were Latino. In univariate analysis, markers associated with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) at p < 0.25 included pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), central aortic pressure (cAP), and LpPLA2 activity rank. However, AIx, cAP, and LpPLA2 activity were not significantly associated with carotid IMT after adjusting for Framingham risk factors (all p > .10). Only PWV retained a significant association with carotid IMT independent of the Framingham general risk profile parameters (p = .016). No statistically significant interactions between Framingham and other independent variables with ethnicity (all p > .05) were observed.
In this safety net cohort, PWV is a potentially useful adjunctive atherosclerotic risk marker independent of traditional risk factors and irrespective of ethnicity.
PMCID: PMC3080337  PMID: 21481252
Pulse wave velocity; hypertension; atherosclerosis; carotid intima media thickness; Latino; inflammatory markers; augmentation index; central aortic pressure; C-reactive protein
11.  Cardiac Cell-specific Apoptotic and Cytokine Responses to Reovirus Infection: Determinants of Myocarditic Phenotype 
Journal of cardiac failure  2009;15(6):529-539.
The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying viral myocarditis are not well defined. As a result, effective treatments do not exist and viral myocarditis remains a potentially lethal infection of the heart.
Methods and Results
We used cultured rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts to investigate apoptosis and cytokine production in response to infection by myocarditic vs. non-myocarditic strains of reovirus. Myocarditic reovirus strain 8B and non-myocarditic strain DB188 replicate comparably in each cardiac cell type. However, strain 8B and related myocarditic reoviruses preferentially increase apoptosis of myocytes relative to fibroblasts, whereas DB188 and nonmyocarditic strains preferentially increase fibroblast apoptosis. Infection of cardiac fibroblasts with the nonmyocarditic strain DB188 elicits substantial increases in a panel of cytokines compared to fibroblasts infected with strain 8B or mock-infected controls. Analysis of culture supernatants using cytometric bead arrays revealed that DB188 enhanced release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70), GRO-KC, tumor necrosis factor-α, and MCP-1 relative to 8B or mock-infected controls (all P < .05).
We hypothesize that differential cytokine production and cell-specific apoptosis are important determinants of myocarditic potential of reoviral strains. Therapies that target the beneficial effects of cytokines in limiting cytopathic damage may offer an effective and novel treatment approach to viral myocarditis.
PMCID: PMC2772824  PMID: 19643365
Viral myocarditis; myocytes; fibroblasts
12.  Cytokines regulate matrix metalloproteinases and migration in cardiac fibroblasts 
We sought to define the relationship between cytokine stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cell migration using adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increased release of MMP-2, 3, and 9, and TIMP-1, by 3–6-fold, measured by immunoblotting and gel zymography. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) augmented IL-1 stimulated release of MMP-9, but not MMP-2 or -3. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) attenuated all the responses to IL-1β. IL-1β was also the most robust stimulus of adult rat cardiac fibroblast migration, measured in Boyden chamber assays. The combination of IL-1β plus TNFα substantially enhanced migration, whereas TGFβ1 strongly inhibited the migratory response to IL-1β. The pan-selective MMP inhibitor GM 6001 effectively blocked IL-1β stimulated migration. Pharmacologic inhibitors selective for ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways inhibited the IL-1β regulation of individual MMPs. Increased MMP activity associated with migration of cardiac fibroblasts may be important determinants of cytokine-directed remodeling of injured myocardium.
PMCID: PMC2017114  PMID: 17706606
Cytokines; fibroblasts; MAP kinases; matrix metalloproteinases; migration
13.  Thyroid hormone induces cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in a TRα1-specific manner that requires TAK1 and p38 MAPK. 
Alterations in thyroid hormone receptor (TR)1 isoform expression have been reported in models of both physiologic and pathologic cardiac hypertrophy as well as in patients with heart failure. In this report, we demonstrate that thyroid hormone (TH) induces hypertrophy as a direct result of binding to the TRα1 isoform and moreover, that over-expression of TRα1 alone is also associated with a hypertrophic phenotype, even in the absence of ligand. The mechanism of TH and TRα1-specific hypertrophy is novel for a nuclear hormone receptor and involves the transforming growth factor beta activated kinase (TAK1) and p38. Mitigating TRα1 effects, both TRα2 and TRβ1 attenuate TRα1-induced myocardial growth and gene expression by diminishing TAK1 and p38 activities, respectively. These findings refine our previous observations on TR expression in the hypertrophied and failing heart and suggest that manipulation of thyroid hormone signaling in an isoform-specific manner may be a relevant therapeutic target for altering the pathologic myocardial program.
PMCID: PMC1237131  PMID: 15831522
nuclear hormone receptor; thyroid hormone receptor; mitogen activated protein kinase; p38MAK; TGFbeta activated kinase; cardiac hypertrophy
14.  AFos Dissociates Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy and Expression of the Pathological Gene Program 
Circulation  2005;111(13):1645-1651.
Although induction of activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor activity has been observed in cardiac hypertrophy, a direct role for AP-1 in myocardial growth and gene expression remains obscure.
Methods and Results
Hypertrophy was induced in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with phenylephrine or overexpression of a constitutively active MAP3K, MKK6. In both treatment groups, induction of the pathological gene profile was observed, ie, expression of β-myosin heavy chain (βMHC), atrial/brain natriuretic peptides (ANP/BNP), and skeletal α-actin (sACT) was increased, whereas expression for α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) genes was repressed. The role of AP-1 in the hypertrophic phenotype was evaluated with the use of an adenoviral construct expressing a dominant negative mutant of the c-Fos proto-oncogene (AdAFos). Although AFos did not change the myocyte growth response, it abrogated the gene profile to both agonists, including the upregulation of both αMHC and SERCA expression.
Although c-Fos/AP-1 is necessary for induction of the pathological/fetal gene program, it does not appear to be critical for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
PMCID: PMC1201436  PMID: 15795322
hypertrophy; signal transduction; myocytes; molecular biology
15.  Caspase Inhibition Protects against Reovirus-Induced Myocardial Injury In Vitro and In Vivo 
Journal of Virology  2004;78(20):11040-11050.
Viral myocarditis is a disease with a high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly characterized, with components of both direct virus-mediated and secondary inflammatory and immune responses contributing to disease. Apoptosis has increasingly been viewed as an important mechanism of myocardial injury in noninfectious models of cardiac disease, including ischemia and failure. Using a reovirus murine model of viral myocarditis, we characterized and targeted apoptosis as a key mechanism of virus-associated myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated caspase-3 activation, in conjunction with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling and annexin binding, in cardiac myocytes after myocarditic viral infection in vitro. We also demonstrated a tight temporal and geographical correlation between caspase-3 activation, histologic injury, and viral load in cardiac tissue after myocarditic viral infection in vivo. Two pharmacologic agents that broadly inhibit caspase activity, Q-VD-OPH and Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK, effectively inhibited virus-induced cellular death in vitro. The inhibition of caspase activity in vivo by the use of pharmacologic agents as well as genetic manipulation reduced virus-induced myocardial injury by 40 to 60% and dramatically improved survival in infected caspase-3-deficient animals. This study indicates that apoptosis plays a critical role in mediating cardiac injury in the setting of viral myocarditis and is the first demonstration that caspase inhibition may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for this devastating disease.
PMCID: PMC521817  PMID: 15452224

Results 1-15 (15)