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1.  Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in type 2 diabetic subjects with and without microalbuminuria 
BMC Research Notes  2010;3:169.
Diabetic subjects, especially women, show high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of ASB in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) with and without microalbuminuria (MA).
A hundred diabetic subjects with MA (53 males/47 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 65.5 ± 11.1 years) and 100 diabetic subjects without MA (52 males/48 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 65.4 ± 11.3 years), consecutively attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of our hospital were recruited in the study. Subjects with overt diabetic nephropathy or nephropathy from other causes were excluded. In addition, subjects with symptoms of urinary track infection or use of antimicrobial drugs in the last 14 days were excluded by the study.
Diabetic subjects with MA showed increased prevalence of ASB compared to diabetic subjects without MA (21% versus 8%, P < 0.001, respectively). Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen isolated in diabetic subjects with and without MA (12% versus 3.0%, P = 0.01, respectively) followed by Proteus mirabilis (6% versus 5%, P = 0.75, respectively) and Klebsiella spp (5% versus 1%, P = 0.09, respectively). Univariate logistic analysis showed that ASB was associated with the presence of coronary artery disease [odds ratio (OR): 0.29, 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI): 0.09-0.95, P = 0.04] and gender (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02-0.35, P < 0.001) in the diabetic study group with MA.
ASB is more prevalent among T2D subjects with MA. Screening for ASB is warranted in diabetic patients especially if pyuria is detected in urine analysis since ASB has been found to be a risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection.
PMCID: PMC2894846  PMID: 20565718
2.  Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction Among Greek Type 2 Diabetic Patients Attending an Outpatient Clinic 
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) attending an outpatient clinic.
We examined thyroid dysfunction in a total of 1,092 patients with T2D.
Prevalence rate of thyroid dysfunction was 12.3%. In the group with thyroid dysfunction there was an excess of females in comparison with the group without thyroid dysfunction (P < 0.001). In addition, patients with thyroid dysfunction had higher values of body mass index (P = 0.03) and HDL-cholesterol levels (P = 0.01), and lower values of LDL-cholesterol levels (P = 0.001) in comparison with patients without thyroid dysfunction. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that presence of thyroid dysfunction was related with gender (OR: 0.220, 95% CI: 0.141 - 0.352) and LDL-cholesterol levels (OR: 0.990, 95% CI: 0.985 - 0.995).
The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among Greek diabetic patients is 12.3%. Diabetic women were more frequently affected than men. Presence of thyroid dysfunction was associated with lower levels of LDL-cholesterol concentrations.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Thyroid dysfunction; Hypothyroidism; Gender; LDL-cholesterol; Greece
PMCID: PMC3140882  PMID: 21811523
3.  Familial history of diabetes and clinical characteristics in Greek subjects with type 2 diabetes 
A lot of studies have showed an excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim, therefore, of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of familial history of T2D in Greek patients, and to evaluate its potential effect on the patient's metabolic control and the presence of diabetic complications.
A total of 1,473 T2D patients were recruited. Those with diabetic mothers, diabetic fathers, diabetic relatives other than parents and no known diabetic relatives, were considered separately.
The prevalence of diabetes in the mother, the father and relatives other than parents, was 27.7, 11.0 and 10.7%, respectively. Patients with paternal diabetes had a higher prevalence of hypertension (64.8 vs. 57.1%, P = 0.05) and lower LDL-cholesterol levels (115.12 ± 39.76 vs. 127.13 ± 46.53 mg/dl, P = 0.006) than patients with diabetes in the mother. Patients with familial diabetes were significantly younger (P < 0.001), with lower age at diabetes diagnosis (P < 0.001) than those without diabetic relatives. Patients with a diabetic parent had higher body mass index (BMI) (31.22 ± 5.87 vs. 30.67 ± 5.35 Kg/m2, P = 0.08), higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (49.8 vs. 44.6%, P = 0.06) and retinopathy (17.9 vs. 14.5%, P = 0.08) compared with patients with no diabetic relatives. No difference in the degree of metabolic control and the prevalence of chronic complications were observed.
The present study showed an excess maternal transmission of T2D in a sample of Greek diabetic patients. However, no different influence was found between maternal and paternal diabetes on the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients except for LDL-cholesterol levels and presence of hypertension. The presence of a family history of diabetes resulted to an early onset of the disease to the offspring.
PMCID: PMC2680864  PMID: 19397813
4.  Prevalence of depressive symptoms among non insulin treated Greek type 2 diabetic subjects 
BMC Research Notes  2008;1:101.
Depression is common among diabetic subjects. We conducted the present study to estimate the prevalence of depression in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Greece.
The study sample consisted of 320 T2D subjects without overt macrovascular disease attending the diabetes outpatient clinic of our hospital, from June 2007 to December 2007. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory, modified for use in diabetic subjects.
Of the study subjects 107 (33.4%) reported elevated depressive symptoms. More women than men with diabetes reported symptoms of depression (48.4% vs. 12.7%, P < 0.001). In the female study group, depressive symptoms were correlated with HbA1c (P = 0.04), and duration of diabetes (P = 0.004). In the male study group, univariate linear regression analysis showed no significant relationships between depressive symptoms and the testing variables.
The prevalence of depression in Greek T2D subjects is high. Diabetic female subjects showed increased levels of depressive symptoms compared with male subjects. Independent risk factors of depressive symptoms in diabetic female subjects were diabetes duration and glycemic control.
PMCID: PMC2590605  PMID: 18957113

Results 1-4 (4)