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1.  Antibacterial activities of Origanum vulgare alone and in combination with different antimicrobials against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):212-216.
Background:
Typhoid fever continues to remain a major public health problem especially in the areas where there is problem of sanitation and hygiene. The emergence of multidrug resistance of Salmonella typhi, the bacteria responsible for Typhoid to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole has further complicated the treatment and management of enteric fever. One strategy for the treatment of the multidrug resistant bacteria is to use herbs in combination with conventional drugs. The present study was done to find out the interaction effect of phenolic, nonphenolic fractions, and volatile oil of Origanum vulgare with ciprofloxacin.
Materials and Methods:
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by microdilution method for individual phytoconstituents and in combination with ciprofloxacin was compared for clinically isolated bacteria from patients infected with S. typhi. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) were also calculated.
Results:
The MIC declined to a significant level indicating synergistic relationship between ciprofloxacin and phenolic, nonphenolic fractions and volatile oil in vitro. The FICI exhibits synergistic effect for all the three samples while indifferent and antagonistic for samples and for phenolic and nonphenolic fractions.
Conclusions:
Present study shows that not only the formulation using O. vulgare and ciprofloxacin can overcome multidrug resistance but also will reduce the toxic effects of ciprofloxacin.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131974
PMCID: PMC4078471  PMID: 24991069
Antimicrobial resistance; fractional inhibitory concentration; minimum inhibitory concentration; multidrug resistance; Salmonella typhi
2.  Combination Studies of Oreganum Vulgare Extract Fractions and Volatile Oil along with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole against Common Fish Pathogens 
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin  2013;3(1):239-246.
Purpose: The study is aimed at finding new antibiotic therapy for aquaculture due to potential of bacteria to develop resistance to the existing therapies. Use of large quantities of synthetic antibiotics in aquaculture thus has the potential to be detrimental to fish health, to the environment and wildlife and to human health. Methods: Antimicrobial potential of volatile oil and fractions of chloroform extract of Oreganum vulgare was evaluated alone and in the presence of standard antimicrobials against common fish pathogens by disc-diffusion, agar well assay and two fold microdilution method by nanodrop spectrophotometric method. Results: The best results were represented by volatile oil followed by phenolic fraction by disc-diffusion, agar well and microdilution assays (Minimum inhibitory concentration). By the interaction studies, it was observed that the volatile oil and phenolic fraction were able to inhibit the pathogens at very low concentration compared to standard drugs. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated and volatile oil and phenolic fractions were found to be synergistic against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. Conclusion: The experimental data suggests the use of volatile oil and phenolic fraction in combination with standard antimicrobials to maintain healthy aquaculture with lesser adverse effects as compared to synthetic antibiotic therapy.
doi:10.5681/apb.2013.039
PMCID: PMC3846051  PMID: 24312842
Antibiotics; Antimicrobial resistance; Aquaculture; Fish pathogens; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; Oreganum vulgure
3.  Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment 
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin  2013;3(2):277-281.
Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.
doi:10.5681/apb.2013.045
PMCID: PMC3848225  PMID: 24312848
Oreganum vulgare Linn.; Phytochemical screening; Standardization; Traditional medicine
4.  In Vivo Assessment of Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Activity from Oil of Seeds of Brassica Nigra in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats 
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin  2013;3(2):359-365.
Purpose: This study was made to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of oil of seeds of Brassica nigra (BNO) in streptozotocin -nicotinamide (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: BNO was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic study. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results: Administration of BNO at a dose 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight p.o. to STZ diabetic rats showed reduction in blood glucose level from 335 mg/dl to 280 mg/dl at 4th h and from 330 mg/dl to 265 mg/dl respectively which was found significant (p<0.01) as compared with diabetic control. BNO (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin in test groups as compared to control group. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rat’s revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH). Conclusion: Thus the results showed that the oil of seeds of Brassica nigra has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity.
doi:10.5681/apb.2013.058
PMCID: PMC3848242  PMID: 24312861
Brassica nigra; Seeds; Streptozotocin; Essential oil; MDA
5.  Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill 
Background
Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models.
Methods
In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks.
Results
The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ.
Conclusion
The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-145
PMCID: PMC3468403  PMID: 22943464
Stellaria media; Anti-obesity activity; α-amylase; Lyophilized juice; High-fat-diet
6.  GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats 
Aim of the study
This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm (Tejpat) oil (CTO) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents.
Materials and methods
The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%). CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group.
Results
CTO (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (20 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH).
Conclusion
Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-95
PMCID: PMC3461457  PMID: 22882757
Cinnamomum tamala; Cinnamaldehyde; Glibenclamide; Hyperglycaemia; Streptozotocin
7.  In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic extract from Tecomella undulata 
This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level) were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-4-33
PMCID: PMC3482583  PMID: 22769229
Tecomella undulata; Streptozotocin; Diabetic rats; Malondialdehyde; Glycosylated hemoglobin
8.  Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed 
The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content), and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA) by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900 mg/kg) was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed.
doi:10.1155/2012/715912
PMCID: PMC3418711  PMID: 22919417
9.  Acute and chronic animal models for the evaluation of anti-diabetic agents 
Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide thus being a major medical concern. Experimental induction of diabetes mellitus in animal models is essential for the advancement of our knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of its pathogenesis and ultimately finding new therapies and cure. Experimental diabetes mellitus is generally induced in laboratory animals by several methods that include: chemical, surgical and genetic (immunological) manipulations. Most of the experiments in diabetes are carried out in rodents, although some studies are still performed in larger animals. The present review highlights the various methods of inducing diabetes in experimental animals in order to test the newer drugs for their anti-diabetic potential.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-9
PMCID: PMC3286385  PMID: 22257465
Streptozotocin; alloxan; diabetic rats; animal models; diabetes
10.  Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots 
Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nem003
PMCID: PMC2249740  PMID: 18317554
anti-implantation; estrogenic; Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; uterotropic
11.  Estrogenic and Pregnancy Interceptory Effects of Achyranthes Aspera Linn. Root 
Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is an abundant indigenous herb in India. It is traditionally being used as an abortifacient. Four successive solvent extracts of the root were screened for antifertility activity in female albino rats. The chloroform and ethanol extracts exhibited 100% anti-implantation activity when given orally at 200 mg/kg body weight. Both the extracts at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight also exhibited estrogenic activity. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm this estrogenic activity.
PMCID: PMC2816431  PMID: 20162066
Achyranthes aspera; Antifertility; Anti-implantation; Estrogenic; Uterotropic

Results 1-11 (11)