Coexisting ankylosing spondylitis and hereditary multiple exostoses have rarely been reported (three patients) previously. A 27-year-old man with hereditary multiple exostoses is presented as a fourth report. At the age of 15 years, the patient had multiple exostoses around the knee, ankle and shoulder joints. He was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis 3 years ago. The patient’s sister and his 3 brothers also have multiple exostoses without any family history of spondyloarthropathy or inflammatory arthritis. The aim of this report is to discuss an interesting coexistence of these two diseases. The increasing number of reported patients who have a coexistence of these two diseases might suggest that the association of these two diseases is stronger than a coincidence.
Spondylitis, Ankylosing; Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary
Massive hemoptysis is a potentially life threatening respiratory emergency and mandates immediate investigation and intervention. There is no universal consensus regarding the optimal management of these patients, and there are no large series of patients studied.
Here we reported thirty Iranian patients who were managed with bronchial artery embolization.
Patients and Methods
All the patients had already been assessed by computerized tomography (CT) to localize and delineate the underlying etiology except 2 patients who had not undergone CT scan.
Tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, and lung cancer/metastasis were the most common causes, detected in 14(47%), 5(17%) and 4(13%) patients respectively. Other causes of hemoptysis including chronic bronchitis, interlobar artery aneurysm, hydatid cyst, arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary embolism, and exposure to chemical weapons each detected in one patient separately. All of them had abnormal chest CT scans, except for 2 patients who had not undergone CT scan (one with hydatid cyst and another with bronchial tumor diagnosed with bronchoscopy). Bleeding location which has been confirmed with angiography could be predicted with CT scan among 7 of 14 patients with TB, (sensitivity=50%). While this rate was 100% among all other patients with other diagnosis who had undergone CT scan.
In conclusion complementary to the previous studies our results have demonstrated that bronchial artery embolization remains as one of the most efficient procedures in managing massive hemoptysis, with minimal rate of complications.
Hemoptysis; Computed Tomography; Angiography; Bronchial Artery Embolization
Interventional techniques aim to find safer and better ways to treat vascular diseases even in many instances, the interventional radiology solutions has been considered the only treatment option for the patients. Interventional radiologists are specialists who perform minimally invasive procedures instead of surgery or other treatments. These procedures apply various imaging and catheterization procedures in order to diagnose and treat diseases. In each country, interventional radiology practice establishment of varies according to local factors, but following a standard strategy seems better to set up this facility. According to above mentioned points, we decided to establish this specialty in our hospital since 2001 as the pioneer center in Iran. In this presentation we will discuss about our experience for start interventional radiology.
Interventional Radiology; Research; Procedure; Embolization
Fibroids are the most common benign tumors of the uterus during female reproductive age. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) using embolic particles (PVA, Gelfoam) to occlude the uterine arteries, have been reported as a relatively safe, effective, and durable nonsurgical alternative to hysterectomy in diminishing fibroid-related symptoms. To block the arterial blood supply to the fibroid completely, UAE is typically performed in both uterine arteries by an experienced interventional radiologist. Reduction in menorrhagia has been reported as 80-93 percent and the mean decrease in fibroid size varies from 50-78% in the literature. In our center improvement in menstrual bleeding after 6 months was 80.3%, and uterine fibroids underwent shrinkage of 63.7±33.7% after12 months. Complication rate including amenorrhea ranges from 1% - 7% in the literature. UAE may be followed by menopause in 1% of cases. Nevertheless, it is usually encountered in women in their late 40s. It seems that the future of UAE depends on optimal selection of patients according to volume-shrinkage prediction and fertility outcome. Although pregnancy is possible after embolization, however neither fertility preservation nor improvement can be guaranteed following UAE. Indeed, Women who desire to become pregnant should be cautioned about potential complications during pregnancy. The aim of this review is to discuss about the efficacy, safety, technique, and choice of embolic agent. Also we present the effects of this technique on fertility and pregnancy outcome and also methods for dose reduction during this procedure.
Uterine Artery Embolization; Angiography; Complications; Uterine Artery Embolization
Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a minimally invasive procedure performed under fluoroscopy for the treatment of uterine fibroids and accompanied by radiation exposure.
To compare ovarian radiation doses during uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients using conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with those using digital flat-panel technology.
Patients and Methods
Thirty women who were candidates for UAE were randomly enrolled for one of the two angiographic systems. Ovarian doses were calculated according to in-vitro phantom study results using entrance and exit doses and were compared between the two groups.
The mean right entrance dose was 1586±1221 mGy in the conventional and 522.3±400.1 mGy in the flat panel group (P=0.005). These figures were 1470±1170 mGy and 456±396 mGy, respectively for the left side (P=0.006). The mean right exit dose was 18.8±12.3 for the conventional and 9.4±6.4 mGy for the flat panel group (P=0.013). These figures were 16.7±11.3 and 10.2±7.2 mGy, respectively for the left side (P=0.06). The mean right ovarian dose was 139.9±92 in the conventional and 23.6±16.2 mGy in the flat panel group (P<0.0001). These figures were 101.7±77.6 and 24.6±16.9 mGy, respectively for the left side (P=0.002).
Flat panel system can significantly reduce the ovarian radiation dose during UAE compared with conventional DSA.
Uterine Artery; Embolization, Therapeutic; Radiation; Angiography
Maintenance of imaging equipment is a very important part of the management of all medical imaging centers.
To assess the oldness and capacity of radiography and ultrasound equipment in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods
The study was performed in 16 hospitals, 4 faculties and three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. We evaluated all the X-ray equipment (including the simple plain and dental, panorex, mammography, fluoroscopy and C-arm X-Ray devices) and also simple and Doppler ultrasound machines in terms of the type and usage of the device, production year, quantity of utilization, location, brand and current condition.
Among fixed X-ray systems, 15 were currently in use, two were junk, two were damaged, and one was not utilized. The mean (SD) of the usage of these was 2151 (2230) cliché/month, and the mean (SD) of the oldness was 16.9 (13.6) years. The oldness of radiography equipment in our study was more than 20 years in 16, between 11 and 20 in 46, and less than 10 years in 76 devices. The mean (SD) usage (patients/month) of simple and color Doppler devices were 234.1 (365.2) and 597.5 (505.3), respectively. The oldness of ultrasonography equipment in our study was more than 11 years in 12 and less than 10 years in 55 devices. We found that 22 (15.9%) of the radiography systems and two (3%) of the ultrasonography systems had been used for more than 20 years.
Radiology equipment in Tehran University of Medical Sciences have potential capacity, but they need repair, and better maintenance and management and application of standards for the imaging system needs organized supervisory mechanisms.
Radiography; Ultrasonography; Standards; Management
The imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is challenging and plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and staging of the disease. A variety of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine are currently used in evaluating patients with HCC. Although the best option for the treatment of these cases is hepatic resection or transplantation, only 20% of HCCs are surgically treatable. In those patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment, interventional therapies such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radio-frequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMC), laser ablation or cryoablation, and acetic acid injection are indicated. In this paper, we aimed to review the evidence regarding imaging modalities and therapeutic interventions of HCC.
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Radiology, Interventional; Chemoembolization, Therapeutic; Iran; Risk Factors
Although magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been shown as an effective diagnostic tool in distinguishing inflammation from neoplasm in cystic brain lesions, the optimum approach in selecting the portions of lesions in MRS and the possible effects of different times of echoes (TEs) remains unknown.
To determine the most effective TE in diagnosing neoplastic lesions based on detecting choline (Cho), N acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatinine (Cr). Moreover, the role of voxel localization on the diagnosis of the neoplastic nature of the lesions is assessed through comparing the abovementioned metabolite ratios in the rim and center of each lesion with the same TE.
Patients and Methods
In 16 patients with brain cystic tumors, MRS was performed at TEs of 30, 135 and 270 ms for detection of Cho, NAA and Cr metabolites using a 3 tesla MRI unit. The percentage of analyzed ratios greater than a cut-off point of 1.3 for Cho/Cr and 1.6 for Cho/NAA were calculated.
Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratio means at all TEs were more at the central area in comparison with the periphery, although none of the differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference among the compared TEs. The percentages of ratios above the cut-off point at all TEs were more in the rim compared to the center and in the union of both compared to the rim or center. All the patients had at least one voxel with a Cho/Cr ratio of more than 1.3 when the voxel was chosen according to the hotspots shown in the chemical shift imaging map, regardless of their location at all examined TEs.
Selection of voxels with the guide of chemical shift imaging map yields to 100% diagnostic sensitivity. If not accessible, the use of the union of peripheral and central voxels enhances the sensitivity when compared to usage of peripheral or central voxels solely.
Brain Neoplasms; Choline; Creatinine; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; N-acetylaspartate; Cystic
Herein, we report a 40-year old man who presented with flank and abdominal pain with dilatation of the bilateral pyelocalyceal system detected in ultrasonography. Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed a soft tissue mass at the level of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae in the retroperitoneal region. There were no blood flow signals in 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) which confirms the Retroperitoneal Fibrosis (RPF). Pathological examination showed infiltration of plasma cells, macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils accompanied by fibrosis, which is consistent with idiopathic RPF. In conclusion, 64-slice MDCT imaging is useful in the diagnosis of RPF.
Multidetector Computed Tomography; Retroperitoneal Fibrosis; Diagnosis; Abdominal Pain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard method for observing brain plaques and contrast material injection is necessary for demonstrating the active plaque.This study compared the rate of enhancement of plaques with Gadovist and Magnevist in relapse phase of MS.
In this double blind study, after neurological examination of 62 patients in the attack phase of MS, two consecutive MRIs were performed with Gadovist and Magnevist with 48 hours interval. The two contrast materials were injected in first and second imaging randomly and the reporting radiologist was blind about the contrast material.
With both contrast materials, the probability of enhancement of supratentorial plaques was higher than the infratentorial ones. The probability of observing a symptomatic infratentorial enhanced plaque was higher than the supratentorial region and when the symptoms were due to supratentorial lesions, the corresponding enhanced plaque was more probable. It was detected that the number of enhanced plaques was the highest if the imaging was performed in the second week after the relapse, although there was no statistically significant difference when the imaging was done within the first month after the beginning of the symptoms.
It seems that both Magnevist and Gadovist could be used as the contrast material to detect enhancing plaques in relapse phase of multiple sclerosis.
Multiple Sclerosis; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Contrast; Neurological Deficit
Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection which occurs in specific geographical areas such as the Mediterranean region. We report a case of hydatid cyst of the knee in a 34-year-old man who was admitted with inability to walk and a painful knee. He had a past history of liver infection nine years ago. Laboratory findings were negative. According to the high prevalence of hydatid disease in Iran, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of Baker’s cyst, synovial cyst and lipoma.
Knee; Echinococcus; Infection
Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors of the female pelvis. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is an effective treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids by shrinkage of the size of these tumors. Segmentation of the uterine region is essential for an accurate treatment strategy.
In this paper, we will introduce a new method for uterine segmentation in T1W and enhanced T1W magnetic resonance (MR) images in a group of fibroid patients candidated for UAE in order to make a reliable tool for uterine volumetry.
Patients and Methods
Uterine was initially segmented using Fuzzy C-Mean (FCM) method in T1W-enhanced images and some morphological operations were then applied to refine the initial segmentation. Finally redundant parts were removed by masking the segmented region in T1W-enhanced image over the registered T1W image and using histogram thresholding. This method was evaluated using a dataset with ten patients’ images (sagittal, axial and coronal views).
We compared manually segmented images with the output of our system and obtained a mean similarity of 80%, mean sensitivity of 75.32% and a mean specificity of 89.5%. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the areas measured by the manual method and the automated method was 0.99.
The quantitative results illustrate good performance of this method. By uterine segmentation, fibroids in the uterine may be segmented and their properties may be analyzed.
Uterine Fibroids; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Patients
Interventional radiologists are physicians who specialize in minimally invasive targeted therapies, offering the most in-depth knowledge of the less invasive therapies that are available and diagnostic and clinical experience across all specialties. Interventional radiologists offer treatments for hepatobiliary diseases without significant side effects or damage to the adjacent normal tissue. We briefly introduce some of the interventional procedures in gastroenterology.
Interventional radiology; Biopsy; Transjugular intrahepatic; Portasystemic shunt; Hepatocellular carcinoma
A precise understanding of the mechanism of human neointimal stenoses and atherosclerotic fibrous plaques, which give rise to thromboses in vital arteries, requires a suitable animal model that would mimic the same characteristics well. We developed a rabbit model of neointimal stenosis and fibrotic plaque rupture in the carotid artery to visualize the lesion progress and to characterize the lesion types according to the American Heart Association classification.
Twenty-eight healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: The rabbits in group A (n = 14) consumed a standard chow diet, and those in group B (n = 14) were injured via perivascular cold injury using liquid nitrogen at the right common carotid artery before being fed a high cholesterol diet (1.5%) for eight weeks. Plasma lipid evaluation was performed before the sacrificing of the rabbits. At the end of every week, at least 1 rabbit from group B was sacrificed for an analysis of lesion histopathology and calculation of the area ratios of the intima to media.
The plasma lipid level in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (p value < 0.05). The histopathological results revealed atherosclerosis characteristics such as endothelial layer destruction, fatty streaks and lipid-containing macrophages (foam cells) formation in the intima and media layers, extracellular lipid collections, smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration, neointima formation, intima thickening and deformation, fibrotic plaque formation, and finally plaque rupture. Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in the intima-to-media ratio at the end of the eighth week (6.41 ± 0.27, p value < 0.05).
We successfully developed a rabbit model of neointimal stenosis and atherosclerotic fibrous connective tissue plaque rupture, which is not only quickly and easily reproducible and inexpensive but also without mortality. The merits of our model render the evaluation of neointimal stenoses and fibrotic plaques and their treatment strategies more feasible in humans.
Atherosclerosis; Carotid arteries; Plaque; atherosclerotic; Rabbits; Animals
Background and Aims
Palliation therapy is the only available therapeutic method for most patients with tumor-induced obstructive jaundice. Metallic stents are now performed percutaneously as an alternative route to the endoscopic approach. It is widely accepted because of its safety, good patency rate, and minimal invasiveness. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term results of metallic self-expandable stent insertion in patients with malignant stenosis of the biliary tree.
It is a longitudinal study of patients with percutaneously biliary stenting from September 2005 to March 2009. The patients had unresectable malignant biliary obstruction with unsuccessful endoscopic stenting and access. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram performed after adequate local anesthesia, under sonographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Stenting or balloon dilation was performed through the hydrophilic guide wire. Among 50 patients, 45 stents were placed in biliary tree stenosis sites. Patients’ follow-up was during the first, second, third, and then the sixth month after insertion of biliary stents. Stent patency was considered successful in our patients, when there were no lab results or sonographic appearance of biliary tree obstruction.
10(20%) patients’ stent placement treatment failed because of unsuccessful technical procedure. The stenosis of biliary tract was complete and passage of guide wire was not possible through the tumor growth. 6 (15 %) patients with successful stent placements died within one month (mean, 22 days). Total serum bilirubin resolved to below 1.5 mg/dl within 30 days for 36 (90%) patients with successful stent placements. Early complications not leading to death occurred in 28% of cases. The mean survival time for all patients who underwent stent placement was 140 days (16-420days). The mean patency rate for all stents was 147 days.
Percutaneous biliary stenting is a safe procedure with few technical complications and a high success rate of palliation for patients with malignant biliary jaundice. Early complications are mostly managed conservatively and death is mainly due to systemic effects of the malignant disease.
Malignant Jaundice; Biliary Metal Stents; Percutaneous Biliary Stenting
AIM: To evaluate safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow-enriched CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell Tx through the hepatic artery in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
METHODS: Four patients with decompensated cirrhosis were included. Approximately 200 mL of the bone marrow of the patients was aspirated, and CD34+ stem cells were selected. Between 3 to 10 million CD34+ cells were isolated. The cells were slowly infused through the hepatic artery of the patients.
RESULTS: Patient 1 showed marginal improvement in serum albumin and no significant changes in other test results. In patient 2 prothrombin time was decreased; however, her total bilirubin, serum creatinine, and Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score worsened at the end of follow up. In patient 3 there was improvement in serum albumin, porthrombin time (PT), and MELD score. Patient 4 developed radiocontrast nephropathy after the procedure, and progressed to type 1 hepatorenal syndrome and died of liver failure a few days later. Because of the major side effects seen in the last patient, the trial was prematurely stopped.
CONCLUSION: Infusion of CD34+ stem cells through the hepatic artery is not safe in decompensated cirrhosis. Radiocontrast nephropathy and hepatorenal syndrome could be major side effects. However, this study does not preclude infusion of CD34+ stem cells through other routes.
Cirrhosis; Bone marrow; Stem cell; Transp-lantation; Quality of life; Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score
Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules.
35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (<0.24 μIU/ml) and normal thyroid hormone levels. Ethanol injections were performed once every 1–4 weeks. Ethanol injections were stopped when serum T3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection.
Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 ± 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 ± 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P < 0.001]. All patients had normal thyroid hormone levels at 3 and 6 months follow-up [P < 0.001 relative to baseline]. sTSH levels increased from 0.09 ± 0.02 μIU/ml to 0.65 ± 0.8 μIU/ml at the end of therapy [P < 0.05]. Only 3 patients had persistent sTSH suppression at 6 months post-therapy. T4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia.
Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.
Hot Thyroid Nodules; Treatment; Ethanol; Thyrotoxicosis; Ultrasonography