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1.  Association study of gene polymorphisms and depression with abnormal humor in traditional Uighur medicine 
Background
According to the humor theory of Traditional Uighur Medicine (TUM), a same disease is classified into different abnormal humor types and corresponding methods are applied to treat the diseases according to the type of abnormal humor characteristics. To date the biological foundation of classification of diseases by humor theory has been little studied and the mechanism of action is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between some related gene polymorphisms and depression with abnormal humor in TUM.
Methods
201 cases of depression patients in a Uighur population were divided into two groups as: 107 cases of depression patients with abnormal black bile (ABB), 94 cases of depression patients with none abnormal black bile (nABB), and 50 healthy people were served as control group. Venous blood was used to isolate DNA samples, and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Polymorphisms in the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor gene, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene were investigated in each groups, respectively.
Results
The 5-HT2A A-1438G, 5-HT2A T102C, BDNF Val66Met, and 5-HT1A C-1019G gene polymorphisms showed significant association with ABB. However, no difference between nABB and controls was found for those genotype distribution and allele frequency. Moreover, the T102C and A1438G SNPs in the 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium. In addition, the OR associated with the combination of Val66Met-Val/Val genotype plus the presence of -1019C allele was 8.393 for ABB compared with controls (OR 8.393; 95% CI 1.807 ~ 38.991; P= 0.003). Moreover, the OR associated with the presence of -Met plus -1019C alleles was 12.194 for ABB compared with controls (OR 12.194; 95% CI 1.433 ~ 103.776; P= 0.005). The OR associated with the presence of -1438C/C plus Val/Val genotypes was 7.738 for ABB compared with controls (OR 7.738; 95% CI 1.566 ~ 38.241; P= 0.005).
Conclusion
It was concluded that there were significant relationship between the gene polymorphisms and classification of depression with abnormal humor in TUM. The 5-HT2A A-1438G, 5-HT2A T102C, BDNF Val66Met, and 5-HT1A C-1019G gene polymorphisms might predict the incidence of depression with ABB.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-332
PMCID: PMC4222500  PMID: 24274373
Traditional Uighur medicine; Depression; 5-HT2A; BDNF; 5-HT1A
2.  Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of abnormal Savda Munziq on S180 tumour-bearing mice 
Background
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq), a traditional uyghur medicine, has shown anti-tumour properties in vitro. This study attempts to confirm these effects in vivo and measure effects on the immune system.
Methods
Kunming mice transplanted with Sarcoma 180 cells were treated with ASMq (2–8 g/kg/day) by intra-gastric administration compared to model and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg/day). After the 14th day post tumour implant, thymus, liver, spleen and tumours were removed, weighed, and processed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were also taken for haematological and biochemical analyses including TNF-α , IL-1 β and IL-2. Splenic lymphocyte function was measured with MTT; lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry.
Results
ASMq treated animals had reduced tumour volume compared to model and increased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2 compared to untreated and to cyclophosphamide-treated animals. No histopathological alterations were observed. The absence of viable S180 cells and the presence of necrotic cells and granulation tissue were observed in tumour tissue of treated animals. The effect on T lymphocytes was unclear.
Conclusions
ASMq confirmed in vivo anti-tumour effects observed in vitro, which may be at least in part mediated by increased immune activity.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-157
PMCID: PMC3489790  PMID: 22978453
3.  The impact of the Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq on antitumor and antioxidant activity in a S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mouse tumor model 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2012;8(30):141-148.
Aim:
This study was designed to study the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq (ASMq) in the S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mice tumor model.
Materials and Methods:
The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), and glutathione-catalase (GSH-PX) were analyzed, and the mice were also subjected to a hypoxia tolerance test. Their climbing ability was also analyzed.
Results:
The findings of the study revealed that ASMq-treatment leads to an increase in blood serum SOD and GSH-PX levels but a decrease in blood serum MDA levels. Moreover, ASMq-treatment enhanced the survival time of mice maintained under hypoxic conditions and improved their mice climbing ability.
Conclusions:
The results of this study indicate that ASMq has obvious antitumor and antioxidative effects.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.96568
PMCID: PMC3371436  PMID: 22701288
Abnormal savda munziq; antioxidant; antitumor
4.  Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq, a Herbal Preparation of Traditional Uighur Medicine, Inhibits Caco-2 Cells Proliferation via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis 
Aims. Study the effect of Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) ethanol extract on the proliferation, apoptosis, and correlative gene, expression in colon cancer cells (Caco-2) to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anticancer property of Abnormal Savda Munziq. Materials and Methods. ASMq ethanol extract was prepared by a professional pharmacist. Caco-2 cells were treated with different concentration of ASMq ethanol extract (0.5–7.5 mg/mL) for different time intervals (48 and 72 h). Antiproliferative effect of ASMq ethanol extract was determined by MTT assay; DNA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis assay; cell cycle analysis was detected by flow cytometer; apoptosis-related gene expression was detected by RT-PCR assay. Results. ASMq ethanol extract possesses an inhibition effect on Caco-2 cells proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 phase, and downregulation of bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax gene expression. Conclusion. The anticancer mechanism of ASMq ethanol extract may be involved in antiproliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and regulation of apoptosis-related gene expression such as bcl-2 and Bax activity pathway.
doi:10.1155/2012/926329
PMCID: PMC3138059  PMID: 21785650
5.  Inhibition of Cell Growth and Cellular Protein, DNA and RNA Synthesis in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells by Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq of Traditional Uighur Medicine 
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uighur medicinal herbal preparation, commonly used for the treatment and prevention of cancer. We tested the effects of ethanol extract of ASMq on cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) to explore the mechanism of its putative anticancer properties, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide, neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays, testing the incorporation of 3[H]-leucine and 3[H]-nucleosides into protein, DNA and RNA, and quantifying the formation of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid (MDA) adducts. ASMq ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and cell viability, increased the leakage of LDH after 48 hours or 72 hours treatment, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). Cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis were inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). No significant MDA release in culture medium and no lipid peroxidation in cells were observed. The results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ASMq ethanol extract might be related to inhibition of cancer cell growth, alteration of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nen062
PMCID: PMC3136333  PMID: 18955370
6.  Abnormal Savda Munziq, an Herbal Preparation of Traditional Uighur Medicine, May Prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-Induced Rat Colon Carcinogenesis 
The study tried to assess the chemoprotective effect of abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Male F344 rats were randomized into eight groups: Group 1 was served as control, no DMH injection was given and treated daily with normal saline. Rats in Groups 2–8 were given a single intraperitoneal injection of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) at the beginning of the study. Group 2 was served as negative control, administered with normal saline until the end of the experiment after the single DMH injection. Groups 3–5 were served as pretreatment group, administered with ASMq ethanol extract at 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg body weight, respectively, until the 45th day, continued by normal saline administration for another 45 days. Groups 6–8 were served as the treatment group, administered with normal saline for the first 45 days from the day of DMH injection, ASMq ethanol extract at three different doses to be administered until the end of the second 45th day. All rats were sacrificed at 91st day and the colons were analyzed for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and crypt multiplicity. Results showed that ASMq ethanol extract reduced the number of ACF, AC and crypt multiplicity significantly (P < .05). It suggested that ASMq ethanol extract had chemoprotective effects on DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis, by suppressing the development of preneoplastic lesions, and probably exerted protection against the initiation and promotion steps of colon carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nep059
PMCID: PMC3136791  PMID: 19561161
7.  Aspects of Sino-Japan Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Development on the Traditional Uighur Medicine 
Two consecutive conferences on ‘Sino-Japan Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Development on the Traditional Uighur Medicine’ were held in Xinjiang Medical University on July 3 and Kanazawa Medical University on October 6, 2007. The Vice president Halmurat Upur presided over the meeting and gave congratulatory address on holding of the conference. In order to understand mutually and discuss the possibility of the Uighur Medicine as CAM and the situation of medicine in the global sense, specialist scholars of Traditional Uighur Medicine and postgraduates attended this conference. In the meeting of the CAM, the achievements on the research of Traditional Uighur Medicine were exchanged and warmly discussed. Presentations were made in the consecutive conference.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nen012
PMCID: PMC2686632  PMID: 19470524
CAM; silk root; Traditional Medicine; Uighur Medicine; Urmuqi

Results 1-7 (7)