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1.  Uric acid suppresses 1 alpha hydroxylase in vitro and in vivo 
Metabolism: clinical and experimental  2013;63(1):10.1016/j.metabol.2013.09.018.
Objective
Patients with gout have lower calcitriol levels that improve when uric acid is lowered. The mechanism of these observations is unknown. We hypothesized that uric acid inhibits 1- αhydroxylase.
Materials and methods
In vivo, Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to control (n=5), allantoxanamide (n=8), febuxostat (n=5), or allantoxanamide+febuxostat (n=7). Vitamin D, PTH, and 1-αhydroxylase protein were evaluated. In order to directly evaluate the effect of uric acid on 1-αhydroxylase, we conducted a series of dose response and time course experiments in vitro. Nuclear factor κ-B (NFκB) was inhibited pharmacologically. Finally, to evaluate the potential implications of these findings in humans, the association between uric acid and PTH in humans was evaluated in a cross-sectional analysis of data from the NHANES (2003-2006); n= 9773.
Results
1,25(OH)2D and 1-αhydroxylase protein were reduced in hyperuricemic rats and improved with febuxostat treatment. Uric acid suppressed 1-αhydroxylase protein and mRNA expression in proximal tubular cells. This was prevented by NFκB inhibition. In humans, for every 1 mg/dL increase in uric acid, the adjusted odds ratio for an elevated PTH (>65 pg/mL) was 1.21 (95% C.I. 1.14, 1.28; P< 0.0001), 1.15 (95% C.I. 1.08, 1.22; P<0.0001), and 1.16 (95% C.I. 1.03, 1.31; P=0.02) for all subjects, subjects with estimated GFR ≥60, and subjects with estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 respectively.
Conclusion
Hyperuricemia suppresses 1-αhydroxylase leading to lower 1,25(OH)2D and higher PTH in rats. Our results suggest this is mediated by NFκB. The association between uric acid and PTH in NHANES suggests potential implications for human disease.
doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2013.09.018
PMCID: PMC3859721  PMID: 24269076
uric acid; parathyroid hormone; mineral and bone disorders
2.  The association of prevalent kidney stone disease with mortality in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994 
American journal of nephrology  2013;37(5):501-506.
Background
Kidney stone disease is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, kidney function decline and increased cardiovascular (CV) events. However, its association with all-cause and CV mortality is unclear.
Methods
We used The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a large US population-based study with mortality data through 2006 determined via linkage to the National Death Index to examine kidney stone disease in relation to all-cause and CV mortality risks.
Results
Among 14,879 men and women over 18 years of age who were eligible for analysis, 683 participants reported a history of kidney stones. There was a total of 3,590 all-cause and 1,608 CV deaths occurred during a median follow up of 14.9 years. Stone formers had a significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.64–2.33, p<0.0001), and CV mortality (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60–2.62, p<0.0001) in unadjusted analyses. However, after multivariate adjustment for age, gender, race and poverty, stone formers no longer had increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93–1.26, p=0.3) and CV mortality (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84–1.36, p=0.6). Results remain unchanged after further adjustment for other clinical variables including history of hypertension, diabetes, and CV disease.
Conclusion
The increased risk of all-cause and CV mortality in kidney stone formers is likely a reflection of unique demographics and associated co-morbidities. There is no independent association of prevalent kidney stone disease with all-cause and CV mortality.
doi:10.1159/000350691
PMCID: PMC4278430  PMID: 23635714
Mortality; Cardiovascular disease; Kidney stone disease
3.  Higher Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Concentrations Associate with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Dialysis Patients 
Clinical nephrology  2013;80(5):313-321.
Aims
The concentration of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is elevated in patients on dialysis. FGF receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between high plasma FGF-23 concentration and LV systolic dysfunction.
Methods
We tested the hypothesis that high plasma FGF-23 concentration is associated with LV dysfunction in 110 chronic dialysis patients from The Homocysteine Study who had paired echocardiograms performed for clinical indications. C-terminal FGF-23 concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of FGF-23 concentration with LV dysfunction.
Results
Participants had a mean age of 60 ± 11 years. Median FGF-23 level and mean ejection fraction (EF) at baseline were 4632 (1384–14997) RU/mL and 50 ± 13% respectively. Median follow-up time was 1.9 years. Higher FGF-23 concentration was directly associated with decreases in EF during follow-up. After adjustment for demographics, baseline EF, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin and markers of mineral metabolism, participants with FGF-23 in the highest tertile had an 8% decrease in EF compared to participants in the lowest tertile (β −8.0, 95% CI −15.5 to −0.53; p=0.04). When FGF-23 was evaluated as a continuous variable, for every log10 increase in FGF-23, EF during follow-up decreased by 6.5% (β −6.5, 95% CI −11.3 to −1.73; p=0.01)
Conclusions
In conclusion, higher FGF-23 concentration is independently associated with LV systolic dysfunction in chronic dialysis patients.
doi:10.5414/CN107991
PMCID: PMC4018462  PMID: 23849306
FGF-23; Dialysis patients; LV dysfunction
4.  Early Diabetic Nephropathy 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(11):3678-3683.
OBJECTIVE
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes. Reduced insulin sensitivity is a well-documented component of type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that baseline insulin sensitivity would predict development of DN over 6 years.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We assessed the relationship between insulin sensitivity at baseline and development of early phenotypes of DN—microalbuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g) and rapid renal function decline (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] loss >3 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year)—with three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations over 6 years. Subjects with diabetes (n = 449) and without diabetes (n = 565) in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study had an estimated insulin sensitivity index (ISI) at baseline and 6-year follow-up.
RESULTS
The ISI was lower in subjects with diabetes than in those without diabetes (P < 0.0001). A higher ISI at baseline predicted a lower odds of developing an ACR ≥30 mg/g (odds ratio 0.65 [95% CI 0.49–0.85], P = 0.003) univariately and after adjusting for HbA1c (0.69 [0.51–0.93], P = 0.01). A higher ISI at baseline conferred protection from a rapid decline of GFR as assessed by CKD-EPI cystatin C (0.77 [0.64–0.92], P = 0.004) and remained significant after adjusting for HbA1c and age (0.80 [0.67–0.97], P = 0.02). We found no relation between ISI and rapid GFR decline estimated by CKD-EPI creatinine (P = 0.38) or CKD-EPI combined cystatin C and creatinine (P = 0.50).
CONCLUSIONS
Over 6 years, a higher ISI independently predicts a lower odds of developing microalbuminuria and rapid GFR decline as estimated with cystatin C, suggesting a relationship between insulin sensitivity and early phenotypes of DN.
doi:10.2337/dc13-0631
PMCID: PMC3816872  PMID: 24026551
5.  Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, Left Ventricular Mass, and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Community-Dwelling Older Adults 
Atherosclerosis  2013;231(1):10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.09.002.
Objectives
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), high FGF23 concentrations are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), cardiovascular events, and death. The associations of FGF23 with left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVH in the general population and the influence of CKD remains uncertain.
Methods
C-terminal plasma FGF23 concentrations were measured, and LVM and LVH evaluated by echocardiogram among 2255 individuals ≥65 years in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Linear regression analysis adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular, and kidney related risk factors examined the associations of FGF23 concentrations with LVM. Analyses were stratified by CKD status and adjusted linear and logistic regression analysis explored the associations of FGF23 with LVM and LVH.
Results
Among the entire cohort, higher FGF23 concentrations were associated with greater LVM in adjusted analyses (β=6.71 [95% CI 4.35–9.01] g per doubling of FGF23). 32% (n=624) had CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 and/or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g). Associations were stronger among participants with CKD (p interaction = 0.006): LVM β=9.71 [95% CI 5.86–13.56] g per doubling of FGF23 compared to those without CKD (β=3.44 [95% CI 0.77, 6.11] g per doubling of FGF23). While there was no significant interaction between FGF23 and CKD for LVH (p interaction = 0.25), the OR (1.46 95% CI [1.20–1.77]) in the CKD group was statistically significant and of larger magnitude than the OR for in the no CKD group (1.12 [95% CI 0.97–1.48]).
Conclusion
In a large cohort of older community-dwelling adults, higher FGF23 concentrations were associated with greater LVM and LVH with stronger relationships in participants with CKD.
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.09.002
PMCID: PMC3840534  PMID: 24125420
Left ventricular mass; left ventricular hypertrophy; chronic kidney disease; fibroblast growth factor 23; older adults; cardiovascular disease
6.  Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease 
Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and independently predictive of future cardiovascular events and mortality. Calcification can occur in both the intimal and medial layers of vasculature, but medial calcification is the major form in ESRD. Medial calcification increases large elastic artery stiffness and pulse-pressure, promotes left ventricular hypertrophy, reduces perfusion of the coronary arteries, and ultimately promotes increased cardiovascular mortality via increased risk of myocardial infarction and heart failure. It results not from a passive deposition of calcium and phosphate due to increased circulating levels, but rather is an active cell-mediated process involving vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) apoptosis and vesicle release, a shift in the balance of inhibitors and promoters of vascular calcification, and VSMC differentiation from a contractile to osteochondrogenic phenotype. This phenotypic shift requires phosphate, as well as the uptake of phosphate by the sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter PiT-1, which is up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and the uremic milieu. Further research is needed to determine if targeting these processes can ultimately reduce vascular calcification in this high cardiovascular risk population.
doi:10.1111/hdi.12084
PMCID: PMC3813300  PMID: 24134325
calcium; end-stage renal disease; phosphate; vascular calcification
7.  Impaired Renal Function Further Increases Odds of 6-Year Coronary Artery Calcification Progression in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(9):2607-2614.
OBJECTIVE
To determine whether baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) independently predict coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression, and to determine how eGFR changes over 6 years in adults with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic adults.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study participants (n = 1,066) with complete data for eGFR assessment at baseline and 6 years were included. Three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (serum creatinine, cystatin C, and both) were used to estimate eGFR. The association of baseline ACR and eGFR with CAC progression was analyzed using multiple logistic regression.
RESULTS
Increasing categorical baseline ACR (<10, 10–30, and >30 µg/mg) predicted CAC progression in participants with type 1 diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% CI, 1.50–3.09; 7.19 [3.90–13.26]; and 18.09 [8.48–38.62]), respectively, compared with nondiabetic subjects. Baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 also predicted CAC progression (OR, 5–7, compared with nondiabetic participants). ORs for CAC progression were higher in women than in men when using the cystatin C–based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. Participants with type 1 diabetes had greater eGFR decreases over 6 years than nondiabetic participants using cystatin C–based equations.
CONCLUSIONS
Although increasing ACR or decreasing eGFR predicts CAC progression, coronary atherosclerosis progresses faster in people with type 1 diabetes even in the absence of diabetic kidney disease. These findings emphasize the interaction between kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes and highlight the public health importance of lowering cardiorenal risk in people with type 1 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc12-2538
PMCID: PMC3747879  PMID: 23835686
8.  Blood Pressure Components and Decline in Kidney Function in Community-Living Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study 
American Journal of Hypertension  2013;26(8):1037-1044.
BACKGROUND
Although hypertension contributes to kidney dysfunction in the general population, the contributions of elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) to kidney function decline in community-dwelling older adults are unknown.
METHODS
We used linear and logistic regression to examine the separate and combined associations of SBP, DBP, and PP at baseline with kidney function decline among 4,365 older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We used cystatin C to estimate glomerular filtration rate on 3 occasions over 7 years of follow-up. We defined rapid decline ≥ 3ml/min/year.
RESULTS
Average age was 72.2 and mean (standard deviation) SBP, DBP, and PP were 135 (21), 71 (11), and 65 (18) mm Hg, respectively. SBP and PP, rather than DBP, were most significantly associated with kidney function decline. In adjusted linear models, each 10-mm Hg increment in SBP and PP was associated with 0.13ml/min/year (–0.19, –0.08, P < 0.001) and 0.15-ml/min/year faster decline (–0.21, –0.09, P < 0.001), respectively. Each 10-mm Hg increment in DBP was associated with a nonsignificant 0.10-ml/min/year faster decline (95% confidence interval, –0.20, 0.01). In adjusted logistic models, SBP had the strongest associations with rapid decline, with 14% increased hazard of rapid decline (95% confidence interval, 10% to 17%, P < 0.01) per 10mm Hg. In models combining BP components, only SBP consistently had independent associations with rapid decline.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that elevated BP, particularly SBP, contributes to declining kidney function in older adults.
doi:10.1093/ajh/hpt067
PMCID: PMC3816322  PMID: 23709568
blood pressure; cystatin C; diastolic blood pressure; elderly; hypertension; kidney function; systolic blood pressure.
9.  Recent advances in the management of hemodialysis patients: a focus on cardiovascular disease 
F1000Prime Reports  2014;6:72.
The number of patients requiring chronic hemodialysis is rapidly growing worldwide. Hemodialysis both greatly reduces quality of life and is associated with extremely high mortality rates. Management of care of patients requiring chronic hemodialysis is complex, and randomized controlled trials aimed at reducing primary outcomes of cardiovascular disease events, mortality, or both in this population have largely been unsuccessful. Topics of major concern in the management of maintenance hemodialysis patients as related to these outcomes include the overall cardiovascular disease burden, blood pressure control, anemia, abnormalities in mineral metabolism, and inflammation. The focus of this review is a discussion of these topics on the basis of current recommendations from major organizations, expert opinion, and the available randomized controlled trials to date. These issues are further complicated by sometimes conflicting observational and randomized controlled trial data. Overall, treatment options for reducing these endpoints in maintenance hemodialysis patients are limited, and future randomized controlled trials are essential to continuing to advance care in this population, with the goal of ultimately improving hard outcomes. Such trials should consider new therapies to better target these factors, additional risk factors that have not been well tested to date, and therapies with new targets, including inflammation.
doi:10.12703/P6-72
PMCID: PMC4126528  PMID: 25165571
10.  Vitamin D Level and Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Sepsis 
Nutrients  2014;6(6):2196-2205.
Previous research has reported reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels is associated with acute infectious illness. The relationship between vitamin D status, measured prior to acute infectious illness, with risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and sepsis has not been examined. Community-living individuals hospitalized with CAP or sepsis were age-, sex-, race-, and season-matched with controls. ICD-9 codes identified CAP and sepsis; chest radiograph confirmed CAP. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured up to 15 months prior to hospitalization. Regression models adjusted for diabetes, renal disease, and peripheral vascular disease evaluated the association of 25(OH)D levels with CAP or sepsis risk. A total of 132 CAP patients and controls were 60 ± 17 years, 71% female, and 86% Caucasian. The 25(OH)D levels <37 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.57, 95% CI 1.08–6.08) were strongly associated with increased odds of CAP hospitalization. A total of 422 sepsis patients and controls were 65 ± 14 years, 59% female, and 91% Caucasian. The 25(OH)D levels <37 nmol/L (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11–2.77) were associated with increased odds of sepsis hospitalization. Vitamin D status was inversely associated with risk of CAP and sepsis hospitalization in a community-living adult population. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce risk of infections, including CAP and sepsis.
doi:10.3390/nu6062196
PMCID: PMC4073143  PMID: 24918697
vitamin D deficiency; sepsis; community-acquired pneumonia; infection; epidemiology
11.  Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Effector CCAAT/Enhancer‐binding Protein Homologous Protein (CHOP) Regulates Chronic Kidney Disease–Induced Vascular Calcification 
Background
Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and vascular calcification are a major cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, the long‐awaited results of the Study of Heart and Renal Protection trial were reported. This large randomized clinical trial found that an extensive cholesterol‐lowering therapy through the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe significantly reduced cardiovascular diseases in a wide range of patients with CKD. However, the mechanism by which this cholesterol‐lowering therapy reduces CKD‐dependent vascular diseases remains elusive. The objective of the present study was to determine the contribution of the oxysterol‐induced pro‐apoptotic transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) on the pathogenesis of CKD‐dependent cardiovascular diseases through endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling.
Methods and Results
CKD increased levels of serum oxysterols such as 7‐ketocholesterol in human patients and ApoE−/− mice. Treatment with simvastatin plus ezetimibe strongly reduced levels of serum oxysterols and attenuated CKD‐dependent atherosclerosis, vascular cell death, vascular calcification, and cardiac dysfunction. This therapy also reduced aortic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by CKD. The short hairpin RNA‐mediated knockdown of CHOP and activating transcription factor‐4 in vascular smooth muscle cells attenuated oxysterol‐induced mineralization, osteogenic differentiation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, CHOP deficiency protected ApoE−/− mice from CKD‐dependent vascular calcification, cardiac dysfunction, and vascular cell death.
Conclusions
These data reveal that the cholesterol‐lowering therapy of simvastatin plus ezetimibe attenuates CKD‐dependent vascular diseases through a reduction of oxysterol‐mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. CHOP plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CKD‐dependent vascular calcification.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.114.000949
PMCID: PMC4309099  PMID: 24963104
CHOP; chronic kidney disease; endoplasmic reticulum stress; oxysterol; vascular calcification
12.  The effect of combined calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on bone mineral density in elderly women with moderate chronic kidney disease 
Clinical nephrology  2012;77(5):358-365.
Aims
To examine the effect of combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods
We performed a post-hoc analysis of the DECALYOS II, a 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 610 women randomized to: calcium-vitamin D3 fixed combination, calcium plus vitamin D3 separate combination, or placebo. Both active treatment groups received the same daily amount of calcium (1,200 mg) and vitamin D3 (800 IU). BMD of the distal radius was measured by single X-ray absorptiometry at baseline, 12 and 24 months.
Results
At baseline 47.2%, 36.4% and 16.4% of the study population had an eGFR ≥ 60, 45 – 59, and < 45 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Both active regimens vs. placebo markedly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from baseline in all eGFR groups (p < 0.0001). Analysis of variance demonstrated an overall treatment effect on distal radius BMD (p = 0.005), with the active treatment groups showing a lower rate of BMD loss when compared to the placebo group. The effects of the intervention on BMD did not differ significantly according to baseline eGFR (interaction p > 0.22 for all time points).
Conclusion
Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation was effective in reducing rate of BMD loss in women with moderate CKD.
PMCID: PMC4030712  PMID: 22551881
cholecalciferol; vitamin D3; bone mineral density; chronic kidney disease
13.  Extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease 
Annals of medicine  2011;43(4):273-282.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and infectious diseases represent the two most important causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The traditional risk factors of CVD do not appear to account sufficiently for the increased risk of CVD in patients with CKD, and vitamin D deficiency appears to be an important non-traditional, and potentially modifiable, CVD risk factor in this patient population. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is converted to its biologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), by the enzyme 1 α-hydroxylase in the kidneys. The recent discovery that many extrarenal tissues also possess both the 1 α-hydroxylase enzyme and the vitamin D receptors has provided new insights into the important physiologic autocrine and paracrine roles of vitamin D in various tissues and organs that are mainly dependent on the availability of 25(OH)D from the circulating plasma. Accordingly, the present review focuses on the rapidly expanding body of clinical and experimental evidence that supports a strong association between 25(OH)D deficiency/insufficiency and the risk of adverse CVD outcomes and infectious diseases as well as on the non-calcemic autocrine and paracrine actions of vitamin D both in the general population and in patients with CKD.
doi:10.3109/07853890.2010.543923
PMCID: PMC4030714  PMID: 21214426
Cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; CKD; infectious diseases; vitamin D deficiency
14.  Association between Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake with Chronic Kidney Disease in U.S. Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study 
American journal of nephrology  2013;37(6):526-533.
Background/Aims
Clinical guidelines recommend a diet low in sodium and high in potassium to reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular events. Little is known about the relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake and chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods
13,917 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2006) were examined. Sodium and potassium intake were calculated from 24-hour recall and evaluated in quartiles. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min, or eGFR ≥ 60mL/min with albuminuria (>30mg/g creatinine).
Results
The mean (SE) age and eGFR of participants was 45.0 ± 0.4 years and 88.0 ± 0.60 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. 2333 (14.2%) had CKD: 1146 (7.3%) had an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and 1514 (8.4%) had an eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure subjects in the highest quartile of sodium intake had a lower odds of CKD compared to subjects in the lowest quartile (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.96; p<0.016). Compared to the highest quartile, participants in the lowest quartile of potassium intake had a 44% increased odds of CKD (adjusted OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16–1.79, p=0.0011).
Conclusions
Higher intake of sodium and potassium is associated with lower odds of CKD among US adults. These results should be corroborated through longitudinal studies and clinical trials designed specifically to examine the effects of dietary sodium and potassium intake on kidney disease and its progression.
doi:10.1159/000351178
PMCID: PMC3919025  PMID: 23689685
Chronic Kidney Disease; Dietary sodium intake; Dietary potassium intake
15.  Phosphate and Cardiovascular Disease 
Hyperphosphatemia is a major risk factor for death, cardiovascular events and vascular calcification among patients with and without kidney disease. Even serum phosphate levels within the “normal laboratory range” associate with a greater risk of death and cardiovascular events. Potential mechanisms by which increased phosphate results in adverse outcomes are incompletely understood but current evidence suggests a direct effect of phosphate on vascular calcification and modulation of key hormones fibroblast growth factor-23 and calcitriol. Despite convincing epidemiologic connections between phosphate excess and cardiovascular disease, no clinical trials have been conducted to establish a causal relationship and large, randomized trials with hard endpoints are urgently needed to prove or disprove the benefits and risks of therapy.
doi:10.1053/j.ackd.2010.12.003
PMCID: PMC4010180  PMID: 21406296
16.  ELEVATED SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE INDEPENDENTLY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME FEATURES IN THE UNITED STATES: LIVER ULTRASOUND DATA FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY 
Objective
Experimental and observational studies suggest a role for uric acid in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined the association between serum uric acid levels and NAFLD in a large population-based study from the United States.
Materials/Methods
A cross-sectional analysis of 10,732 nondiabetic adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994. Sex specific uric acid quartiles were defined: ≤5.2, 5.3–6.0, 6.1–6.9, and >6.9 mg/dL for men and ≤3.7, 3.8–4.5, 4.6–5.3, and >5.3 mg/dL for women. NAFLD presence and severity were defined by ultrasonographic detection of steatosis in the absence of other liver diseases. We modeled the probability that more severe NAFLD would be associated with the highest quartiles of uric acid.
Results
Compared to the 1st quartile, the odds ratio for NAFLD was 1.79 (95% C.I. 1.49–2.15, p < 0.001) and 3.14 (95% C.I. 2.63–3.75, p < 0.001) for the 3rd and 4th quartiles, respectively. After adjusting for demographics, hypertension, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid (4th quartile) was significantly associated with NAFLD (odds ratio 1.43; 95% C.I. 1.16–1.76, p < 0.001). Positive parameter estimates suggest increasing uric acid is associated with greater severity of NAFLD.
Conclusions
Elevated uric acid level is independently associated with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD in a nationally representative sample of United States nondiabetic adults. Increasing uric acid is associated with increasing severity of NAFLD on ultrasonography. These findings warrant further studies on the role of uric acid in NAFLD.
doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2012.08.013
PMCID: PMC3565047  PMID: 23036645
hyperuricemia; NHANES; metabolic syndrome
17.  Low Body Mass Index and Dyslipidemia in Dialysis Patients linked to Elevated Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 
American journal of nephrology  2013;37(3):183-190.
Background
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has been associated with death in dialysis patients. Since FGF23 shares structural features with FGF19-subfamily members that exert hormonal control of fat mass, we hypothesized that high circulating FGF23 concentrations would be associated with the development of a uremic lipid profile and lower body mass index.
Methods
This study was conducted among 654 patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. C-terminal FGF23 concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples. Linear regression was used to examine the cross-sectional associations of plasma FGF23 concentrations with body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Cox-proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between FGF23 concentrations and all-cause mortality.
Results
Participants had a mean age of 60 ± 11 years and a median [IQR] FGF23 concentration of 4212 [1411-13816] RU/mL. An increase per SD in log10 FGF23 was associated with lower BMI (β= −1.11; p=0.008), TC (β= −6.46; p=0.02), LDL-C (β= −4.73; p=0.04) and HDL-C (β= −2.14; p=0.03); after adjusting for age, gender, race, cardiovascular risk factors, serum albumin, markers of mineral metabolism, and use of lipid lowering drugs. The association of FGF23 with death was attenuated after adjustment for HDL-C (HR of highest quartile 1.53, 95% CI 1.06-2.20 compared to lowest quartile).
Conclusion
These results indicate that higher plasma FGF23 levels are associated with lower BMI and dyslipidemia in dialysis patients. The association between FGF23 and death may be mediated through unexplored metabolic risk factors unrelated to mineral metabolism.
doi:10.1159/000346941
PMCID: PMC3717381  PMID: 23428834
Hemodialysis; fibroblast growth factor 23; dyslipidemia; body mass index
18.  Kidney Function and Mortality in Octogenarians: Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars 
OBJECTIVES:
To examine the association between kidney function and all-cause mortality in octogenarians.
DESIGN:
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.
SETTING:
Community.
PARTICIPANTS:
Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured in 1,053 Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) All Stars participants.
MEASUREMENTS:
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine (eGFRCR) and cystatin C one-variable (eGFRCYS) equations. The association between quintiles of kidney function and all-cause mortality was analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS:
Mean age of the participants was 85, 64% were female, 66% had hypertension, 14% had diabetes mellitus, and 39% had prevalent cardiovascular disease. There were 154 deaths over a median follow-up of 2.6 years. The association between eGFRCR and all-cause mortality was U-shaped. In comparison with the reference quintile (64–75 mL/min per 1.73 m2), the highest (≥75 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and lowest (≤43 mL/min per 1.73 m2) quintiles of eGFRCR were independently associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36–4.55; HR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.26–4.10, respectively). The association between eGFRCYS and all-cause mortality was linear in those with eGFRCYS of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and in the multivariate analyses, the lowest quintile of eGFRCYS (<52 mL/min per 1.73 m2) was significantly associated with mortality (HR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.12–3.71) compared with the highest quintile (>0.88 mL/min per 1.73 m2).
CONCLUSION:
Moderate reduction in kidney function is a risk factor for all-cause mortality in octogenarians. The association between eGFRCR and all-cause mortality differed from that observed with eGFRCYS; the relationship was U-shaped for eGFRCR, whereas the risk was primarily present in the lowest quintile for eGFRCYS. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04046.x
PMCID: PMC3902776  PMID: 22724391
octogenarians; kidney function; mortality
19.  Dietary sodium restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure 
Objectives
We determined the efficacy of dietary sodium restriction (DSR) for improving vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 130–159 mmHg) and the associated physiological mechanisms.
Background
Vascular endothelial dysfunction develops with advancing age and elevated SBP, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. DSR lowers BP, but its effect on vascular endothelial function and mechanisms involved are unknown.
Methods
Seventeen subjects (11M/6F; 62±7 yrs, mean±S.D.) completed a randomized, crossover study of 4 weeks of both low and normal sodium intake. Vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation; EDD), nitric oxide (NO)/tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability and oxidative stress-associated mechanisms were assessed following each condition.
Results
Urinary sodium excretion was reduced by ~50% (to 70±30 mmol/day), and conduit (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMDBA]) and resistance (forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine [FBFACh]) artery EDD were 68% and 42% (peak FBFACh) higher following the low sodium diet (p<0.005). Low sodium markedly enhanced NO- mediated EDD (greater ΔFBFACh with endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibition) without changing eNOS expression/activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation), restored BH4 bioactivity (less ΔFMDBA with acute BH4), abolished tonic superoxide suppression of EDD (less ΔFMDBA and ΔFBFACh with ascorbic acid infusion), and increased circulating superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). These effects were independent of ΔSBP. Other subject characteristics/dietary factors and endothelium-independent dilation were unchanged.
Conclusions
DSR largely reverses both macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO and BH4 bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Our findings support the emerging concept that DSR induces “vascular protection” beyond that attributable to its BP-lowering effects.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.09.010
PMCID: PMC3549053  PMID: 23141486
aging; nitric oxide; hypertension; diet; oxidative stress
20.  Uric Acid as a Target of Therapy in CKD 
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has risen and will continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. This is alarming considering that CKD remains an irreversible condition and patients who progress to chronic kidney failure suffer reduced quality of life and high mortality rates. As such, it is imperative to identify modifiable risk factors to develop strategies to slow CKD progression. One such factor is hyperuricemia. Recent observational studies have associated hyperuricemia with kidney disease. In addition, hyperuricemia is largely prevalent in patients with CKD. Data from experimental studies have revealed several potential mechanisms by which hyperuricemia may contribute to the development and progression of CKD. In this manuscript we offer a critical review of the experimental evidence linking hyperuricemia to CKD, we highlight the gaps in our knowledge on the topic as it stands today, and we review the observational and interventional studies that have examined the potential nephro-protective effect of lowering uric acid in CKD patients . While uric acid may also be linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with CKD, this review will focus only on uric acid as a potential therapeutic target to prevent kidney disease onset and progression.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.07.021
PMCID: PMC3525781  PMID: 23058478
kidney disease progression; uric acid
21.  25-hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency is Associated with an Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease 
Clinical nephrology  2012;78(6):432-441.
Background
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not requiring dialysis have a high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency but the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and metabolic syndrome is unknown in this population.
Methods
This study analyzed stored plasma samples from 495 non-diabetic subjects with severe kidney disease, not yet on dialysis, who participated in the Homocysteine in Kidney and End Stage Renal Disease study. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of all three of the following: (1) Serum triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL or drug treatment for hypertriglyceridemia; (2) serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) < 50 mg/dL for women or < 40 mg/dL for men or drug treatment for dyslipidemia; and (3) blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg or drug treat ment for hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the cross-sectional association between plasma 25(OH)D levels and metabolic syndrome.
Results
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased as 25(OH)D levels declined, with the highest prevalence in participants with 25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/mL. Participants with 25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/mL had a significantly increased risk of metabolic syndrome compared to subjects with levels > 30 ng/mL after adjustment for multiple confounders (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.25–4.07). Plasma 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure (R= −0.10, p=0.029) and serum triglyceride levels (R= −0.14, p=0.002).
Conclusion
25(OH)D deficiency is strongly associated with an increas ed risk of metabolic syndromein non-diabetic patients with severe CKD not yet on dialysis, independent of cardiometabolic risk factors and other important regulators of mineral metabolism.
doi:10.5414/CN107498
PMCID: PMC3697908  PMID: 22784560
25-hydroxyvitamin D; Chronic kidney disease; Metabolic Syndrome
22.  Kidney Function and Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium in Community-Dwelling Older Adults (From the Rancho Bernardo Study) 
The American journal of cardiology  2012;110(10):1425-1433.
Longitudinal studies of the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with coronary artery calcium, a measure of cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden, are few and contradictory. In this study, 421 community-dwelling men and women (mean age 67 years) without known heart disease had eGFR estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and albuminuria assessed by urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) between 1997–1999. Mean eGFR was 78 mL/min/1.73m2, median ACR was 10 mg/g. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography between 2000–2001 when median total Agatston CAC score was 77; 4.5 years later 338 participants still without heart disease had a repeat scan (median CAC score 112); 46% of participants showed CAC progression, defined as an increase ≥2.5 mm3 in square-root transformed CAC volume score. Cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic regression analyses showed no separate or joint association between eGFR or ACR with CAC severity or progression. In conclusion, this study does not support the use of eGFR or ACR to identify asymptomatic older adults who should be screened for subclinical CVD with initial or sequential scanning for CAC. In the elderly, kidney function and CAC may not progress together.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.06.053
PMCID: PMC3483450  PMID: 22883164
albuminuria; chronic kidney disease; coronary artery calcium; coronary heart disease; elderly; glomerular filtration rate
23.  Relationships Between Serum and Urine Phosphorus with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study 
Background
Serum phosphorus is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population but may not comprehensively reflect phosphorus homeostasis. Whether urine phosphorus/creatinine ratio (UPi/UCr, a marker of intestinal absorption) or urine fractional excretion of phosphorus (FePi, a marker of urinary phosphorus handling) is associated with risk of mortality or CVD is uncertain.
Study Design
Prospective observational study.
Setting and Participants
1,325 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years.
Predictors
Serum phosphorus, UPi/UCr, and FePi.
Outcomes
All-cause and CVD death.
Results
Mean age was 74±6 years, eGFR was 75±16 ml/min/1.73m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.2±0.4 mg/dL. During 9.3 years median follow-up, there were 364 deaths (120 CVD deaths). After adjustment for demographics, CVD risk factors, and kidney function, the risks of all-cause death in the highest quartiles of serum phosphorus (≥3.6 mg/dL), UPi/UCr, and FePi were 1.63 (95% CI 1.23-2.17), 1.22 (95% CI 0.90-1.65), and 0.88 (95% CI 0.64-1.23), respectively. Results were similar for CVD death. Results were also similar irrespective of eGFR above or below 60 ml/min/1.73m2.
Limitations
Older, all male cohort. Few had advanced CKD. Specimens were collected in the morning after an overnight fast.
Conclusions
In community-living older men, higher serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause and CVD death. In contrast, UPi/UCr and FePi were not. These findings do not support using UPi/UCr or FePi as adjuvant measures to predict risk of mortality or CVD in the general population.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.11.033
PMCID: PMC3815620  PMID: 23261120
Phosphorus; urine phosphorus; mortality; cardiovascular disease; kidney disease; geriatrics
24.  Association between Non-Alcoholic Liver Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease: An Ultrasound Analysis from NHANES 1988–1994 
American journal of nephrology  2012;36(5):466-471.
Background/ Aims
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been proposed to contribute to chronic kidney disease (CKD) independently of traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. We hypothesized that NAFLD is associated with CKD and that greater severity of NAFLD is associated with higher odds of CKD.
Methods
A cross-sectional analysis of 11,469 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of steatosis in the absence of other liver diseases. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or the presence of albuminuria in subjects with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of >60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Results
2,891 (25.4%) patients in the cohort had CKD. The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in individuals with CKD compared to those without CKD (42.2% vs. 34.5%, p<0.0001). NAFLD was associated with CKD in unadjusted logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.29–1.67, p<0.0001). Adjustment for demographics and components of metabolic syndrome attenuated this relationship (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.88–1.23, p=0.64). Moderate and severe NAFLD on ultrasound were increasingly associated with prevalent CKD in unadjusted analysis but not after adjustment for metabolic syndrome components.
Conclusion
After adjusting for features of metabolic syndrome, ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD is not associated with prevalent CKD among US adults. Aggressive public health efforts are needed to prevent and treat metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.1159/000343885
PMCID: PMC3563287  PMID: 23128368
chronic kidney disease; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NHANES
25.  Comparison of Two Creatinine-Based Estimating Equations in Predicting All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(11):2347-2353.
OBJECTIVE
To compare the performance of two glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-estimating equations in predicting the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic patients.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We followed 2,823 type 2 diabetic outpatients for a period of 6 years for the occurrence of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. GFR was estimated using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation.
RESULTS
At baseline, an estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was present in 22.0 and 20.2% of patients using the MDRD study equation and the CKD-EPI equation, respectively. A total of 309 patients died during the follow-up (152 patients from cardiovascular causes). Both creatinine-based equations were associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. However, the CKD-EPI equation provided a more accurate risk prediction of mortality than the MDRD study equation. Receiving operating characteristic curves showed that the areas under the curve (AUCs) for all-cause mortality (AUC 0.712 [95% CI 0.682–0.741]) and cardiovascular mortality (0.771 [0.734–0.808]) using eGFRCKD-EPI were significantly greater (P < 0.0001 by the z statistic) than those obtained by using eGFRMDRD (0.679 [0.647–0.711] for all-cause mortality and 0.739 [0.698–0.783] for cardiovascular mortality).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that the estimation of GFR using the CKD-EPI equation more appropriately stratifies patients with type 2 diabetes according to the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with the MDRD study equation.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0259
PMCID: PMC3476924  PMID: 22837367

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