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1.  Is there an increased risk of hip fracture in multiple sclerosis? Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 
Background
Impaired ambulation, frequent falls, and prolonged immobilization combined with the high rate of vitamin D deficiency in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) could lead to an increased risk of hip fracture.
Methods
A retrospective cohort analysis of 20 years of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (AHRQ.gov), a 20% stratified yearly sample of USA hospital admissions from the year 1988–2007, was performed. Based on International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision (ICD9) codes, admissions with a primary diagnosis of acute hip fracture (ICD9 code 226.xx) and a secondary diagnosis of MS (ICD9 code 340) was identified. Indirect adjustment was used to compare the prevalence of MS in this population with that of the USA. Significance was set a priori at P<0.0001 due to the large number of records and multiple comparisons.
Results
A total of 1,066,404 hip fracture admissions were identified and 0.25% had MS. Those with MS were younger, had lower mortality rates (0.25% for people with MS versus 2.97% for those without MS, P<0.0001) and lower rates of discharge to nursing home or rehabilitation (69.25% for people with MS versus 72.17% for those without MS, P<0.0001). When compared with the population prevalence, the predicted prevalence of MS among patients with hip fracture was 2.844 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.837–2.852) greater than expected when adjusted for age, 2.505 (95% CI 2.499–2.512) when adjusted for sex and age, and 2.175 (95% CI 2.168–2.182) when adjusted for race (white, black). Race was specified for only 65% of the sample.
Conclusion
In this nationwide sample of 20 years of hospital admissions in the USA, the prevalence of MS in the population with hip fracture was greater than twice that predicted, and MS patients suffered an acute fracture at an earlier age.
doi:10.2147/JMDH.S54786
PMCID: PMC3928063  PMID: 24600232
osteoporosis; patients at risk; multiple sclerosis
2.  Impact of admission blood glucose level on outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia in older adults 
Background
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Although diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for pneumonia, the clinical impact of blood glucose level at the time of admission is not clear. Our goal was to examine the association between admission hyperglycemia and subsequent mortality, length of stay, and readmission outcomes in older adults with CAP.
Methods
A retrospective observational study was conducted using hospital data for community-acquired pneumonia admissions in 857 persons from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. We examined the effects of admission glucose level on mortality, length of stay, and 30 day readmission, adjusted for demographic factors and comorbidity.
Results
The mean age of the sample was 64 years, and 51% of the subjects were female. Inpatient mortality occurred in 4.6% and the median length of stay was 5 days (interquartile range 3–9 days). Readmission within 30 days occurred in 17%. We found little impact of first glucose measures on in-hospital mortality (P = 0.94), length of stay (P = 0.95), and 30-day readmission (P = 0.56). Subjects 65 years and older trended towards higher in-hospital mortality. Older age, cancer, heart failure, and cirrhosis were associated with adverse outcomes.
Conclusion
Glucose level upon admission for community-acquired pneumonia was not associated with adverse outcomes within 30 days in older adults.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S42854
PMCID: PMC3656812  PMID: 23690696
community-acquired pneumonia; hyperglycemia; readmission rates; hospital mortality
3.  Testosterone replacement therapy among elderly males: the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS) 
Background:
Testosterone levels naturally decline with age in men, often resulting in testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism). However, few studies have examined hypogonadal characteristics and treatment in older (≥65 years) men.
Objective:
To compare data at baseline and after 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in hypogonadal men ≥65 vs <65 years old. Data for participants 65–74 vs ≥75 years old were also compared.
Methods:
Data were from TRiUS (Testim Registry in the United States), which enrolled 849 hypogonadal men treated with Testim® 1% (50–100 mg testosterone gel/day) for the first time. Anthropometric, laboratory, and clinical measures were taken at baseline and 12 months, including primary outcomes of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Comparisons of parameters were made using Fisher’s exact test or analysis of variance. Nonparametric Spearman’s ρ and first-order partial correlation coefficients adjusted for the effect of age were used to examine bivariate correlations among parameters.
Results:
Of the registry participants at baseline with available age information, 16% (133/845) were ≥65 years old. They were similar to men <65 years old in the duration of hypogonad-ism prior to enrollment (∼1 year), TT and FT levels at baseline, TT and FT levels at 12-month follow-up, and in reported compliance with treatment. Older patients were more likely to receive lower doses of TRT. PSA levels did not statistically differ between groups after 12 months of TRT (2.18 ± 2.18 ng/mL for ≥65 vs 1.14 ± 0.84 ng/mL for <65 years old, P = 0.1). Baseline values for the >75-year-old subcohort were not significantly different from subcohorts aged 65–74 years and <65 years.
Conclusion:
Hypogonadal men ≥65 years old showed significant benefit from TRT over 12 months, similar to that found for hypogonadal men <65 years old. TRT was well tolerated in older patients, successfully increased testosterone level regardless of age, and did not significantly increase PSA levels in older men.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S32036
PMCID: PMC3430096  PMID: 22956867
male hypogonadism; elderly; testosterone replacement therapy; testosterone gel; TRiUS registry; Testim
4.  Calcium affects on vascular endpoints 
Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the body and its metabolism is one of the basic biologic processes in humans. Although historically linked primarily to bone structural development and maintenance, calcium is now recognized as a key component of many physiologic pathways necessary for optimum health including cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. A recent meta-analysis published in August 2011 showed a potential increase in cardiovascular events related to calcium supplementation. The possible mechanism of action of this correlation has not been well elucidated. This topic has generated intense interest due to the widespread use of calcium supplements, particularly among the middle aged and elderly who are at the most risk from cardiac events. Prior studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as the use of statins, aspirin or other medications. These controversial results warrant additional well-designed studies to investigate the relationship between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current literature in regards to calcium supplementation and cardiovascular health; and to identify areas of future research.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-24
PMCID: PMC3359185  PMID: 22452897
5.  Effect of 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy on metabolic syndrome components in hypogonadal men: data from the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS) 
Background
Recent evidence suggests that there may be a bidirectional, physiological link between hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve some symptoms of MetS in small patient populations. We examined the effect of 12 months of TRT on MetS components in a large cohort of hypogonadal men.
Methods
Data were obtained from TRiUS (Testim® Registry in the United States), a 12-month, multicenter, prospective observational registry (N = 849) of hypogonadal men prescribed Testim 1% testosterone gel (5-10 g/day). Data analyzed included age, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and MetS components: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol.
Results
Of evaluable patients (581/849) at baseline, 37% were MetS+ (n = 213) and 63% were MetS- (n = 368). MetS+ patients had significantly lower TT (p < 0.0001) and SHBG (p = 0.01) levels. Patients with the lowest quartile TT levels (<206 ng/dL [<7.1 nmol/L]) had a significantly increased risk of MetS+ classification vs those with highest quartile TT levels (≥331 ng/dL [≥11.5 nmol/L]) (odds ratio 2.66; 95% CI, 1.60 to 4.43). After 12 months of TRT, TT levels significantly increased in all patients (p < 0.005). Despite having similar TT levels after TRT, only MetS+ patients demonstrated significant decreases in waist circumference, fasting blood glucose levels, and blood pressure; lowest TT quartile patients demonstrated significant decreases in waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Neither HDL cholesterol nor triglyceride levels changed significantly in either patient population.
Conclusion
Hypogonadal MetS+ patients were more likely than their MetS- counterparts to have lower baseline TT levels and present with more comorbid conditions. MetS+ patients and those in the lowest TT quartile showed improvement in some metabolic syndrome components after 12 months of TRT. While it is currently unclear if further cardiometabolic benefit can be seen with longer TRT use in this population, testing for low testosterone may be warranted in MetS+ men with hypogonadal symptoms.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-18
PMCID: PMC3217857  PMID: 22044661
Testosterone; metabolic syndrome; obesity; testosterone gel; testosterone replacement; TRiUS registry; Testim; hypogonadism; testosterone deficiency; fasting glucose

Results 1-5 (5)