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1.  Beta cell response to a mixed meal in nigerian patients with type 2 diabetes 
The pathophysiology of type2 diabetes involves both insulin resistance and poor beta cell function. Studies have been done in several populations to assess the relative importance of these mechanisms in individual patients. In our environment studies to assess beta cell function have been done with glucagon stimulation or an oral glucose tolerance test. This study was done to assess the response of the beta cell to a standardized mixed meal and its relationship with glycaemic control in patients with type2 diabetes.
Ninety patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited into the study. Weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference were measured. Blood samples were analysed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting C peptide (FCP) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Patients were given their usual drugs for management of their diabetes and then served with a standard meal calculated to contain 50 g of carbohydrate, made up of 53 % carbohydrate, 17 % of protein and 30 % of lipids, providing 500 kcal. Blood samples 2 hours after the start of the meal were analysed for postprandial glucose (PPG) and postprandial C peptide (PCP). Fasting (M0) and postprandial beta cell responsiveness (M1) were calculated.
The mean FPG and PPG were 7.51+/− 3.39 mmol/l and 11.02+/−4.03 mmol/l respectively while the mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 9.0+/−2.5 %. The mean fasting C peptide was 1.44+/−1.80ug/ml. Many of the patients (56.7 %) had low FCP levels. The mean postprandial C peptide was 4.0+/−2.8 ng/ml. There were significant correlations between M1, HbA1c and PPG (p = 0.015, 0.024, 0.001 respectively) and also between M0, HbA1c, PPG and FPG (p = 0.001, 0.002, 0.001). HbA1c decreased across increasing tertiles of M0 (p < 0.001) and also M1 (p = 0.002). In step-wise linear regression analysis, M0 and M1 significantly predicted HbA1c.
Many of the patients had low C peptide levels with poor beta cell response to the meal. The patients had poor glycaemic control and poor beta cell function. Both fasting and postprandial beta cell responsiveness were significant determinants of blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels. It is likely that putting these patients on insulin may have led to better glycaemic control in them.
PMCID: PMC3489861  PMID: 22738260
Beta cell; Type2 diabetes; Meal stimulation; Glycaemic control
2.  Characterization of lipid parameters in diabetes mellitus – a Nigerian report 
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder that is often associated with cardiovascular events and underlying lipid abnormalities. Cardiovascular complications are common causes of DM deaths in Nigeria yet dyslipidaemia is one aspect of DM that is underdiagnosed and undertreated in our patients. This report seeks to determine the prevalence and pattern of lipid abnormalities in Nigerians with types I and 2 DM.
A total of 600 patients with DM aged between 22 – 79 years were evaluated for lipid abnormalities. The anthropometric indices, glycosylated haemoglobin, pattern of DM treatment and co-morbidities were noted. Total cholesterol (TCHOL), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL-C), low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the atherogenic indices levels were documented. Test statistic used included student's t test and χ2.
Well over half (89%) of the study subjects had lipid abnormalities and there was no statistically significant difference in the proportions of subjects with type 1 and 2 DM with lipid abnormalities. Elevated LDL-C, TCHOL, TG and reduced HDL-C were noted in 74%, 42%, 13%, and 53% respectively of the study subjects. The commonly noted combined lipid abnormalities were elevated TG and reduced HDL-C. Hypertension, significant histories of smoking and alcohol ingestion were found to be potential determinants of the occurrence of dyslipidaemia. Age, sex, type of DM and anthropometric indices were found to be determinants of the the pattern of dyslipidaemia. Only a small proportion – (8%)-of the subjects with dyslipidaemia were on treatment for it.
Having defined the scope of dyslipidaemia in our patients and also highlighting its gross undertreatment, we hope that our data will help sensitize health care practitioners on screening for and treating dyslipidaemia. Elevated LDL-C and reduced HDL-C should be the primary targets of treatment in our patients with dyslipidaemia.
PMCID: PMC2734749  PMID: 19619328

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