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1.  Serum selenium levels do not differ in type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:270.
Background
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selenium levels differ between type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods
A total of 200 subjects with type 2 diabetes (100 with CAD and 100 without CAD), consecutively selected from the diabetes outpatient clinic of our hospital were enrolled into the study. A detailed medical history and a physical examination were obtained by all the participants.
Results
Serum selenium levels did not differ between diabetic subjects with and without CAD (102.40 ± 31.10 vs. 108.86 ± 33.88 microg/L, p = 0.16). In diabetic subjects with CAD multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated significant independent associations between selenium and sex (beta = 0.21, p = 0.03) and glucose levels (beta = 0.25, p = 0.008). In diabetic subjects without CAD multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated significant independent associations between selenium and peripheral artery disease (beta = 0.16, p = 0.05) and glucose levels (beta = -0.09, p = 0.05).
Conclusion
Serum selenium levels did not differ between diabetic subjects with and without CAD. In diabetic subjects with CAD, the only determinants of serum selenium levels were sex and glucose levels. In diabetic subjects without CAD the only determinants of serum selenium levels were peripheral artery disease and glucose levels.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-270
PMCID: PMC3161875  PMID: 21801367
selenium; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular disease
2.  Prevalence of target organ damage in hypertensive subjects attending primary care: C.V.P.C. study (epidemiological cardio-vascular study in primary care) 
BMC Family Practice  2011;12:75.
Background
Except for the established risk factors, presence of target organ damage has an important role in the treatment of hypertensive subjects. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of target organ damage in primary care subjects.
Methods
This multi-centre, cross-sectional survey of 115 primary care physicians recruited 1095 consecutive subjects with hypertension: 611 men (55.8%); and 484 women (44.2%). A detailed history for the presence of cardiovascular disease and a thorough clinical examination was performed to each subject.
Results
Of the total study population, 44.5% (n = 487) had target organ damage (33.0% had left ventricular hypertrophy, 21.8% increased carotid intima media thickness, 11.0% elevated plasma creatinine levels and 14.6% microalbuminuria). Target organ damage was more prevalent in males than in females (P = 0.05). In addition, males had more often increased carotid intima media thickness than females (P = 0.009). On the contrary, females had more often microalbuminuria (P = 0.06) than males. No differences were observed between the two genders regarding left ventricular hypertrophy (P = 0.35) and elevated plasma creatinine levels (P = 0.21). Logistic regression analysis showed associations between target organ damage and dyslipidemia (P < 0.001), presence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.005), diabetes (P < 0.001) and coronary artery disease (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
A significant proportion of hypertensive subjects in primary care had documented associated target organ damage, with left ventricular hypertrophy being the most prevalent target organ damage.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-12-75
PMCID: PMC3146415  PMID: 21756310
Primary care; hypertension; target organ damage; left ventricular hypertrophy
3.  Familial history of diabetes and clinical characteristics in Greek subjects with type 2 diabetes 
Background
A lot of studies have showed an excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim, therefore, of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of familial history of T2D in Greek patients, and to evaluate its potential effect on the patient's metabolic control and the presence of diabetic complications.
Methods
A total of 1,473 T2D patients were recruited. Those with diabetic mothers, diabetic fathers, diabetic relatives other than parents and no known diabetic relatives, were considered separately.
Results
The prevalence of diabetes in the mother, the father and relatives other than parents, was 27.7, 11.0 and 10.7%, respectively. Patients with paternal diabetes had a higher prevalence of hypertension (64.8 vs. 57.1%, P = 0.05) and lower LDL-cholesterol levels (115.12 ± 39.76 vs. 127.13 ± 46.53 mg/dl, P = 0.006) than patients with diabetes in the mother. Patients with familial diabetes were significantly younger (P < 0.001), with lower age at diabetes diagnosis (P < 0.001) than those without diabetic relatives. Patients with a diabetic parent had higher body mass index (BMI) (31.22 ± 5.87 vs. 30.67 ± 5.35 Kg/m2, P = 0.08), higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (49.8 vs. 44.6%, P = 0.06) and retinopathy (17.9 vs. 14.5%, P = 0.08) compared with patients with no diabetic relatives. No difference in the degree of metabolic control and the prevalence of chronic complications were observed.
Conclusion
The present study showed an excess maternal transmission of T2D in a sample of Greek diabetic patients. However, no different influence was found between maternal and paternal diabetes on the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients except for LDL-cholesterol levels and presence of hypertension. The presence of a family history of diabetes resulted to an early onset of the disease to the offspring.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-9-12
PMCID: PMC2680864  PMID: 19397813
4.  Prevalence of depressive symptoms among non insulin treated Greek type 2 diabetic subjects 
BMC Research Notes  2008;1:101.
Background
Depression is common among diabetic subjects. We conducted the present study to estimate the prevalence of depression in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Greece.
Methods
The study sample consisted of 320 T2D subjects without overt macrovascular disease attending the diabetes outpatient clinic of our hospital, from June 2007 to December 2007. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory, modified for use in diabetic subjects.
Results
Of the study subjects 107 (33.4%) reported elevated depressive symptoms. More women than men with diabetes reported symptoms of depression (48.4% vs. 12.7%, P < 0.001). In the female study group, depressive symptoms were correlated with HbA1c (P = 0.04), and duration of diabetes (P = 0.004). In the male study group, univariate linear regression analysis showed no significant relationships between depressive symptoms and the testing variables.
Conclusion
The prevalence of depression in Greek T2D subjects is high. Diabetic female subjects showed increased levels of depressive symptoms compared with male subjects. Independent risk factors of depressive symptoms in diabetic female subjects were diabetes duration and glycemic control.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-1-101
PMCID: PMC2590605  PMID: 18957113

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