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1.  DreamTel; Diabetes risk evaluation and management tele-monitoring study protocol 
Background
The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes underlines the importance of secondary strategies for the prevention of target organ damage. While access to diabetes education centers and diabetes intensification management has been shown to improve blood glucose control, these services are not available to all that require them, particularly in rural and northern areas. The provision of these services through the Home Care team is an advance that can overcome these barriers. Transfer of blood glucose data electronically from the home to the health care provider may improve diabetes management.
Methods and design
The study population will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled A1c levels living on reserve in the Battlefords region of Saskatchewan, Canada. This pilot study will take place over three phases. In the first phase over three months the impact of the introduction of the Bluetooth enabled glucose monitor will be assessed. In the second phase over three months, the development of guidelines based treatment algorithms for diabetes intensification will be completed. In the third phase lasting 18 months, study subjects will have diabetes intensification according to the algorithms developed.
Discussion
The first phase will determine if the use of the Bluetooth enabled blood glucose devices which can transmit results electronically will lead to changes in A1c levels. It will also determine the feasibility of recruiting subjects to use this technology. The rest of the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Management Tele-monitoring (DreamTel) study will determine if the delivery of a diabetes intensification management program by the Home Care team supported by the Bluetooth enabled glucose meters leads to improvements in diabetes management.
Trial Registration
Protocol NCT00325624
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-9-13
PMCID: PMC2689225  PMID: 19426530
2.  Effect of nurse-directed hypertension treatment among First Nations people with existing hypertension and diabetes mellitus: the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Microalbuminuria (DREAM 3) randomized controlled trial 
Background
First Nations people with diabetes mellitus and hypertension are at greater risk of renal and cardiovascular complications than are non-native patients because of barriers to health care services. We conducted this randomized controlled trial to assess whether a community-based treatment strategy implemented by home care nurses would be effective in controlling hypertension in First Nations people with existing hypertension and type 2 diabetes.
Methods
We compared 2 community-based strategies for controlling hypertension in First Nations people with existing hypertension and diabetes. In the intervention group, a home care nurse followed a predefined treatment algorithm of pharmacologic antihypertensive therapy. In the control group, treatment decisions were made by each subject's primary care physician. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the 2 groups in the change in systolic blood pressure after 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were the change in diastolic blood pressure over time, the change in urine albumin status and the incidence of adverse events.
Results
Both groups experienced a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure by the final visit (by 24.0 [standard deviation (SD) 13.5] mm Hg in the intervention group and by 17.0 [SD 18.6] mm Hg in the control group); p < 0.001 in each case). However, the difference between the 2 groups in this change was not significant. Patients in the intervention group had a larger decrease in diastolic blood pressure over time than did those in the control group (by 11.6 [SD 10.6] mm Hg v. 6.8 [SD 11.1] mm Hg respectively; p = 0.05). The groups did not differ significantly in terms of changes in urine albumin excretion or incidence of adverse events.
Interpretation
High rates of blood pressure control in the community were achieved in both groups in the DREAM 3 study. The addition of a home care nurse to implement a treatment strategy for blood pressure control was more effective in lowering diastolic than systolic blood pressure compared with home care visits for blood pressure monitoring alone and follow-up treatment by a family physician.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.050030
PMCID: PMC1435956  PMID: 16595786

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