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1.  Pharmacological Basis for Traditional Use of the Lippia thymoides 
The aim of this study was to evaluate crude extracts and fractions from leaves and stems of Lippia thymoides and to validate their use in folk medicine. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and in vivo wound healing in rats, baker yeast-induced fever in young rats, and acute oral toxicity in mice assays were realized. The crude extracts and their dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had potent radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH but were not effective in the β-carotene bleaching method. The dichloromethane fraction from the leaves extract showed the broadest spectrum of activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, and C. parapsilosis. The animals treated with crude extracts showed no difference in wound healing when compared with the negative control group. The crude extract from leaves (1200 mg/kg) has equal efficacy in reducing temperature in rats with hyperpyrexia compared to dipyrone (240 mg/kg) and is better than paracetamol (150 mg/kg). In acute toxicity test, crude extract of leaves from Lippia thymoides exhibited no mortality and behavioral changes and no adverse effects in male and female mice. This work validates the popular use of Lippia thymoides for treating the wound and fever, providing a source for biologically active substances.
doi:10.1155/2015/463248
PMCID: PMC4393937  PMID: 25892998
2.  Antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of Selaginella convoluta in mice 
Background
Selaginella convoluta (Arn.) Spring (Selaginellaceae), commonly known as “jericó”, is a medicinal plant found in northeastern Brazil. S. convoluta is used in folk medicine as an antidepressant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and it is used to combat amenorrhea, coughing and bleeding. This study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract from S. convoluta in mice exposed to chemical and thermal models of nociception.
Methods
Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The ethanolic extract from Selaginella convoluta (Sc-EtOH) was examined for its intraperitoneal (i.p.) antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Sc-EtOH extract. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination.
Results
A preliminary analysis of Sc-EtOH revealed that it contained phenols, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with Sc-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited reduced writhing (58.46, 75.63 and 82.23%, respectively). Secondly, Sc-EtOH treatment (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 44.90, 33.33 and 34.16%, respectively), as well as during the second phase of the test (by 86.44, 56.20 and 94.95%, respectively). Additionally, Sc-EtOH treatment at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the latency time in the hot plate test after 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. In addition, Sc-EtOH did not impair motor coordination.
Conclusion
Overall, these results indicate that Sc-EtOH is effective as an analgesic agent in various pain models. The activity of Sc-EtOH is most likely mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators and central inhibitory mechanisms. This study supports previous claims of traditional uses for S. convoluta.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-187
PMCID: PMC3487858  PMID: 23082856
Selaginella convoluta; Selaginellaceae; Analgesic; Pain

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