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author:("Jensen, tony")
1.  Nocturnal antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes with autonomic neuropathy and non-dipping of blood pressure during night time: protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-way crossover study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(10):e006142.
Introduction
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and elevated nocturnal blood pressure are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Previously, associations between CAN, non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure and coronary artery calcification have been demonstrated. The present protocol describes a trial to test the efficacy of bedtime dosing of the ACE inhibitor enalapril on night time blood pressure and left ventricular mass in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Materials and methods
In a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over study, 24 normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabetes with CAN will be treated for 12 weeks with either morning or bedtime dosing of 20 mg enalapril, followed by 12 weeks of switched treatment regimen. During each treatment period, two 24 h ambulatory blood pressure measurements will be performed and after each treatment period left ventricular mass will be determined by multisliced CT. Primary end points will be reduction in blood pressure and reduction in left ventricular mass.
Ethics and dissemination
The study has been approved by the Danish Medicines Agency, the Scientific-Ethical Committee of the Capital Region of Denmark and the Danish Data Protection Agency. An external monitoring committee (the Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospital) will oversee the study. The results of the study will be presented at national and international scientific meetings and publications will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals.
Trial registration number
EudraCT (2012- 002136-90).
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006142
PMCID: PMC4187995  PMID: 25293387
2.  Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Normoalbuminuric Type 1 Diabetic Patients 
Diabetes  2012;61(7):1822-1830.
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased mortality in diabetes. Since CAN often develops in parallel with diabetic nephropathy as a confounder, we aimed to investigate the isolated impact of CAN on cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric patients. Fifty-six normoalbuminuric, type 1 diabetic patients were divided into 26 with (+) and 30 without (−) CAN according to tests of their autonomic nerve function. Coronary artery plaque burden and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were evaluated using computed tomography. Left ventricular function was evaluated using echocardiography. Blood pressure and electrocardiography were recorded through 24 h to evaluate nocturnal drop in blood pressure (dipping) and pulse pressure. In patients +CAN compared with −CAN, the CACS was higher, and only patients +CAN had a CACS >400. A trend toward a higher prevalence of coronary plaques and flow-limiting stenosis in patients +CAN was nonsignificant. In patients +CAN, left ventricular function was decreased in both diastole and systole, nondipping was more prevalent, and pulse pressure was increased compared with −CAN. In multivariable analysis, CAN was independently associated with increased CACS, subclinical left ventricular dysfunction, and increased pulse pressure. In conclusion, CAN in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients is associated with distinct signs of subclinical cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.2337/db11-1235
PMCID: PMC3379682  PMID: 22498696
3.  A prospective randomised cross-over study of the effect of insulin analogues and human insulin on the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and recurrent hypoglycaemia (the HypoAna trial): study rationale and design 
Background
Severe hypoglycaemia still represents a significant problem in insulin-treated diabetes. Most patients do not experience severe hypoglycaemia often. However, 20% of patients with type 1 diabetes experience recurrent severe hypoglycaemia corresponding to at least two episodes per year. The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control has been documented in large trials, while their effect on the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia is less clear, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. The HypoAna Trial is designed to investigate whether short-acting and long-acting insulin analogues in comparison with human insulin are superior in reducing the occurrence of severe hypoglycaemic episodes in patients with recurrent hypoglycaemia. This paper reports the study design of the HypoAna Trial.
Methods/design
The study is a Danish two-year investigator-initiated, prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint (PROBE), multicentre, cross-over trial investigating the effect of insulin analogues versus human insulin on the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Patients are randomised to treatment with basal-bolus therapy with insulin detemir / insulin aspart or human NPH insulin / human regular insulin in random order. The major inclusion criterion is history of two or more episodes of severe hypoglycaemia in the preceding year.
Discussion
In contrast to almost all other studies in this field the HypoAna Trial includes only patients with major problems with hypoglycaemia. The HypoAna Trial will elucidate whether basal-bolus regimen with short-acting and long-acting insulin analogues in comparison with human insulin are superior in reducing occurrence of severe hypoglycaemic episodes in hypoglycaemia prone patients with type 1 diabetes. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00346996.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-12-10
PMCID: PMC3433358  PMID: 22727048
Type 1 diabetes; Severe hypoglycaemia; Human insulin; Insulin analogues; PROBE
4.  Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion 
To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal urinary albumin excretion (<30 mg/24 h), group 2 comprised 10 with incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion 30-300 mg/24 h, and group 3 comprised 10 with clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion >300 mg/24 h). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex, age, and physical activity served as controls. Oxygen uptake was similar in the four groups at rest and during a 75 W workload. Maximal oxygen uptake was also similar in the control subjects and group 1 (median 41·7, (range 29·1-53·0) ml/kg/min v 38·5 (26·6-59·2) ml/kg/min, respectively), but was significantly lower in group 2 (27·7 (13·9-44·3) ml/kg/min) and group 3 (26·8 (22·6-36·7) ml/kg/min). The difference in maximal oxygen uptake between groups 1 and 2 was 10·8 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval 3·6 to 23·4 ml/kg/min) and between groups 1 and 3, 11·7 ml/kg/min (4·9 to 22·5 ml/kg/min). These differences were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy.
Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy or the duration of diabetes. Whether the reduced capacity is due to widespread microangiopathy or another pathological process affecting the myocardium remains to be established.
PMCID: PMC2545826  PMID: 3134983

Results 1-4 (4)