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1.  Association of Short-Passing Ability with Athletic Performances in Youth Soccer Players 
Purpose
This study was designed to examine the relationship between multiple short-passing ability [measured using the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT)] and athletic performances in youth soccer players.
Methods
Forty-two young soccer players (age 14.8±0.4years) performed the LSPT, the squat-jump (SqJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ), the 30m sprints (with 5m and 20m split times also recorded), the 15m agility run (Agility-15m), the 15m ball dribbling (Ball-15m), the Illinois agility test (IAGT) and the Yo-Yo IRT Level 1 tests.
Results
LSPT total performance (LSPT TP) showed significant positive correlation with 5m, 20m, and 30m sprint times, Agility-15m, Ball-15m and Illinois agility test (r=0.60, r=0.58, r=0.49, r=0.75, r=0.71 and r=0.72; P<0.01, respectively). Significant negative correlation were found between LSPT TP and SqJ and CMJ (r=−0.62 and r=−0.64; P<0.01, respectively). It was determined that Agility-15m, Illinois agility test and Ball-15m were the most effective factors associated with LSPT TP among other factors in multiple regression analysis.
Conclusion
This study showed that LSPT TP of young elite soccer players is determined by their agility abilities, thus enabling this test to be used for talent identification purposes.
PMCID: PMC3685159  PMID: 23785575
Technical Skills; Agility; Cognitive Function; Physical Fitness; Football
2.  Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among non institutionalized elderly in Monastir City 
Background
Diabetes is a major public health problem worldwide. This problem is particularly relevant to the elderly. The prevalence of each condition increase with age. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among elderly; we also examined socio-economic factors and life style that are likely to be associated with DM.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008–2009, and used a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample among non institutionalized elderly in Monastir City. A total of 598 elderly aged 65 to 95 years were included.
Results
The prevalence of DM was 27.4% (29.2% in males’ vs 26.5% in females). Elderly with DM showed higher prevalence of hypertension, obesity and abdominal obesity. DM prevalence decreased with advancing ages in both men and women. Urban residents had a higher prevalence than did their rural counterparts. In multivariate analysis, DM was associated with abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI], 2.6 [1.1-6]; p <0.01), co-existing diseases (3.8 [2.4-6]; p <0.01), and hypertension (2.7 [1.6-4.5] ; p <0.01).
Conclusion
The study highlights the DM problem in Tunisia. An ageing population together with social, economic and lifestyle changes have led to a dramatic increase in DM. These data emphasize the urgent need for a comprehensive integrated population-based intervention program to ameliorate the growing problem of DM.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-12-15
PMCID: PMC3461464  PMID: 22898260
Diabetes; Elderly; Prevalence; Tunisia; Non institutionalized
3.  Induction of Mitochondrial Changes Associated with Oxidative Stress on Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0)-Treated Human Neuronal Cells (SK-NB-E) 
In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0), substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial dysfunctions play crucial roles in neurodegeneration. On human neuronal SK-NB-E cells treated with C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0 (0.1–20 μM; 48 h), an inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed by cell counting with trypan blue, MTT assay, and measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) with DiOC6(3). A stimulation of oxidative stress was observed with DHE and MitoSOX used to quantify superoxide anion production on whole cells and at the mitochondrial level, respectively. With C24:0 and C26:0, by Western blotting, lower levels of mitochondrial complexes III and IV were detected. After staining with MitoTracker and by transmission electron microscopy used to study mitochondrial topography, mass and morphology, major changes were detected in VLCFAs treated-cells: modification of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, presence of large mitochondria, enhancement of the mitochondrial mass. Thus, VLCFAs can be potential risk factors contributing to neurodegeneration by inducing neuronal damages via mitochondrial dysfunctions.
doi:10.1155/2012/623257
PMCID: PMC3420217  PMID: 22919440
4.  Thymoquinone, the Nigella sativa Bioactive Compound, Prevents Circulatory Oxidative Stress Caused by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine in Erythrocyte during Colon Postinitiation Carcinogenesis 
We have performed this study to investigate the modulatory effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the Nigella sativa active compound, on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine- (DMH-) induced colon carcinogenesis after initiation in male Wistar rats. Rats exposed to DMH showed an increase of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels, and an augmentation of enzyme activities like catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities was also noted. The TQ pretreatment restored the parameters cited above to near-normal values. However, the posttreatment shows an activity similar as that presented by DMH. Therefore, our investigation revealed that TQ was a useful compound preventing DMH-induced erythrocyte damages.
doi:10.1155/2012/854065
PMCID: PMC3337608  PMID: 22570743
5.  Awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among the elderly living in their home in Tunisia 
Background
Hypertension is a cardiovascular disorder rapidly emerging as a major public health problem in developing countries. However, the acknowledgement of the prevalence and the significant impact of hypertension in elderly are very important for health policy. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension among the elderly living in their home in Tunisia at Monastir City. We also examined the impact of socio-demographic characteristics and known risk factors for high blood pressure.
Methods
A community based sample of 598 non-institutionalized elderly (age ≥ 65 years), was selected using probabilistic multistage cluster sampling.
Results
There was a predominance of female (66%) and mean age was 72.3 ± 7.4 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 52% (n = 311), awareness (81%, n = 252), treatment (78.4%, n = 244) and only 30.7% (n = 75) are correctly treated. The prevalence of hypertension was higher for the female population (55.5%) when compared to males (45%). No urban/rural differences were observed and no difference was observed by educational level. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified a higher body mass index, diabetes mellitus and disability as important correlates of the prevalence of hypertension.
Conclusion
These findings provide important information on the prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in Monastir City and confirm their association with other cardio-vascular risk factors. Effective public health measures and strategies are needed to improve prevention, diagnosis and access to treatment of this elderly population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-11-65
PMCID: PMC3234182  PMID: 22044442
Hypertension; Elderly; Prevalence; Awareness; Tunisia; Home living
6.  Autoimmune pancreatitis mimicking pancreatic cancer 
Context:
Autoimmune pancreatitis is a particular type of pancreatitis of presumed autoimmune etiology, it is an entity distinct from all others forms of chronic pancreatitis, characterized by clinical, histopathological, radiographic, serologic and therapeutic features. This benign disease resembles pancreatic carcinoma both clinically and radiographically.
Case Report:
A 27-year-old man presented with obstructive jaundice and evocative image of pancreatic tumor. A pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple operation) was performed and pathological examination of the specimen diagnosed AIP. Patient responded well to a course of corticosteroids with resolution of clinical and biological disorders.
Conclusion:
Accurate and timely diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis is particularly important because steroid therapy is effective and pancreatic resection is not necessary.
doi:10.4297/najms.2011.3520
PMCID: PMC3271410  PMID: 22361500
Autoimmune diseases; chronic pancreatitis; obstructive jaundice; pancreatic neoplasm; steroids
7.  Change of Diet, Plasma Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Fatty Acids during Ramadan: A Controversial Association of the Considered Ramadan Model with Atherosclerosis Risk 
Different Islamic populations have different alimentary habits, notably during Ramadan. The paper reports the change of diet, lipids, and lipoproteins produced during Ramadan in one Tunisian population. During Ramadan, the study subjects consumed more proteins, cholesterol, vitamin E (p<0.01), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). At the same time, they exhibited an increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p<0.01) and apoprotein B (p<0.05) and a decrease in the ratio of apoprotein AI to apoprotein B (p<0.01). All assayed saturated fatty acids were unaffected by Ramadan fasting while three unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1cis9, C18:2n-6, and C30:4n-6) increased significantly. A return to the habitual diet for a four-week period was not sufficient to restore the pre-fasting patterns. For the study subjects, Ramadan was clearly associated with a change of diet and biochemical profile but its effective impact on atherosclerosis risk was unclear, perhaps, because other non-alimentary changes ought to be considered too. Future studies considering the non-alimentary factors, such as sleep and physical activity, would be useful to clarify the contribution of dietary change in the observed modification of biological profile.
PMCID: PMC3225110  PMID: 22106754
Atherosclerosis; Diet; Fasting; Fatty acids; Lipoproteins; Ramadan; Tunisia
8.  The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats 
Background
Trans-fatty acids (TFA) are known as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases, insulin resistance and obesity accompanied by systemic inflammation, the features of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the effects on the liver induced by lipids and also few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress. This study investigates whether high-fat diets with different TFA levels induce oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in rats.
Methods
Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks.
Results
A liver damage was observed in rats fed with high-fat diet via increase of liver lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The intake of oxidized oil led to higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower concentration of plasma antioxidants in comparison to rats fed with FSO. The higher inflammatory response in the liver was induced by MG diet. Liver histopathology from OSO and MG groups showed respectively moderate to severe cytoplasm vacuolation, hypatocyte hypertrophy, hepatocyte ballooning, and necroinflammation.
Conclusion
It seems that a strong relationship exists between the consumption of TFA in the oxidized oils and lipid peroxidation and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The extent of the peroxidative events in liver was also different depending on the fat source suggesting that feeding margarine with higher TFA levels may represent a direct source of oxidative stress for the organism. The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of TFA on NAFLD.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-65
PMCID: PMC3192664  PMID: 21943357
trans fatty acids; oxidative stress; non alcoholic fatty liver disease; rats
9.  Effects of olive oil and its fractions on oxidative stress and the liver's fatty acid composition in 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-treated rats 
Background
Olive oil's beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil and its fractions on 2,4-D- induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats.
Methods
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups of ten each: (C) a control group, (D) group that received 2,4-D (5 mg/kg b.w.), (D/EVOO) group treated with 2,4-D plus extra virgin olive oil, (D/OOHF) group that received 2,4-D plus hydrophilic fraction, (D/OOLF) group treated with 2,4-D plus lipophilic fraction, (EVOO) group that received only extra virgin olive oil, (OOHF) group given hydrophilic fraction and (OOLF) group treated with lipophilic fraction. These components were daily administered by gavage for 4 weeks.
Results
A significant liver damage was observed in rats treated with 2,4-D via increased serum levels of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The liver's fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake during 2,4-D treatment induced a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the conjugated dienes (CD) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels in the liver. The lipophilic fraction supplemented to 2,4-D- treated rats did not show any improvement in the liver oxidative status while a marked improvement was detected in the hepatic fatty acid composition of rats supplemented with olive oil and the two fractions.
Conclusion
We concluded that the protective effect of olive oil against oxidative damage induced by 2,4-D is mainly related to the antioxidant potential of its hydrophilic fraction.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-80
PMCID: PMC2987329  PMID: 21034436
10.  Dietary olive oil effect on antioxidant status and fatty acid profile in the erythrocyte of 2,4-D- exposed rats 
Background
Oxidative stress produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to the development of several diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigates the possible protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) on oxidative stress and fatty acid profile of erythrocytes in 2,4-D treated rats.
Methods
Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: control (C), (2,4-D) at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w., (2,4-D/EVOO) was given 2,4-D plus EVOO, (2,4-D/OOHF) that received 2,4-D plus hydrophilic fraction, (2,4-D/OOLF) treated with 2,4-D plus lipophilic fraction, (EVOO) that received only EVOO, (OOHF) was given hydrophilic fraction and (OOLF) treated with lipophilic fraction. These components were daily administered by gavages for 4 weeks.
Results
2,4-D treatment lead to decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) associated with a higher amount of MDA level. Erythrocyte membranes' fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. EVOO and hydrophilic fraction supplemented to rats with or not 2,4-D treatment enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced the MDA level. However, lipophilic fraction did not show any improvement in oxidative damage induced by 2,4-D in spite its richness in MUFA and vitamins.
Conclusion
EVOO administered to 2,4-D-treated rats protected erythrocyte membranes against oxidative damage by means of preventing excessive lipid peroxidation to increase the MUFA composition and increase maintaining antioxidants enzymes at normal concentrations.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-89
PMCID: PMC2936360  PMID: 20738870
11.  Postpartum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis: Report of a case and review of the literature 
Context:
Postpartum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis is an uncommon life-threatening situation. It should be systematically evoked in case of persistent fever during the postpartum. Diagnosis is often not immediately apparent clinically and there are many that mimic this condition.
Case Report:
A 26-year-old female presented with fever and acute right loin pain during four days after delivery. Right ovarian venous thrombosis was demonstrated on sonography and confirmed with computed tomography. The patient was given antibiotics and anticoagulation therapy with good response.
Conclusion:
Search for postpartum ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be undertaken in patients with persistent fever. Treatment is more often medical.
doi:10.4297/najms.2010.2389
PMCID: PMC3339064  PMID: 22737678
Thrombophlebitis; ovarian vein; post-partum
12.  Intraperitoneal rupture of renal cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 
Context:
To report a rare case of spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst into the peritoneal cavity.
Case Report:
We report a case of 66-year old man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and kidney dialysis who had suffered from intestinal obstruction and peritoneal syndrome for 2 days associated with purulent urine. An exploratory laparotomy found multiple hepatic cysts and bilaterally enlarged polycystic kidneys. We noted left renal cyst infected and ruptured into the peritoneal cavity causing general peritonitis. The patient died from septic shock and hemodynamic failure.
Conclusion:
The peritoneal rupture of infected renal cyst is an exceptional and serious complication of polycystic kidney disease. Medical and surgical treatments are urgent to prevent lethal complications.
PMCID: PMC3347651  PMID: 22574296
Kidney cyst; autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ruptured infected cyst; peritonitis
13.  Association of SNP3 polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A-V gene with plasma triglyceride level in Tunisian type 2 diabetes 
Background
Apolipoprotein A-V (Apo A-V) gene has recently been identified as a new apolipoprotein involved in triglyceride metabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP3) located in the gene promoter (-1131) was associated with triglyceride variation in healthy subjects. In type 2 diabetes the triglyceride level increased compared to healthy subjects. Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. We aimed to examine the interaction between SNP3 and lipid profile and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Tunisian type 2 diabetic patients.
Results
The genotype frequencies of T/T, T/C and C/C were 0.74, 0.23 and 0.03 respectively in non diabetic subjects, 0.71, 0.25 and 0.04 respectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Triglyceride level was higher in heterozygous genotype (-1131 T/C) of apo A-V (p = 0.024). Heterozygous genotype is more frequent in high triglyceride group (40.9%) than in low triglyceride group (18.8%) ; p = 0.011. Despite the relation between CAD and hypertriglyceridemia the SNP 3 was not associated with CAD.
Conclusion
In type 2 diabetic patients SNP3 is associated with triglyceride level, however there was no association between SNP3 and coronary artery disease.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-4-1
PMCID: PMC545942  PMID: 15636639

Results 1-13 (13)