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1.  A Salmon Protein Hydrolysate Exerts Lipid-Independent Anti-Atherosclerotic Activity in ApoE-Deficient Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97598.
Fish consumption is considered health beneficial as it decreases cardiovascular disease (CVD)-risk through effects on plasma lipids and inflammation. We investigated a salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism and to have anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. 24 female apolipoprotein (apo) E−/− mice were divided into two groups and fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% (w/w) SPH for 12 weeks. The atherosclerotic plaque area in aortic sinus and arch, plasma lipid profile, fatty acid composition, hepatic enzyme activities and gene expression were determined. A significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque area in the aortic arch and aortic sinus was found in the 12 apoE−/− mice fed 5% SPH for 12 weeks compared to the 12 casein-fed control mice. Immunohistochemical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus displayed no differences in plaque composition between mice fed SPH compared to controls. However, reduced mRNA level of Icam1 in the aortic arch was found. The plasma content of arachidonic acid (C20∶4n-6) and oleic acid (C18∶1n-9) were increased and decreased, respectively. SPH-feeding decreased the plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and GM-CSF, whereas plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TAG) were unchanged, accompanied by unchanged mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-activity. These data show that a 5% (w/w) SPH diet reduces atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice and attenuate risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders by acting both at vascular and systemic levels, and not directly related to changes in plasma lipids or fatty acids.
PMCID: PMC4026378  PMID: 24840793
2.  Phospholipids from herring roe improve plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in healthy, young adults 
Herring roe is an underutilized source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human consumption with high phospholipid (PL) content. Studies have shown that PL may improve bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs. Arctic Nutrition’s herring roe product MOPL™30 is a PL: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil mixture, with a DHA:eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio of about 3:1, which is also rich in choline. In this pilot study, we determined if MOPL30 could favorably affect plasma lipid parameters and glucose tolerance in healthy young adults.
Twenty female and one male adults, between 22 and 26 years of age, participated in the study. Participants took encapsulated MOPL30, 2.4 g/d EPA + DHA, for 14 days, and completed a three-day weighed food record before and during the capsule intake. Plasma lipids and their fatty acid (FA) composition, plasma and red blood cell (RBC) phosphatidylcholine (PC) FA composition, acylcarnitines, choline, betaine and insulin were measured before and after supplementation (n = 21), and one and four weeks after discontinuation of supplementation (n = 14). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed before and after supplementation.
Fasting plasma triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids decreased and HDL-cholesterol increased after 14 days of MOPL30 intake (p < 0.05). The dietary records showed that PUFA intake prior to and during capsule intake was not different. Fasting plasma glucose was unchanged from before to after supplementation. However, during oral glucose tolerance testing, blood glucose at both 10 and 120 min was significantly lower after supplementation with MOPL30 compared to baseline measurements. Plasma free choline and betaine were increased, and the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA) ratio in plasma and RBC PC were decreased post-supplementation. Four weeks after discontinuation of MOPL30, most parameters had returned to baseline, but a delayed effect was observed on n-6 PUFAs.
Herring roe rich in PL improved the plasma lipid profile and glycemic control in young adults with an overall healthy lifestyle.
PMCID: PMC4038089  PMID: 24886291
Herring roe; Phospholipids; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Glycemic control; Choline; Acylcarnitines
3.  Fish oil and krill oil supplementations differentially regulate lipid catabolic and synthetic pathways in mice 
Marine derived oils are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have long been associated with health promoting effects such as reduced plasma lipid levels and anti-inflammatory effects. Krill oil (KO) is a novel marine oil on the market and is also rich in EPA and DHA, but the fatty acids are incorporated mainly into phospholipids (PLs) rather than triacylglycerols (TAG). This study compares the effects of fish oil (FO) and KO on gene regulation that influences plasma and liver lipids in a high fat diet mouse model.
Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF) containing 24% (wt/wt) fat (21.3% lard and 2.3% soy oil), or the HF diet supplemented with FO (15.7% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.8% FO) or KO (15.6% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.7% KO) for 6 weeks. Total levels of cholesterol, TAG, PLs, and fatty acid composition were measured in plasma and liver. Gene regulation was investigated using quantitative PCR in liver and intestinal epithelium.
Plasma cholesterol (esterified and unesterified), TAG and PLs were significantly decreased with FO. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein particles indicated that the lipid lowering effect by FO is at least in part due to decreased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) content in plasma with subsequent liver lipid accumulation. KO lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with a minor effect on fatty acid accumulation in the liver. In spite of a lower omega-3 fatty acid content in the KO supplemented diet, plasma and liver PLs omega-3 levels were similar in the two groups, indicating a higher bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from KO. KO more efficiently decreased arachidonic acid and its elongation/desaturation products in plasma and liver. FO mainly increased the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, while KO specifically decreased the expression of genes involved in the early steps of isoprenoid/cholesterol and lipid synthesis.
The data show that both FO and KO promote lowering of plasma lipids and regulate lipid homeostasis, but with different efficiency and partially via different mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC4021563  PMID: 24834104
Omega-3 fatty acids; Plasma lipids; High-fat diet; Gene regulation; Krill oil
4.  An Immunomodulating Fatty Acid Analogue Targeting Mitochondria Exerts Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect beyond Plasma Cholesterol-Lowering Activity in apoE-/- Mice  
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81963.
Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a hypolipidemic antioxidant with immunomodulating properties involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and proliferation of mitochondria. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of TTA on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein (apo)-E-/- mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.3% TTA for 12 weeks. These mice displayed a significantly less atherosclerotic development vs control. Plasma cholesterol was increased by TTA administration and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in plasma and liver were decreased by TTA supplementation, the latter, probably due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipogenesis. TTA administration also changed the fatty acid composition in the heart, and the amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was reduced and increased, respectively. The heart mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxidase (NOS)-2 was decreased in TTA-treated mice, whereas the mRNA level of catalase was increased. Finally, reduced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators as IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected in TTA-treated mice. These data show that TTA reduces atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice and modulates risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders. TTA probably acts at both systemic and vascular levels in a manner independent of changes in plasma cholesterol, and triggers TAG catabolism through improved mitochondrial function.
PMCID: PMC3852987  PMID: 24324736
5.  Dietary intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease patients with or without diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study 
BMC Medicine  2013;11:216.
A beneficial effect of a high n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake has been observed in heart failure patients, who are frequently insulin resistant. We investigated the potential influence of impaired glucose metabolism on the relation between dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFAs and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with coronary artery disease.
This prospective cohort study was based on the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention Trial and included 2,378 patients with coronary artery disease with available baseline glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and dietary data. Patients were sub-grouped as having no diabetes (HbA1c <5.7%), pre-diabetes (HbA1c ≥5.7%), or diabetes (previous diabetes, fasting baseline serum glucose ≥7.0, or non-fasting glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L). AMI risk was evaluated by Cox regression (age and sex adjusted), comparing the upper versus lower tertile of daily dietary n-3 LCPUFA intake.
The participants (80% males) had a mean age of 62 and follow-up of 4.8 years. A high n-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with reduced risk of AMI (hazard ratio 0.38, 95%CI 0.18, 0.80) in diabetes patients (median HbA1c = 7.2%), whereas no association was observed in pre-diabetes patients. In patients without diabetes a high intake tended to be associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio1.45, 95%CI 0.84, 2.53), which was significant for fatal AMI (hazard ratio 4.79, 95%CI 1.05, 21.90) and associated with lower HbA1c (mean ± standard deviation 4.55 ±0.68 versus 4.92 ±0.60, P = 0.02). No such differences in HbA1c were observed in those with pre-diabetes or diabetes.
A high intake of n-3 LCPUFAs was associated with a reduced risk of AMI, independent of HbA1c, in diabetic patients, but with an increased risk of fatal AMI and lower HbA1c among patients without impaired glucose metabolism. Further studies should investigate whether patients with diabetes may benefit from having a high intake of n-3 LCPUFAs and whether patients with normal glucose tolerance should be careful with a very high intake of these fatty acids.
Trial registration
This trial is registered at as NCT00354081.
PMCID: PMC3853070  PMID: 24103380
Coronary artery disease; Diabetes; Dietary n-3 fatty acids; Myocardial infarction
6.  A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation 
There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα).
hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma.
The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice.
The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin.
PMCID: PMC4021737  PMID: 24098955
Salmon protein; High-fat diet; Tumor necrosis factor α; Inflammation; Carnitine metabolism
7.  Fish Oil and the Pan-PPAR Agonist Tetradecylthioacetic Acid Affect the Amino Acid and Carnitine Metabolism in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66926.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPARα-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPARα activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPARα activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC3691320  PMID: 23826175
8.  A salmon peptide diet alleviates experimental colitis as compared with fish oil 
Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, but how fish peptides (FP) influence intestinal inflammation has been less studied. Male Wistar rats, divided into five groups, were included in a 4-week dietary intervention study. Of the groups, four were exposed in the fourth week to 5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis, while one group was unexposed. The diets were: (1) control, (2) control + DSS, (3) FO (5 %) + DSS, (4) FP (3·5 %) + DSS, (5) FO + FP + DSS. Following DSS intake, weight and disease activity index (DAI) were assessed, and histological combined score (HCS), selected colonic PG, cytokines, oxidative damage markers and mRNA levels were measured. FP reduced HCS, tended to lower DAI (P = 0·07) and reduced keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene levels, as compared with the FO diet. FP also reduced mRNA levels of Il-6 and Cxcl1, although not significantly. FO intake increased the DAI as compared with DSS alone. PGE3 levels increased after the FO diet, and even more following FO + FP intake. The FP diet seems to have a protective effect in DSS-induced colitis as compared with FO. A number of beneficial, but non-significant, changes also occurred after FP v. DSS. A combined FO + FP diet may influence PG synthesis, as PGE3 levels were higher after the combined diet than after FO alone.
PMCID: PMC4153328  PMID: 25191568
Colitis; Diet therapy; Inflammatory bowel diseases; n-3 Fatty acids; DAI, disease activity index; DSS, dextran sulfate sodium; FO, fish oil; FP, fish peptide; GRO, growth-regulated oncogene; HCS, histological combined score; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; KC, keratinocyte chemoattractant; UC, ulcerative colitis
9.  Omega-3 Status and the Relationship between Plasma Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease 
Background. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. A previous rat study revealed an ADMA lowering effect following treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). We sought to examine if an association between plasma ADMA and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was modified by serum n-3 PUFA status. Methods. The cohort included 1364 patients who underwent coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease in 2000-2001. Fatal and nonfatal AMI events were registered until December 31, 2006. Risk associations with AMI were estimated across ADMA quartiles (linear trend) and the upper decile. Results. No association between concentration of any n-3 PUFA and ADMA was observed. Only ADMA levels in upper decile were significantly associated with AMI with a multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) versus the rest of the population of 2.11 (1.34, 3.32). The association was strengthened among patients with below median levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA) (HR 3.12 (1.64, 5.93)), but was only influenced by longer chain n-3 PUFA after additional adjustments for HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions. The association of ADMA with risk of AMI is influenced by serum n-3 PUFA and particularly ALA.
PMCID: PMC3549394  PMID: 23346455
10.  Lipid-Lowering Effects of Tetradecylthioacetic Acid in Antipsychotic-Exposed, Female Rats: Challenges with Long-Term Treatment 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50853.
Psychiatric patients often require chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs, and while rats are frequently used to study antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects, long-term exposure has only partially mimicked the appetite-stimulating and weight-inducing effects found in the clinical setting. Antipsychotic-induced effects on serum lipids are also inconsistent in rats, but in a recent study we demonstrated that subchronic treatment with the orexigenic antipsychotic olanzapine resulted in weight-independent increase in serum triglycerides and activation of lipogenic gene expression in female rats. In addition, a recent long-term study in male rats showed that chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs induced dyslipidemic effects, despite the lack of weight gain.
In the current study, we sought to examine long-term effects of antipsychotic drugs on weight gain, lipid levels and lipid composition after twice-daily administration of antipsychotics to female rats, and to investigate potential beneficial effects of the lipid-lowering agent tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), a modified fatty acid.
Female rats were exposed to orexigenic antipsychotics (olanzapine or clozapine), metabolically neutral antipsychotics (aripiprazole or ziprasidone), or TTA for 8 weeks. Separate groups received a combination of clozapine and TTA or olanzapine and TTA. The effects of TTA and the combination of olanzapine and TTA after 2 weeks were also investigated.
The antipsychotic-induced weight gain and serum triglyceride increase observed in the subchronic setting was not present after 8 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics, while lipid-lowering effect of TTA was much more pronounced in the chronic than in the subchronic setting, with concomitant upregulation of key oxidative enzymes in the liver. Unexpectedly, TTA potentiated weight gain in rats treated with antipsychotics.
TTA is a promising candidate for prophylactic treatment of antipsychotic-induced dyslipidemic effects, but a more valid long-term rat model for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects is required.
PMCID: PMC3511315  PMID: 23226405
11.  Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid or fish oil is associated with increased cardiac content of n-3 fatty acids in rat 
Excess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) stimulation has been associated with detrimental health effects including impaired myocardial function. Recently, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been associated with improved left ventricular function and functional capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We investigated the long-term effects of the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and/or high-dose fish oil (FO) on cardiac fatty acid (FA) composition and lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats were given one out of four different 25% (w/v) fat diets: control diet; TTA diet; FO diet; or diet containing both TTA and FO.
After 50 weeks n-3 PUFA levels were increased by TTA and FO in the heart, whereas liver levels were reduced following TTA administration. TTA was associated with a decrease in arachidonic acid, increased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and fatty acid synthase in the heart. Furthermore, cardiac Ucp3 and Cact mRNA was upregulated.
Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist TTA or high-dose FO induced marked changes in PUFA composition and enzymatic activity involved in FA metabolism in the heart, different from liver. Changes included increased FA oxidation and a selective increase in cardiac n-3 PUFA.
PMCID: PMC3459737  PMID: 22738017
Heart metabolism; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Tetradecylthioacetic acid
12.  Genome wide response to dietary tetradecylthioacetic acid supplementation in the heart of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:180.
Under-dimensioned hearts causing functional problems are associated with higher mortality rates in intensive Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Previous studies have indicated that tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) induces cardiac growth and also stimulates transcription of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) αand βin the Atlantic salmon heart. Since cardiac and transcriptional responses to feed are of high interest in aquaculture, the objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptional mechanisms induced by TTA in the heart of Atlantic salmon.
Atlantic salmon were kept at sea for 17 weeks. During the first 8 weeks the fish received a TTA supplemented diet. Using microarrays, profound transcriptional effects were observed in the heart at the end of the experiment, 9 weeks after the feeding of TTA stopped. Approximately 90% of the significant genes were expressed higher in the TTA group. Hypergeometric testing revealed the over-representation of 35 gene ontology terms in the TTA fed group. The GO terms were generally categorized into cardiac performance, lipid catabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle.
Our results indicate that TTA has profound effects on cardiac performance based on results from microarray and qRT-PCR analysis. The gene expression profile favors a scenario of ”physiological”lright hypertrophy recognized by increased oxidative fatty acid metabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle activity as well as cardiac growth and contractility in the heart ventricle. Increased cardiac efficiency may offer significant benefits in the demanding Aquaculture situations.
PMCID: PMC3483216  PMID: 22577878
13.  Krill oil attenuates left ventricular dilatation after myocardial infarction in rats 
In the western world, heart failure (HF) is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular mortality. Supplement with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to improve cardiac function in HF and to decrease mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). The molecular structure and composition of n-3 PUFA varies between different marine sources and this may be of importance for their biological effects. Krill oil, unlike fish oil supplements, contains the major part of the n-3 PUFA in the form of phospholipids. This study investigated effects of krill oil on cardiac remodeling after experimental MI. Rats were randomised to pre-treatment with krill oil or control feed 14 days before induction of MI. Seven days post-MI, the rats were examined with echocardiography and rats in the control group were further randomised to continued control feed or krill oil feed for 7 weeks before re-examination with echocardiography and euthanization.
The echocardiographic evaluation showed significant attenuation of LV dilatation in the group pretreated with krill oil compared to controls. Attenuated heart weight, lung weight, and levels of mRNA encoding classical markers of LV stress, matrix remodeling and inflammation reflected these findings. The total composition of fatty acids were examined in the left ventricular (LV) tissue and all rats treated with krill oil showed a significantly higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in the LV tissue, although no difference was seen between the two krill oil groups.
Supplement with krill oil leads to a proportional increase of n-3 PUFA in myocardial tissue and supplement given before induction of MI attenuates LV remodeling.
PMCID: PMC3281139  PMID: 22206454
Heart failure; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; lipids
14.  Skeletal Effects of the Saturated 3-Thia Fatty Acid Tetradecylthioacetic Acid in Rats 
PPAR Research  2011;2011:436358.
This study explores the skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)pan agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). Rats, without (Study I) and with ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (Study II), were given TTA or vehicle daily for 4 months. Bone markers in plasma, whole body and femoral bone mineral density and content (BMD and BMC), and body composition were examined. Histomorphometric and biomechanical analyses (Study I) and biomechanical and μCT analyses (Study II) of the femur were performed. Normal rats fed TTA had higher femoral BMD and increased total and cortical area in femur compared to controls. The ovariectomized groups had decreased BMD and impaired microarchitecture parameters compared to SHAM. However, the TTA OVX group maintained femoral BMC, trabecular thickness in the femoral head, and cortical volume in the femoral metaphysis as SHAM. TTA might increase BMD and exert a light preventive effect on estrogen-related bone loss in rats.
PMCID: PMC3236357  PMID: 22190907
15.  Tetradecylthioacetic acid inhibits proliferation of human SW620 colon cancer cells - gene expression profiling implies endoplasmic reticulum stress 
Previous reports have shown an antiproliferative effect of the synthetic, 3-thia fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) on different cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms behind the observed effects are poorly understood. We therefore wanted to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in TTA-induced growth inhibition of the human colon cancer cell line SW620 by gene expression profiling.
An antiproliferative effect of TTA on SW620 cells in vitro was displayed in real time using the xCELLigence System (Roche). Affymetrix gene expression profiling was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the antiproliferative effect of TTA. Changes in gene expression were verified at protein level by western blotting.
TTA reduced SW620 cell growth, measured as baseline cell index, by 35% and 55% after 48 h and 72 h, respectively. We show for the first time that TTA induces an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in cancer cells. Gene expression analysis revealed changes related to ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). This was verified at protein level by phosphorylation of eukaryote translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) and downstream up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Transcripts for positive and negative cell cycle regulators were down- and up-regulated, respectively. This, together with a down-regulation of Cyclin D1 at protein level, indicates inhibition of cell cycle progression. TTA also affected transcripts involved in calcium homeostasis. Moreover, mRNA and protein level of the ER stress inducible C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), Tribbles homolog 3 (Drosophila) (TRIB3) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) were enhanced, and the C/EBPβ LIP/LAP ratio was significantly increased. These results indicate prolonged ER stress and a possible link to induction of cell death.
We find that TTA-induced growth inhibition of SW620 cells seems to be mediated through induction of ER stress and activation of the UPR pathway.
PMCID: PMC3235040  PMID: 22027281
Cell cycle; Colon cancer; Docosahexaenoic acid; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Gene expression analysis; Phosphorylated eIF2α; Tetradecylthioacetic acid; Thia fatty acids; Unfolded protein response
16.  Acute effects of orexigenic antipsychotic drugs on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rat 
Psychopharmacology  2011;219(3):783-794.
This study aims to investigate whether orexigenic antipsychotic drugs may induce dyslipidemia and glucose disturbances in female rats through direct perturbation of metabolically active peripheral tissues, independent of prior weight gain.
In the current study, we examined whether a single intraperitoneal injection of clozapine or olanzapine induced metabolic disturbances in adult female outbred Sprague–Dawley rats. Serum glucose and lipid parameters were measured during time-course experiments up to 48 h. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure specific transcriptional alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in adipose tissue depots or in the liver.
Our results demonstrated that acute administration of clozapine or olanzapine induced a rapid, robust elevation of free fatty acids and glucose in serum, followed by hepatic accumulation of lipids evident after 12–24 h. These metabolic disturbances were associated with biphasic patterns of gluconeogenic and lipid-related gene expression in the liver and in white adipose tissue depots.
Our results support that clozapine and olanzapine are associated with primary effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism associated with transcriptional changes in metabolically active peripheral tissues prior to the development of drug-induced weight gain.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2397-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3259403  PMID: 21748251
Antipsychotic; Animal model; Clozapine; Energy; Metabolism; Fatty acid; Lipid; Glucose; Diabetes; Obesity; Gene expression
17.  Differential Effects of Krill Oil and Fish Oil on the Hepatic Transcriptome in Mice 
Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ω-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO). We found that ω-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (KO) downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that KO-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from FO modulated fewer pathways than a KO-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by KO, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, FO upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill-supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose, or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low-fat diet. Further studies of KO-supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects.
PMCID: PMC3268598  PMID: 22303341
Krill oil; fish oil; polyunsaturated fatty acids; gene transcription; liver; metabolism; EPA; DHA
18.  Tetradecylthioacetic Acid Increases Hepatic Mitochondrial β-Oxidation and Alters Fatty Acid Composition in a Mouse Model of Chronic Inflammation 
Lipids  2011;46(8):679-689.
The administration of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), a hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory modified bioactive fatty acid, has in several experiments based on high fat diets been shown to improve lipid transport and utilization. It was suggested that increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in the liver of Wistar rats results in reduced plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Here we assessed the potential of TTA to prevent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α-induced lipid modifications in human TNFα (hTNFα) transgenic mice. These mice are characterized by reduced β-oxidation and changed fatty acid composition in the liver. The effect of dietary treatment with TTA on persistent, low-grade hTNFα overexpression in mice showed a beneficial effect through decreasing TAG plasma concentrations and positively affecting saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid proportions in the liver, leading to an increased anti-inflammatory fatty acid index in this group. We also observed an increase of mitochondrial β-oxidation in the livers of TTA treated mice. Concomitantly, there were enhanced plasma levels of carnitine, acetyl carnitine, propionyl carnitine, and octanoyl carnitine, no changed levels in trimethyllysine and palmitoyl carnitine, and a decreased level of the precursor for carnitine, called γ-butyrobetaine. Nevertheless, TTA administration led to increased hepatic TAG levels that warrant further investigations to ascertain that TTA may be a promising candidate for use in the amelioration of inflammatory disorders characterized by changed lipid metabolism due to raised TNFα levels.
PMCID: PMC3131506  PMID: 21479675
Tetradecylthioacetic acid; hTNFα transgenic mice; Low-grade inflammation; Dietary treatment; Plasma; Liver
19.  Different Adipose Depots: Their Role in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome and Mitochondrial Response to Hypolipidemic Agents 
Journal of Obesity  2011;2011:490650.
Adipose tissue metabolism is closely linked to insulin resistance, and differential fat distributions are associated with disorders like hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissues vary in their impact on metabolic risk due to diverse gene expression profiles, leading to differences in lipolysis and in the production and release of adipokines and cytokines, thereby affecting the function of other tissues. In this paper, the roles of the various adipose tissues in obesity are summarized, with particular focus on mitochondrial function. In addition, we discuss how a functionally mitochondrial-targeted compound, the modified fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), can influence mitochondrial function and decrease the size of specific fat depots.
PMCID: PMC3042633  PMID: 21403826
20.  Tissue-Specific Effects of Bariatric Surgery Including Mitochondrial Function 
Journal of Obesity  2011;2011:435245.
A better understanding of the molecular links between obesity and disease is potentially of great benefit for society. In this paper we discuss proposed mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery improves metabolic health, including acute effects on glucose metabolism and long-term effects on metabolic tissues (adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver) and mitochondrial function. More short-term randomized controlled trials should be performed that include simultaneous measurement of metabolic parameters in different tissues, such as tissue gene expression, protein profile, and lipid content. By directly comparing different surgical procedures using a wider array of metabolic parameters, one may further unravel the mechanisms of aberrant metabolic regulation in obesity and related disorders.
PMCID: PMC3025372  PMID: 21274278
21.  The Role of PPARα Activation in Liver and Muscle 
PPAR Research  2010;2010:542359.
PPARα is one of three members of the soluble nuclear receptor family called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). It is a sensor for changes in levels of fatty acids and their derivatives that responds to ligand binding with PPAR target gene transcription, inasmuch as it can influence physiological homeostasis, including lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in various tissues. In this paper we summarize the involvement of PPARα in the metabolically active tissues liver and skeletal muscle and provide an overview of the risks and benefits of ligand activation of PPARα, with particular consideration to interspecies differences.
PMCID: PMC2933910  PMID: 20847941
22.  Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubes From Humans With Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of β-Oxidation Products Because of Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation 
Diabetes  2009;58(3):527-535.
OBJECTIVE—Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence these processes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and type 2 diabetic individuals after 4 days of preincubation with EPA or TTA.
RESULTS—Type 2 diabetes myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO2 from palmitic acid (PA), whereas release of β-oxidation products was unchanged at baseline but significantly increased with respect to control myotubes after preincubation with TTA and EPA. Preincubation with TTA enhanced both complete (CO2) and β-oxidation of palmitic acid, whereas EPA increased only β-oxidation significantly. EPA markedly enhanced triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in type 2 diabetes cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO2 formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased after chronic exposure to EPA and TTA, whereas glucose uptake and storage were unchanged. EPA and especially TTA increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake, activation, accumulation, and oxidation.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results suggest that 1) mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic myotubes is caused by disturbances downstream of fatty acid β-oxidation; 2) EPA promoted accumulation of TAG, enhanced β-oxidation, and increased glucose oxidation; and 3) TTA improved complete palmitic acid oxidation in diabetic myotubes, opposed increased lipid accumulation, and increased glucose oxidation.
PMCID: PMC2646050  PMID: 19066312
23.  Platelet activating factor stimulates arachidonic acid release in differentiated keratinocytes via arachidonyl non-selective phospholipase A2 
Archives of Dermatological Research  2009;302(3):221-227.
Platelet activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is known to be present in excess in psoriatic skin, but its exact role is uncertain. In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the role of group VI PLA2 in PAF-induced arachidonic acid release in highly differentiated human keratinocytes. The group IVα PLA2 also participates in the release, while secretory PLA2s play a minor role. Two anti-inflammatory synthetic fatty acids, tetradecylthioacetic acid and tetradecylselenoacetic acid, are shown to interfere with signalling events upstream of group IVα PLA2 activation. In summary, our major novel finding is the involvement of the arachidonyl non-selective group VI PLA2 in PAF-induced inflammatory responses.
PMCID: PMC2829133  PMID: 20041255
Phospholipase A2; Platelet activating factor; Arachidonic acid; Tetradecylthioacetic acid; Tetradecylselenoacetic acid
24.  Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist fenofibrate and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone 
All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPARα agonist fenofibrate (FENO) and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on bone in intact female rats.
Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle), fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied.
The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1.
We show opposite skeletal effects of PPARα and γ agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPARα activation.
PMCID: PMC2678137  PMID: 19331671

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