La granulomatose avec polyangéite (GPA) est une vascularite nécrosante systémique, caractérisée par une inflammation granulomateuse, une nécrose tissulaire et une vascularite touchant les vaisseaux de moyen et, surtout, de petit calibre, elle touche rarement l'enfant.
Granulomatose; enfant; vascularite; Granulomatosis; child; vasculitis
Purpura vasculaire; granulomatose; polyangéite; purpura; granulomatosis; polyangiitis
La granulomatose avec polyangéite (GPA) est une vascularite nécrosante des vaisseaux de petit calibre. L’âge moyen d'entrée dans la GPA est entre 35 et 55 ans, les formes gériatriques sont cependant rares, Nous rapportons deux cas de GPA révélés après 60 ans, le mode de révélation était inhabituel, ophtalmologique dans le premier cas et cutané dans le deuxième cas.
Granulomatose; sujets âgés; vascularite; Granulomatosis; elderly; vascularitis
Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is an auto-immune disease with multiple organ involvements that occurs mainly in young women. Literature data suggest that serositis is more frequent in late-onset SLE. However, peritoneal serositis with massive ascites is an extremely rare manifestation. We report a case of old-onset lupus peritonitis treated successfully by Hydroxychloroquine. A 77-year-old Tunisian woman was hospitalized because of massive painful ascites. Her family history did not include any autoimmune disease. She was explored 4 years prior to admission for exudative pleuritis of the right lung without any established diagnosis. Physical examination showed only massive ascites. Laboratory investigations showed leucopenia: 3100/mm3, lymphopenia: 840/mm3 and trace protein (0.03g/24h). Ascitic fluid contained 170 cells mm3 (67% lymphocytes), 46 g/L protein, but no malignant cells. The main etiologies of exudative ascites were excluded. She had markedly elevated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titer of 1/1600 and a significantly elevated titer of antibody to double-stranded DNA (83 IU/mL) with hypo-complementemia (C3 levl was at 67 mg/dL). Antibody against the Smith antigen was also positive. Relying on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with SLE and treated with Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg daily in combination with diuretics. One month later, there was no detectable ascitic fluid and no pleural effusions. Five months later she remained free from symptoms while continuing to take chloroquine. This case was characterized by old age of onset of SLE, the extremely rare initial presentation with lupus peritonitis and massive painful ascites with dramatic response to only hydroxychloroquine treatment.
Ascites; systemic lupus erythematosus; Hydroxychloroquine; Old-onset
The development of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) during the course of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is extremely rare. We report the case of a geriatric woman who was diagnosed with SLE at 69 years of age then with primary biliary cirrhosis one year later.
A 70-years-old woman, who had been diagnosed with SLE at 69 years, was admitted for further examination of liver dysfunction. PBC was confirmed based on elevated serum levels of transaminase, high levels of antimitochondrial antibodies and following a liver biopsy. The oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid stabilized the liver dysfunction.
We described an original case report of elderly patient with coexisting PBC and SLE. To date, according to the best of our knowledge, there have been few case reports of SLE/PBC co-occurrence. The aetiology of this complex remains unknown, autoimmune mechanisms, environmental and genetic factors are considered important in the susceptibility to both diseases. Osteopontin might play an important role.
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Primary biliary cirrhosis; Antimitochondrial antibodies
Diabetes is a major public health problem worldwide. This problem is particularly relevant to the elderly. The prevalence of each condition increase with age. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among elderly; we also examined socio-economic factors and life style that are likely to be associated with DM.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008–2009, and used a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample among non institutionalized elderly in Monastir City. A total of 598 elderly aged 65 to 95 years were included.
The prevalence of DM was 27.4% (29.2% in males’ vs 26.5% in females). Elderly with DM showed higher prevalence of hypertension, obesity and abdominal obesity. DM prevalence decreased with advancing ages in both men and women. Urban residents had a higher prevalence than did their rural counterparts. In multivariate analysis, DM was associated with abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI], 2.6 [1.1-6]; p <0.01), co-existing diseases (3.8 [2.4-6]; p <0.01), and hypertension (2.7 [1.6-4.5] ; p <0.01).
The study highlights the DM problem in Tunisia. An ageing population together with social, economic and lifestyle changes have led to a dramatic increase in DM. These data emphasize the urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention program to ameliorate the growing problem of DM.
Diabetes; Elderly; Prevalence; Tunisia; Non institutionalized
Cowden syndrome is a rare cancer predisposition syndrome inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion. The syndrome is characterized by hamartomatous polyps that affect multiple organs: skin, mucous membranes, thyroid, breast, gastrointestinal tract, endometrium and brain. It is also associated with an increased risk of developing malignancy in many tissues but especially breast, thyroid and endometrium.
We present the case of a 30-year-old Tunisian woman with mental retardation who presented to our facility with rectal hamartomatous polyps. Her medical history included fibrocystic disease of the breast over the last three years. A physical examination revealed macrocephaly, hyperkeratotic papules on the mid-facial skin, palmoplantar keratosis and oral mucosal papillomatosis. A breast examination revealed nodular breast tissue bilaterally and a diffuse thyroid goiter. Our patient was clinically euthyroid. A total thyroidectomy was performed. A histopathologic examination revealed thyroid papillary carcinoma. A gastrointestinal evaluation revealed esophageal and gastric polyps. Biopsies showed hyperplastic and adenomatous lesions associated with Helicobacter pylori. A final diagnosis of Cowden syndrome was made according to the syndrome testing criteria adapted by the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network. A prophylactic bilateral mastectomy was proposed but refused by our patient. Our patient was kept under surveillance for breast and colorectal malignancies.
Early and accurate diagnosis of Cowden syndrome is essential because it is a cancer predisposition syndrome that carries an increased risk for developing malignancy in many tissues, especially breast and thyroid. For this reason, education regarding the signs and symptoms of cancer is important. All patients must be screened for malignancies and options for prophylactic mastectomy should be discussed. Guidelines for cancer screening including surveillance and management plans for these patients should be distinguished from those of the general population, and may lead to a more timely diagnosis and treatment of cancers associated with this syndrome.
Hypertension is a cardiovascular disorder rapidly emerging as a major public health problem in developing countries. However, the acknowledgement of the prevalence and the significant impact of hypertension in elderly are very important for health policy. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension among the elderly living in their home in Tunisia at Monastir City. We also examined the impact of socio-demographic characteristics and known risk factors for high blood pressure.
A community based sample of 598 non-institutionalized elderly (age ≥ 65 years), was selected using probabilistic multistage cluster sampling.
There was a predominance of female (66%) and mean age was 72.3 ± 7.4 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 52% (n = 311), awareness (81%, n = 252), treatment (78.4%, n = 244) and only 30.7% (n = 75) are correctly treated. The prevalence of hypertension was higher for the female population (55.5%) when compared to males (45%). No urban/rural differences were observed and no difference was observed by educational level. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified a higher body mass index, diabetes mellitus and disability as important correlates of the prevalence of hypertension.
These findings provide important information on the prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in Monastir City and confirm their association with other cardio-vascular risk factors. Effective public health measures and strategies are needed to improve prevention, diagnosis and access to treatment of this elderly population.
Hypertension; Elderly; Prevalence; Awareness; Tunisia; Home living
Thrombosis of the ovarian vein is a rare complication which arises classically in the postpartum. We report a case of 24-year-old woman with a history of Behçet's disease, who presented with pelvic and thoracic pain, tachycardia, dyspnea and fever occurring 2 weeks after delivery. Computed tomography revealed an ascending thrombosis of the iliac and right ovarian veins complicated by bilateral pulmonary embolism. The patient responded well to the combination of anticoagulants and immunosuppressive agents. Behçet's disease should also be considered as an etiologic factor for ovarian vein thrombosis.
Intracardiac thrombus in Behçet's disease is an extremely rare manifestation. We report two such cases. A 20-year-old man presented with dyspnoea, cough and haemoptysis. Right heart thrombus associated with pulmonary artery aneurysm and thromboembolism was identified by helical CT and transoesophageal echocardiography. The second case was a 29-year-old male admitted for fever and chest pain. A diagnosis of right atrial thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism and hyperhomocysteinemia was made. Due to the absence of haemodynamic compromise, medical management consisting of immunosupressive and anticoagulation therapy was adopted which resulted in complete dissolution of the thrombus with dramatic clinical improvement in both cases of clinical status.
Conclusion: intracardiac thrombus is a rare complication of Behçet's disease. As shown in our patients, medical treatment should be considered as the first line.
Intracardiac thrombus; Behcet's disease
Apolipoprotein A-V (Apo A-V) gene has recently been identified as a new apolipoprotein involved in triglyceride metabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP3) located in the gene promoter (-1131) was associated with triglyceride variation in healthy subjects. In type 2 diabetes the triglyceride level increased compared to healthy subjects. Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. We aimed to examine the interaction between SNP3 and lipid profile and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Tunisian type 2 diabetic patients.
The genotype frequencies of T/T, T/C and C/C were 0.74, 0.23 and 0.03 respectively in non diabetic subjects, 0.71, 0.25 and 0.04 respectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Triglyceride level was higher in heterozygous genotype (-1131 T/C) of apo A-V (p = 0.024). Heterozygous genotype is more frequent in high triglyceride group (40.9%) than in low triglyceride group (18.8%) ; p = 0.011. Despite the relation between CAD and hypertriglyceridemia the SNP 3 was not associated with CAD.
In type 2 diabetic patients SNP3 is associated with triglyceride level, however there was no association between SNP3 and coronary artery disease.