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1.  Prevalence of risk factors at presentation and early mortality in patients aged 80 years or older with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction 
Background
Elderly patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are at high risk for complications and early mortality; still, they are underrepresented in clinical trials and observational studies. We studied the risk profiles at presentation and early mortality in elderly (≥80 years) versus younger (<80 years) STEMI patients.
Design
This was a prospective cohort study.
Methods
The study population comprised 4,092 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval from 2006 to 2010. Baseline characteristics at admission were recorded, as well as in-hospital mortality. Etiologic strategy was used in the analyses.
Results
Patients ≥80 years of age (n=536) were more likely to be women and have prior myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke, but were less likely to be current smokers. The crude in-hospital mortality was 16.2% in patients aged 80 years and older versus 3.5% in those younger than 80 years. The adjusted odds ratio for mortality in patients aged 80 years and older versus those younger than 80 years increased with increasing levels of serum creatinine and total cholesterol. In patients with low levels of serum creatinine and total cholesterol, the odds ratio was 3.01 (95% confidence interval, 1.86–4.93; P=0.0001); increasing to 11.72 (95% confidence interval, 5.26–26.3; P=0.001) in patients with high levels.
Conclusion
High levels of serum cholesterol and creatinine were important risk factors for early mortality in elderly patients. Depending on the levels of cholesterol and creatinine, in-hospital mortality in patients aged 80 years and older varied from a threefold to an almost twelvefold risk compared with younger patients.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S72764
PMCID: PMC4266339  PMID: 25525366
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; mortality; elderly patients; octogenarian; creatinine; total cholesterol
2.  Effects of omega 3 supplementation in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction: design of a prospective randomized placebo controlled study 
BMC Geriatrics  2014;14:74.
Background
Both epidemiological and randomized clinical studies suggest that supplementation with very-long-chain marine polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have cardioprotective effects, however these results are not without controversy. Study population, sample-size, type of supplementation and type of endpoint have all varied widely accross different studies.
Therefore, the aims of the present study are to evaluate the effect of 2 years supplementation with capsules of very-long chain marine n-3 PUFA on top of standard therapy in elderly patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
In addition, special characteristics of this population with regard to prediction of clinical outcome will be investigated. The hypothesis is that this supplementation on top of modern therapy will reduce the occurence of major cardiovascular events (MACE). We present the design of the OMEMI (OMega-3 fatty acids in Elderly patients with Myocardial Infarction) study.
Methods/Design
The OMEMI study is designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter trial.
Included are patients ≥70-82 years of age who have sustained AMI. Patients of either gender are eligible. Sample size calculation based on existing literature has resulted in the need for 1400 patients followed for 2 years, based on the assumption that the n-3 PUFA supplementation will reduce MACE with 30%. The study medication is Pikasol® Axellus AS, Norway, 3 capsules (1.8 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docohexaenoic acid (DHA)) per day, and matching placebo is corn oil. The Primary end-point is the composite of total mortality, first non-fatal recurring AMI, stroke and revascularization. Secondary end-point is the occurrence of new onset atrial fibrillation. Extensive biobanking will be performed, including adipose tissue biopsies. Compliance will be assessed by measurements of the fatty acid profile in serum, sampled at inclusion, after 12 months and at the end of study.
Discussion
The OMEMI study is scheduled to terminate when the last included patient has been followed for 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, the OMEMI study is the first to evaluate the effect of n-3 PUFAs on CVDs and mortality in a high risk elderly population having suffered an acute myocardial infarction.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01841944
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-74
PMCID: PMC4074832  PMID: 24928284
Omega 3 fatty acids; Acute myocardial infarction; Randomized placebo controlled trial; Elderly
3.  Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning on Infarct Size in Patients With ST‐Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary PCI Results of the POSTEMI (POstconditioning in ST‐Elevation Myocardial Infarction) Randomized Trial 
Background
Reduction of infarct size by ischemic postconditioning (IPost) has been reported in smaller proof‐of‐concept clinical studies, but has not been confirmed in other smaller studies. The principle needs to be evaluated in larger groups of ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients before being implemented in clinical practice. This study assessed the effect of ischemic postcoditioning (IPost) on infarct size in patients with STEMI treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods and Results
Patients with first‐time STEMI, <6 hours from symptom onset, referred to primary PCI were randomized to IPost or control groups. IPost was administered by 4 cycles of 1‐minute reocclusion and 1‐minute reperfusion, starting 1 minute after opening, followed by stenting. In the control group, stenting was performed immediately after reperfusion. The primary endpoint was infarct size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance after 4 months. A total of 272 patients were randomized. Infarct size (percent of left ventricular mass) after 4 months (median values and interquartile range) was 14.4% (7.7, 24.6) and 13.5% (8.1, 19.3) in the control group and IPost group, respectively (P=0.18). No significant impact of IPost was found when controlling for baseline risk factors of infarct size in a multivariate linear regression model (P=0.16). The effects of IPost on secondary endpoints, including markers of necrosis, myocardial salvage, and ejection fraction, as well as adverse cardiac events during follow‐up, were consistently neutral.
Conclusions
In contrast to several smaller trials reported previously, we found no significant effects of IPost on infarct size or secondary study outcomes.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT.No.PO1506.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000679
PMCID: PMC4187468  PMID: 24760962
acute myocardial infarction; infarct size; percutaneous coronary intervention; postconditioning; reperfusion injury
4.  Myocardial Salvage is Reduced in Primary PCI-Treated STEMI Patients with Microvascular Obstruction, Demonstrated by Early and Late CMR 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71780.
Objectives
This study evaluates the association between microvascular obstruction and myocardial salvage, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance performed both in the acute stage of myocardial infarction and after 4 months.
Methods
In patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial salvage, infarct size, left ventricular volumes, and ejection fraction were assessed by early (1–4 days) and follow-up (4 months) cardiac magnetic resonance. These variables were related to the presence or absence of microvascular obstruction at early investigation. Myocardial salvage was determined by: (1) myocardium at risk and infarct size measured in the acute stage and (2) myocardium at risk, measured acutely, and infarct size measured after 4 months. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for clinical confounders at baseline.
Results
Microvascular obstruction was present in 49 of 94 included patients, (52%). Myocardial salvage was significantly reduced in patients with microvascular obstruction, compared to those without: 23% vs. 38%, measured acutely, and 39.8% vs. 65.4%, after 4 months (p<0.001). The presence of microvascular obstruction was significantly and independently associated with large infarct size, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and larger left ventricular end-systolic volume.
Conclusion
The presence of microvascular obstruction demonstrated by cardiac magnetic resonance early after infarction was associated with impaired myocardial salvage. This association was more marked when based on measurement of infarct size after 4 months compared to assessment in the acute stage.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071780
PMCID: PMC3747268  PMID: 23977143
5.  Outcome of mitral valve plasty or replacement: atrial fibrillation an effect modifier 
Background
Advances in the understanding of mitral valve pathology have laid to mitral valve plasty (MPL) as the procedure of choice of all the mitral intervention as compared to mitral valve replacement (MVR).
This study is aimed to compare the outcome mortality and reoperation and to estimate failure of repair between the two procedures during the follow up time.
Material and methods
A cohort of 355 patients with mitral valve disease operated between January 1993 to January 2007 with closing date first of mars 2011. There were 214 MPL and 141 MVR at the Hospital discharge. This retrospective cohort had the design of exposed (MPL) versus non-exposed (MVR) with outcome total mortality and reoperation during follow up. Also echocardiography follow-up was undertaken to estimate the true long-term failure rate of repair.
Results
The mean follow up was 5.3 years SE (3.82) maximum follow up was 14.1 years. Considering the patient time model the association between repair/replacement and total mortality RR = 0.43 95% (0.28-074) p = 0.002 controlling for the confounding effect of 3-vessels disease. Those results were confirmed by propensity score analysis.
As far as outcome re-operation, presence of atrial fibrillation AF was an effect modifier indicating lower reoperation rate for MPL compared to MVR for patients without AF, RR = 0.32 95% CL (0.13-0.81) p = 0.017 while no difference in reoperation rates between MPL/MVR for patients with AF RR = 1.82 95% CL (0.52-6.4) p = 0.344.
Echocardiography follows up showed incidence of moderate and severe recurrent mitral regurgitation was 1.34 per 100 patients years and 0.27 per 100 patients years during the follow-up time.
Conclusion
In a cohort of patient with mitral valve disease undergoing MPL/MVR was examined. MPL was associated with better survival, and lower reoperation rate for patients without AF but same rate for patients with AF. We advocate more attention in controlling risk factors of AF in the clinical management of mitral disease. Long-term failure rate of MPL was low during follow up time. A replication of our results by a randomized clinical trial is mandatory.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-8-142
PMCID: PMC3673869  PMID: 23724788
Mitral plasty; Mitral replacement; Mortality; Reoperation; Atrial fibrillation
6.  High On-Aspirin Platelet Reactivity and Clinical Outcome in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Results From ASCET (Aspirin Nonresponsiveness and Clopidogrel Endpoint Trial) 
Background
Patients with stable coronary artery disease on single-antiplatelet therapy with aspirin are still at risk for atherothrombotic events, and high on-aspirin residual platelet reactivity (RPR) has been suggested as a risk factor.
Methods and Results
In this randomized trial, the association between platelet function determined by the PFA100 platelet function analyzer system (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Germany) and clinical outcome in 1001 patients, all on single-antiplatelet therapy with aspirin (160 mg/d) was studied. Patients were randomized to continue with aspirin 160 mg/d or change to clopidogrel 75 mg/d. A composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and unstable angina was used. At 2-year follow-up, 106 primary end points were registered. The prevalence of high RPR was 25.9%. High on-aspirin RPR did not significantly influence the primary end point in the aspirin group (13.3% versus 9.9%, P=0.31). However, in post hoc analysis, patients with von Willebrand factor levels or platelet count below median values and high on-aspirin RPR had a statistically significant higher end point rate than that of patients with low RPR (20% versus 7.5%, P=0.014, and 18.2% versus 10.8%, P=0.039, respectively). The composite end point rate in patients with high on-aspirin RPR treated with clopidogrel was not different from that of patients treated with aspirin (7.6% versus 13.3%, P=0.16).
Conclusions
In stable, aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease, high on-aspirin RPR did not relate to clinical outcome and did not identify a group responsive to clopidogrel. Post hoc subgroup analysis raised the possibility that high on-aspirin RPR might be predictive in patients with low von Willebrand factor or platelet count, but these findings will require confirmation in future studies.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT00222261. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000703 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.000703.)
doi:10.1161/JAHA.112.000703
PMCID: PMC3487336  PMID: 23130135
antiplatelet therapy; aspirin; clopidogrel; residual platelet reactivity; angina, stable
7.  Impact of newly diagnosed abnormal glucose regulation on long-term prognosis in low risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up study 
Background
Patients with acute myocardial infarction and newly detected abnormal glucose regulation have been shown to have a less favourable prognosis compared to patients with normal glucose regulation. The importance and timing of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose regulation classified by an OGTT in-hospital and at three-month follow-up on clinical outcome in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) without known diabetes.
Methods
Patients (n = 224, age 58 years) with a primary percutanous coronary intervention (PCI) treated STEMI were followed for clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial re-infarction, recurrent ischemia causing hospital admission, and stroke). The patients were classified by a standardised 75 g OGTT at two time points, first, at a median time of 16.5 hours after hospital admission, then at three-month follow-up. Based on the OGTT results, the patients were categorised according to the WHO criteria and the term abnormal glucose regulation was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes.
Results
The number of patients diagnosed with abnormal glucose regulation in-hospital and at three-month was 105 (47%) and 50 (25%), respectively. During the follow up time of (median) 33 (27, 39) months, 58 (25.9%) patients experienced a new clinical event. There were six deaths, 15 non-fatal re-infarction, 33 recurrent ischemia, and four strokes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival free of composite end-points showed similar results in patients with abnormal and normal glucose regulation, both when classified in-hospital (p = 0.4) and re-classified three months later (p = 0.3).
Conclusions
Patients with a primary PCI treated STEMI, without previously known diabetes, appear to have an excellent long-term prognosis, independent of the glucometabolic state classified by an OGTT in-hospital or at three-month follow-up.
Trial registration
The trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00926133.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-11-14
PMCID: PMC3173358  PMID: 21801387
8.  Abnormal glucose regulation in patients with acute ST- elevation myocardial infarction-a cohort study on 224 patients 
Background
A high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and unknown type 2-diabetes in patients with coronary heart disease and no previous diagnosis of diabetes have been reported. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) 3 months after an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients without known glucometabolic disturbance, to evaluate the reliability of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed very early after an acute STEMI to predict the presence of AGR at 3 months, and to study other potential predictors measured in-hospital for AGR at 3 months.
Methods
This was an observational cohort study prospectively enrolling 224 STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. An OGTT was performed very early after an acute STEMI and was repeated in 200 patients after 3 months. We summarised the exact agreement observed, and assessed the observed reproducibility of the OGTTs performed in-hospital and at follow up. The patients were classified into glucometabolic categories defined according to the World Health Organisation criteria. AGR was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes.
Results
The prevalence of AGR at three months was 24.9% (95% CI 19.1, 31.4%), reduced from 46.9% (95% CI 40.2, 53.6) when measured in-hospital. Only, 108 of 201 (54%) patients remained in the same glucometabolic category after a repeated OGTT. High levels of HbA1c and admission plasma glucose in-hospital significantly predicted AGR at 3 months (p < 0.001, p = 0.040, respectively), and fasting plasma glucose was predictive when patients with large myocardial infarction were excluded (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
The prevalence of AGR in STEMI patients was lower than expected. HbA1c, admission plasma glucose and fasting plasma glucose measured in-hospital seem to be useful as early markers of longstanding glucometabolic disturbance. An OGTT performed very early after a STEMI did not provide reliable information on long-term glucometabolic state and should probably not be recommended.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-6
PMCID: PMC2646717  PMID: 19183453
9.  Incidence rates of progressive childhood encephalopathy in Oslo, Norway: a population based study 
BMC Pediatrics  2007;7:25.
Background
Progressive encephalopathy (PE) in children is a heterogeneous group of diseases mainly composed of metabolic diseases, but it consists also of neurodegenerative disorders where neither metabolic nor other causes are found. We wanted to estimate the incidence rate and aetiology of PE, as well as the age of onset of the disease.
Methods
We included PE cases born between 1985 and 2003, living in Oslo, and registered the number presenting annually between 1985 and 2004. Person-years at risk between 0 and 15 years were based on the number of live births during the observation period which was divided into four 5-year intervals. We calculated incidence rates according to age at onset which was classified as neonatal (0–4 weeks), infantile (1–12 months), late infantile (1–5 years), and juvenile (6–12 years).
Results
We found 84 PE cases representing 28 diagnoses among 1,305,997 person years, giving an incidence rate of 6.43 per 100,000 person years. The age-specific incidence rates per 100,000 were: 79.89 (<1 year), 8.64 (1–2 years), 1.90 (2–5 years), and 0.65 (>5 years). 66% (55/84) of the cases were metabolic, 32% (27/54) were neurodegenerative, and 2% (2/84) had HIV encephalopathy. 71% (60/84) of the cases presented at < 1 year, 24% (20/84) were late infantile presentations, and 5% (4/84) were juvenile presentations. Neonatal onset was more common in the metabolic (46%) (25/55) compared to the neurodegenerative group (7%) (2/27). 20% (17/84) of all cases were classified as unspecified neurodegenerative disease.
Conclusion
The overall incidence rate of PE was 6.43 per 100,000 person years. There was a strong reduction in incidence rates with increasing age. Two-thirds of the cases were metabolic, of which almost half presented in the neonatal period.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-7-25
PMCID: PMC1914055  PMID: 17597517

Results 1-9 (9)