Glucagon levels are increasingly being included as endpoints in clinical study design and more than 400 current diabetes-related clinical trials have glucagon as an outcome measure. The reliability of immune-based technologies used to measure endogenous glucagon concentrations is, therefore, important. We studied the ability of immunoassays based on four different technologies to detect changes in levels of glucagon under conditions where glucagon levels are strongly suppressed.
To our surprise, the most advanced technological methods, employing electrochemiluminescence or homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) detection, were not capable of detecting the suppression induced by a glucose clamp (6 mmol/L) with or without atropine in five healthy male participants, whereas a radioimmunoassay and a spectrophotometry-based ELISA were. In summary, measurement of glucagon is challenging even when state-of-the-art immune-based technologies are used. Clinical researchers using glucagon as outcome measures may need to reconsider the validity of their chosen glucagon assay. The current study demonstrates that the most advanced approach is not necessarily the best when measuring a low-abundant peptide such as glucagon in humans.
IDegLira is a novel, fixed-ratio combination of the long-acting basal insulin, insulin degludec, and the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide. We studied the effect of IDegLira versus its components on postprandial glucose (PPG) in type 2 diabetes.
In this substudy, 260 (15.6%) of the original 1663 patients with inadequate glycemic control participating in a 26-week, open-label trial (DUAL I) were randomized 2:1:1 to once-daily IDegLira, insulin degludec or liraglutide. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 72 hours and a meal test were performed.
At week 26, IDegLira produced a significantly greater decrease from baseline in mean PPG increment (normalized iAUC0-4h) than insulin degludec (estimated treatment difference [ETD] −12.79 mg/dl [95% CI: −21.08; −4.68], P = .0023) and a similar magnitude of decrease as liraglutide (ETD −1.62 mg/dl [95% CI: −10.09; 6.67], P = .70). CGM indicated a greater reduction in change from baseline in PPG increment (iAUC0-4h) for IDegLira versus insulin degludec over all 3 main meals (ETD −6.13 mg/dl [95% CI: −10.27, −1.98], P = .0047) and similar reductions versus liraglutide (ETD −1.80 mg/dl [95% CI: −2.52, 5.95], P = .4122). Insulin secretion ratio and static index were greater for IDegLira versus insulin degludec (P = .048 and P = .006, respectively) and similar to liraglutide (P = .45 and P = .895, respectively).
Once-daily IDegLira provides significantly better PPG control following a mixed meal test than insulin degludec. The improvement is at least partially explained by higher endogenous insulin secretion and improved beta cell function with IDegLira. The benefits of liraglutide on PPG control are maintained across all main meals in the combination.
diabetes therapy; insulin degludec; liraglutide; postprandial glucose; incretins; combination therapy; quality of glycemic control
Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3′ mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene. Loss of the splice site acceptor consensus sequence results in the deletion of 70 nucleotides encoded by exon 9, which introduces a frame shift and an early termination signal in the receptor mRNA sequence. The mutated receptor neither bound 125I-labeled glucagon nor induced cAMP production upon stimulation with up to 1 µM glucagon. Despite the mutation, the only obvious pathophysiological trait was hyperglucagonemia, hyperaminoacidemia and massive hyperplasia of the pancreatic α-cells assessed by histology. Our case supports the notion of a hepato–pancreatic feedback system, which upon disruption leads to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells.
Loss of function of the glucagon receptor may not necessarily lead to the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis.
Loss of function of the glucagon receptor causes hyperaminoacidemia, hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia and sometimes other pancreatic abnormalities.
A hepato–pancreatic feedback regulation of the α-cells, possibly involving amino acids, may exist in humans.
In healthy carriers of the T allele of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), fasting plasma glucagon concentrations are lower compared with those with the C allele. We hypothesised that presence of the T allele is associated with a diminished glucagon response during hypoglycaemia and a higher frequency of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM).
Material and methods
This is a post hoc study of an earlier prospective observational study of SH and four mechanistic studies of physiological responses to hypoglycaemia. 269 patients with T1DM were followed in a one-year observational study. A log-linear negative binomial model was applied with events of SH as dependent variable and TCF7L2 alleles as explanatory variable. In four experimental studies including 65 people, TCF7L2 genotyping was done and plasma glucagon concentration during experimental hypoglycaemia was determined.
Incidences of SH were TT 0.54, TC 0.98 and CC 1.01 episodes per patient-year with no significant difference between groups. During experimental hypoglycaemia, the TCF7L2 polymorphism did not influence glucagon secretion.
Patients with T1DM carrying the T allele of the TCF7L2 polymorphism do not exhibit diminished glucagon response during hypoglycaemia and are not at increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia compared with carriers of the C allele.
type 1 diabetes; severe hypoglycaemia; TCF7L2; glucagon; epidemiology; experimental hypoglycaemia
To examine the effect on serum lipase activity and protein concentration of intravenous infusions of glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) and peptide YY (PYY
3‐36) and of an ad libitum meal in healthy overweight men. Twenty‐five healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled 4‐arm crossover study (Body Mass Index (BMI): 29 ± 3 kg/m2, age: 33 ± 9 years). On separate days, the subjects received a 150‐min intravenous infusion of either (1) 0.8 pmol/kg/min PYY
3‐36, (2) 1.0 pmol/kg/min GLP‐1, (3) 1 + 2, or (4) placebo. Samples were collected throughout the infusion and after intake of an ad libitum meal for measurement of serum lipase. Serum lipase levels measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following mono‐infusions of GLP‐1 and PYY
3‐36 were comparable to serum lipase levels following placebo (P = 0.054 and P = 0.873, respectively). Following the co‐infusion of GLP‐1 and PYY
3‐36, serum lipase levels measured by ELISA decreased over time compared to placebo (P = 0.012). However, the between‐group difference was not consistent when each time point was analyzed separately. On the placebo day, serum lipase levels measured by ELISA after an ad libitum meal rose slightly compared to the preprandial values (P = 0.003). There was strong correlation between serum lipase levels measured by ELISA and LIPC Lipase colorimetric assay (COBAS) (0.94 < r; <0.0001). Infusions of GLP‐1 and PYY
3‐36, separately or in combination, did not increase serum lipase. However, a small increase in serum lipase may occur in response to a meal.
GLP‐1; PYY3‐36 and serum lipase
Intra-islet and gut–islet crosstalk are critical in orchestrating basal and postprandial metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify regulatory proteins and receptors underlying somatostatin secretion though the use of transcriptomic comparison of purified murine alpha, beta and delta cells.
Sst-Cre mice crossed with fluorescent reporters were used to identify delta cells, while Glu-Venus (with Venus reported under the control of the Glu [also known as Gcg] promoter) mice were used to identify alpha and beta cells. Alpha, beta and delta cells were purified using flow cytometry and analysed by RNA sequencing. The role of the ghrelin receptor was validated by imaging delta cell calcium concentrations using islets with delta cell restricted expression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3, and in perfused mouse pancreases.
A database was constructed of all genes expressed in alpha, beta and delta cells. The gene encoding the ghrelin receptor, Ghsr, was highlighted as being highly expressed and enriched in delta cells. Activation of the ghrelin receptor raised cytosolic calcium levels in primary pancreatic delta cells and enhanced somatostatin secretion in perfused pancreases, correlating with a decrease in insulin and glucagon release. The inhibition of insulin secretion by ghrelin was prevented by somatostatin receptor antagonism.
Our transcriptomic database of genes expressed in the principal islet cell populations will facilitate rational drug design to target specific islet cell types. The present study indicates that ghrelin acts specifically on delta cells within pancreatic islets to elicit somatostatin secretion, which in turn inhibits insulin and glucagon release. This highlights a potential role for ghrelin in the control of glucose metabolism.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-016-4033-1) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Alpha cells; Beta cells; Delta cells; Ghrelin; Glucagon; Insulin; RNA sequencing; Somatostatin
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective means to achieve sustained weight loss for morbidly obese individuals. Besides rapid weight reduction, patients achieve major improvements of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and some of its co-morbidities, like type 2 diabetes, and major changes of gut microbial communities have been hypothesized to mediate part of the beneficial metabolic effects observed after RYGB. Here we describe changes in gut microbial taxonomic composition and functional potential following RYGB.
We recruited 13 morbidly obese patients who underwent RYGB, carefully phenotyped them, and had their gut microbiomes quantified before (n = 13) and 3 months (n = 12) and 12 months (n = 8) after RYGB. Following shotgun metagenomic sequencing of the fecal microbial DNA purified from stools, we characterized the gut microbial composition at species and gene levels followed by functional annotation.
In parallel with the weight loss and metabolic improvements, gut microbial diversity increased within the first 3 months after RYGB and remained high 1 year later. RYGB led to altered relative abundances of 31 species (P < 0.05, q < 0.15) within the first 3 months, including those of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Veillonella spp., Streptococcus spp., Alistipes spp., and Akkermansia muciniphila. Sixteen of these species maintained their altered relative abundances during the following 9 months. Interestingly, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was the only species that decreased in relative abundance. Fifty-three microbial functional modules increased their relative abundance between baseline and 3 months (P < 0.05, q < 0.17). These functional changes included increased potential (i) to assimilate multiple energy sources using transporters and phosphotransferase systems, (ii) to use aerobic respiration, (iii) to shift from protein degradation to putrefaction, and (iv) to use amino acids and fatty acids as energy sources.
Within 3 months after morbidly obese individuals had undergone RYGB, their gut microbiota featured an increased diversity, an altered composition, an increased potential for oxygen tolerance, and an increased potential for microbial utilization of macro- and micro-nutrients. These changes were maintained for the first year post-RYGB.
Current controlled trials (ID NCT00810823, NCT01579981, and NCT01993511).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13073-016-0312-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame −15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice.
Anesthesia; metabolic test; oral glucose tolerance test
Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all). Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4%) in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats.
Low-abundance regulatory peptides, including metabolically important gut hormones, have shown promising therapeutic potential. Here, we present a streamlined mass spectrometry-based platform for identifying and characterizing low-abundance regulatory peptides in humans. We demonstrate the clinical applicability of this platform by studying a hitherto neglected glucose- and appetite-regulating gut hormone, namely, oxyntomodulin. Our results show that the secretion of oxyntomodulin in patients with type 2 diabetes is significantly impaired, and that its level is increased by more than 10-fold after gastric bypass surgery. Furthermore, we report that oxyntomodulin is co-distributed and co-secreted with the insulin-stimulating and appetite-regulating gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is inactivated by the same protease (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) as GLP-1 and acts through its receptor. Thus, oxyntomodulin may participate with GLP-1 in the regulation of glucose metabolism and appetite in humans. In conclusion, this mass spectrometry-based platform is a powerful resource for identifying and characterizing metabolically active low-abundance peptides.
•In the pursuit of identifying metabolic peptides in humans we developed a streamlined mass-spectrometry based platform•Our platform was used to investigate a gut derived glucose and appetite regulatory peptide, oxyntomodulin•Levels of oxyntomodulin are reduced in subjects with type 2 diabetes and increased after gastric bypass surgery
The human plasma comprises a variety of peptides with importance for metabolic health. Identification of such peptides has been exploited for developing glucose-lowering therapies, such as incretin-based therapy. We therefore developed a mass-spectrometry based platform for identification of peptides in humans and by applying this platform we characterized a peptide hormone oxyntomodulin secreted from the intestine in response to glucose. Our data suggest that oxyntomodulin is down-regulated in subjects with type 2 diabetes and up-regulated after bariatric surgery. In summary, the collected data indicate that oxyntomodulin may co-orchestrate appetite and glucose regulatory effects together with incretin hormones.
Gut hormones; GLP-1; Low-abundant peptides; Mass-spectrometry; Proteomics
Mice, rats, and pigs are the three most used animal models when studying gastrointestinal peptide hormones;
however their distribution from the duodenum to the distal colon has not been characterized systematically across mice, rats and pigs. We therefore performed a comparative distribution analysis of the tissue content of the major appetite- and glucose regulatory peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-2), oxyntomodulin/glicentin, neurotensin, and peptide YY (PYY) from the duodenum to distal colon in mice (n = 9), rats (n = 9) and pigs (n = 8), using validated radioimmunoassays.
GLP-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin/glicentin show similar patterns of distribution within the respective species, but for rats and pigs the highest levels were found in the distal small intestine, whereas for the mouse the highest level was found in the distal colon. In rats and pigs, neurotensin was predominantly detected in mid and lower part of the small intestine, while the mouse showed the highest levels in the distal small intestine. In contrast, the distribution of GIP was restricted to the proximal small intestine in all three species. Most surprisingly, in the pig PYY was found in large amounts in the proximal part of the small intestine whereas both rats and mice had undetectable levels until the distal small intestine.
In summary, the distribution patterns of extractable GIP, GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin/glicentin, neurotensin are preserved across species whereas PYY distribution showed marked differences.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13104-016-1872-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Gut hormones; Gastrointestinal tract; Distribution of gut hormones in the mouse rat and pig
The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 ± 4.84 µmol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 ± 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 ± 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P < 0.05). Total bile acids were inversely correlated with 2-h post-meal glucose (r = −0.59, P < 0.003) and fasting triglycerides (r = −0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = −0.48, P < 0.02) and peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (r = 0.58, P < 0.003). Total bile acids strongly correlated inversely with thyrotropic hormone (TSH) (r = −0.57, P = 0.004). Together, our data suggest that altered bile acid levels and composition may contribute to improved glucose and lipid metabolism in patients who have had GB.
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is expressed in the brainstem and vagal afferent nerves, and regulates a number of aspects of gastrointestinal function. Here we show that the receptor is also diffusely expressed in cells of the gastrointestinal system, from stomach to descending colon. Furthermore, MC4R is the second most highly expressed GPCR in peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide one (GLP-1) expressing enteroendocrine L cells. When vectorial ion transport is measured across mouse or human intestinal mucosa, administration of α-MSH induces a MC4R-specific PYY-dependent anti-secretory response consistent with a role for the MC4R in paracrine inhibition of electrolyte secretion. Finally, MC4R-dependent acute PYY and GLP-1 release from L cells can be stimulated in vivo by intraperitoneal administration of melanocortin peptides to mice. This suggests physiological significance for MC4R in L cells, and indicates a previously unrecognized peripheral role for the MC4R, complementing vagal and central receptor functions.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) secreting proglucagon are associated with phenotypic heterogeneity. Here, we describe two patients with pNETs and varied clinical phenotypes due to differential processing and secretion of proglucagon-derived peptides (PGDPs). Case 1, a 57-year-old woman presented with necrolytic migratory erythema, anorexia, constipation and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. She was found to have a grade 1 pNET, small bowel mucosal thickening and hyperglucagonaemia. Somatostatin analogue (SSA) therapy improved appetite, abolished hypoglycaemia and improved the rash. Case 2, a 48-year-old male presented with diabetes mellitus, diarrhoea, weight loss, nausea, vomiting and perineal rash due to a grade 1 metastatic pNET and hyperglucagonaemia. In both cases, plasma levels of all measured PGDPs were elevated and attenuated following SSA therapy. In case 1, there was increased production of intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2, similar to that of the enteroendocrine L cell. In case 2, pancreatic glucagon was elevated due to a pancreatic α-cell-like proglucagon processing profile. In summary, we describe two patients with pNETs and heterogeneous clinical phenotypes due to differential processing and secretion of PGDPs. This is the first description of a patient with symptomatic hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and marked gastrointestinal dysfunction due to, in part, a proglucagon-expressing pNET.
PGDPs exhibit a diverse range of biological activities including critical roles in glucose and amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal physiology.The clinical manifestations of proglucagon-expressing tumours may exhibit marked phenotypic variation due to the biochemical heterogeneity of their secreted peptide repertoire.Specific and precise biochemical assessment of individuals with proglucagon-expressing tumours may provide opportunities for improved diagnosis and clinical management.
The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans.
Meal tests with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily) in a group of 12 lean and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition.
Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release.
As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males.
The central nervous system (CNS) is a major player in the regulation of food intake. The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been proposed to have an important role in this regulation by relaying information about nutritional status to the CNS. We hypothesised that endogenous GLP-1 has effects on CNS reward and satiety circuits.
This was a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention study, performed in a university medical centre in the Netherlands. We included patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy lean control subjects. Individuals were eligible if they were 40–65 years. Inclusion criteria for the healthy lean individuals included a BMI <25 kg/m2 and normoglycaemia. Inclusion criteria for the patients with type 2 diabetes included BMI >26 kg/m2, HbA1c levels between 42 and 69 mmol/mol (6.0–8.5%) and treatment for diabetes with only oral glucose-lowering agents. We assessed CNS activation, defined as blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, in response to food pictures in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 20) and healthy lean individuals (n = 20) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed in the fasted state and after meal intake on two occasions, once during infusion of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39, which was administered to block actions of endogenous GLP-1, and on the other occasion during saline (placebo) infusion. Participants were blinded for the type of infusion. The order of infusion was determined by block randomisation. The primary outcome was the difference in BOLD signal, i.e. in CNS activation, in predefined regions in the CNS in response to viewing food pictures.
All patients were included in the analyses. Patients with type 2 diabetes showed increased CNS activation in CNS areas involved in the regulation of feeding (insula, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex) in response to food pictures compared with lean individuals (p ≤ 0.04). Meal intake reduced activation in the insula in response to food pictures in both groups (p ≤ 0.05), but this was more pronounced in patients with type 2 diabetes. Blocking actions of endogenous GLP-1 significantly prevented meal-induced reductions in bilateral insula activation in response to food pictures in patients with type 2 diabetes (p ≤ 0.03).
Our findings support the hypothesis that endogenous GLP-1 is involved in postprandial satiating effects in the CNS of obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01363609
Funding The study was funded in part by a grant from Novo Nordisk.
fMRI; Food intake; GLP-1; Neuroimaging; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays a central role in modern treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the form of GLP-1 enhancers and GLP-1 mimetics. An alternative treatment strategy is to stimulate endogenous GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine L cells using a targeted approach. The G-protein-coupled receptor, FFAR1 (previously GPR40), expressed on L cells and activated by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) is a potential target. A link between FFAR1 activation and GLP-1 secretion has been demonstrated in cellular models and small-molecule FFAR1 agonists have been developed. In this study, we examined the effect of FFAR1 activation on GLP-1 secretion using isolated, perfused small intestines from rats, a physiologically relevant model allowing distinction between direct and indirect effects of FFAR1 activation. The endogenous FFAR1 ligand, linoleic acid (LA), and four synthetic FFAR1 agonists (TAK-875, AMG 837, AM-1638, and AM-5262) were administered through intraluminal and intra-arterial routes, respectively, and dynamic changes in GLP-1 secretion were evaluated. Vascular administration of 10 μmol/L TAK-875, 10 μmol/L AMG 837, 1 μmol/L and 0.1 μmol/L AM-1638, 1 μmol/L AM-6252, and 1 mmol/L LA, all significantly increased GLP-1 secretion compared to basal levels (P < 0.05), whereas luminal administration of LA and FFAR1 agonists was ineffective. Thus, both natural and small-molecule agonists of the FFAR1 receptor appear to require absorption prior to stimulating GLP-1 secretion, indicating that therapies based on activation of nutrient sensing may be more complex than hitherto expected.
G-protein-coupled receptor; incretin; long-chain fatty acids
Gastric bypass surgery seems to have an effect on glucose metabolism beyond what is mediated through weight reduction. The magnitude of this effect on fasting and post-challenge glucose levels remains unknown.
Morbidly obese subjects without known diabetes performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test before and after either gastric bypass surgery (n = 64) or an intensive lifestyle intervention programme (n = 55), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00273104. The age-adjusted effects of the therapeutic procedures and percentage weight change on fasting and 2-h glucose levels at 1 year were explored using multiple linear regression analysis. Mean (SD) serum fasting and 2-h glucose levels at baseline did not differ between the surgery and lifestyle groups. Weight-loss after surgical treatment and lifestyle intervention was 30 (8) and 9 (10) % (p < 0.001). At 1 year, fasting and 2-h glucose levels were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the lifestyle group, 4.7 (0.4) versus 5.4 (0.7) mmol/l and 3.4 (0.8) versus 6.0 (2.4) mmol/l, respectively (both p < 0.001). Gastric bypass and weight-loss had both independent glucose-lowering effects on 2-h glucose levels [B (95 % CI) 1.4 (0.6–2.3) mmol/l and 0.4 (0.1–0.7) mmol/l per 10 % weight-loss, respectively]. Fasting glucose levels were determined by weight change [0.2 (0.1–0.3) mmol/l per 10 % weight-loss] and not by type of treatment.
Gastric bypass surgery has a clinically relevant glucose-lowering effect on post-challenge glucose levels which is seemingly not mediated through weight-loss alone.
Morbid obesity; Hypoglycaemia; Gastric bypass surgery
Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein–coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1–secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca2+ response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber–mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms.
Early weaning (EW) results in a transient period of impaired integrity of the intestinal mucosa that may be associated with reduced plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-(GLP) 2. We have previously shown that intragastric infusion of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC) increases circulating GLP-2 in early-weaned piglets. The aim of this study was to expand previous work to establish whether feeding piglets a cereal-based diet supplemented with CDC can improve gut integrity and animal performance immediately after EW. A cohort of 36 piglets weaned at 20 days of age, 6.2 ± 0.34 kg of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned (n = 18) to receive a standard prestarter diet or the same diet supplemented with 60 mg of CDC per kg of initial BW for ad libitum intake until day 14 postweaning. Thereafter, all pigs were fed the same untreated starter diet for 21 days until the end of the study on day 35. On days 1, 7 and 14 blood samples were collected from 6 pigs per treatment to measure plasma GLP-2. On day 15, 6 pigs per treatment were euthanized to obtain intestinal tissue samples for later histological and gene expression analyses.
Supplementing the diet with CDC tended to increase plasma GLP-2 (P < 0.07; 39 %) and the weight of the large intestine (P < 0.10; 11 %), and increased ileal crypt depth (P < 0.04; 15 %) after 14 days of treatment exposure. Although feed intake and BW gain were not affected by treatments, feeding CDC induced the expression of the cytokines TNF-α (P < 0.02; 1.9 fold), IL-6 (P < 0.01; 2.4 fold), and IL-10 (P < 0.006; 2.2 fold) and the tight junctional protein ZON-1 (P < 0.02; 1.5 fold) in the distal small intestine.
This study showed that the oral administration of CDC to early-weaned pigs has the potential to improve the protection of the intestinal mucosa independently of relevant changes in gut growth.
Chenodeoxycholic acid; Glucagon-like petide-2; Early weaning; Piglet
l-glutamine triggers glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release from L cells in vitro and when ingested pre-meal, decreases postprandial glycaemia and increases circulating insulin and GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We aimed to evaluate the effect of oral l-glutamine, compared with whole protein low in glutamine, on insulin response in well-controlled T2D patients. In a randomized study with a crossover design, T2D patients (n = 10, 6 men) aged 65.1 ± 5.8, with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.6% ± 0.7% (48 ± 8 mmol/mol), received oral l-glutamine (25 g), protein (25 g) or water, followed by an intravenous glucose bolus (0.3 g/kg) and hyperglycemic glucose clamp for 2 h. Blood was frequently collected for analyses of glucose, serum insulin and plasma total and active GLP-1 and area under the curve of glucose, insulin, total and active GLP-1 excursions calculated. Treatments were tested 1–2 weeks apart. Both l-glutamine and protein increased first-phase insulin response (p ≤ 0.02). Protein (p = 0.05), but not l-glutamine (p = 0.2), increased second-phase insulin response. Total GLP-1 was increased by both l-glutamine and protein (p ≤ 0.02). We conclude that oral l-glutamine and whole protein are similarly effective in restoring first-phase insulin response in T2D patients. Larger studies are required to further investigate the utility of similar approaches in improving insulin response in diabetes.
glutamine; insulin response; hyperglycemic glucose clamp; type 2 diabetes
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts beneficial antidiabetic actions via effects on pancreatic β- and α-cells. Previous studies have focused on the improvements in β-cell function, while the inhibition of α-cell secretion has received less attention. The aim of this research was to quantify the glucagonostatic contribution to the glucose-lowering effect of GLP-1 infusions in patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Ten male patients with well-regulated type 2 diabetes (A1C 6.9 ± 0.8%, age 56 ± 10 years, BMI 31 ± 3 kg/m2 [means ± SD]) were subjected to five 120-min glucose clamps at fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. On day 1, GLP-1 was infused to stimulate endogenous insulin release and suppress endogenous glucagon. On days 2–5, pancreatic endocrine clamps were performed using somatostatin infusions of somatostatin and/or selective replacement of insulin and glucagon; day 2, GLP-1 plus basal insulin and glucagon (no glucagon suppression or insulin stimulation); day 3, basal insulin only (glucagon deficiency); day 4, basal glucagon and stimulated insulin; and day 5, stimulated insulin. The basal plasma glucagon levels were chosen to simulate portal glucagon levels.
Peptide infusions produced the desired hormone levels. The amount of glucose required to clamp FPG was 24.5 ± 4.1 (day 1), 0.3 ± 0.2 (day 2), 10.6 ± 1.1 (day 3), 11.5 ± 2.7 (day 4), and 24.5 ± 2.6 g (day 5) (day 2 was lower than days 3 and 4, which were both similar and lower than days 1 and 5).
We concluded that insulin stimulation (day 4) and glucagon inhibition (day 3) contribute equally to the effect of GLP-1 on glucose turnover in patients with type 2 diabetes, and these changes explain the glucose-lowering effect of GLP-1 (day 5 vs. day 1).
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by poor glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and manifests when insulin secretion fails to cope with worsening insulin resistance. In addition to its effects on skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue metabolism, it is evident that insulin resistance also affects pancreatic β-cells. To directly examine the alterations that occur in islet morphology as part of an adaptive mechanism to insulin resistance, we evaluated pancreas samples obtained during pancreatoduodenectomy from nondiabetic subjects who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive. We also compared insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and incretin levels between the two groups. We report an increased islet size and an elevated number of β- and α-cells that resulted in an altered β-cell–to–α-cell area in the insulin- resistant group. Our data in this series of studies suggest that neogenesis from duct cells and transdifferentiation of α-cells are potential contributors to the β-cell compensatory response to insulin resistance in the absence of overt diabetes.
Incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in meal-related insulin secretion. We previously demonstrated that glutamine is a potent stimulus of GLP-1 secretion in vitro.
To determine whether glutamine increases circulating GLP-1 and GIP levels in vivo and, if so, whether this is associated with an increase in plasma insulin.
We recruited 8 healthy, normal-weight volunteers (LEAN), 8 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (OB-DIAB) and 8 obese non-diabetic controls (OB-CON). Oral glucose (75g), glutamine (30g) and water were administered on three separate days in random order and plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, insulin, glucagon and glucose were measured over 120 minutes.
Oral glucose led to increases in circulating GLP-1 levels, peaking at 30 min in LEAN (31.9±5.7 pmol/L) and OB-CON (24.3±2.1 pmol/L) subjects and at 45 min in OB-DIAB subjects (19.5±1.8 pmol/L). Circulating GLP-1 levels increased in all study groups following glutamine ingestion, with peak levels at 30 min of 22.5±3.4 pmol/L, 17.9±1.1 pmol/L and 17.3±3.4 pmol/L in LEAN, OB-CON and OB-DIAB subjects, respectively. Glutamine also increased plasma GIP levels, but less effectively than glucose. Consistent with the increases in GLP-1 and GIP, glutamine significantly increased circulating plasma insulin levels. Glutamine stimulated glucagon secretion in all three study groups.
Glutamine effectively increases circulating GLP-1, GIP and insulin levels in vivo and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to stimulating insulin secretion in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
GLP-1; GIP; glucagon; insulin secretion; glutamine; diabetes