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1.  Uygur Medicine Xipayi Kui Jie’an Affects Gene Expression profiles in intestinal tissue Lesions in a Rat Model of Ulcerative Colitis 
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Uygur medicine KJA on UC in a rat model.
UC was induced in Wistar rats by application of 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene and acetic acid and were then treated with three different doses of KJA, and normal saline as control. After treatment for 20 days, the gene expression profile of colonic tissue was analyzed by microarray and verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.
Animals treated with the three different doses of KJA were compared with normal saline controls, wherein microarray analysis identified 1991, 2163, and 1677 differentially expressed genes respectively, of which 444 genes were raised and 670 genes were decrease spliced together in the three doses tested. The KEGG pathway analyses found commonly raised genes related to several different biological functions. Interesting genes included TRL2, IL-1β, TGF-β1, and NF-κB were confirmed by quantitative PCR.
The therapeutic effect of KJA on UC is likely explained by specific effects on the expression of genes, which are the effector molecules known to be involved in the development of UC. Further studies on differentially expressed genes will help explain the mechanism of action of Uygur medicine KJA.
PMCID: PMC4440515  PMID: 25997744
Uygur Medicine; Ulcerative colitis; Xipayi kuijie’an; Immunity and inflammation; Microarray
2.  Traditional Uighur Medicine Karapxa decoction, inhibits liver xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid concentrations in hyperuricemic mice and scavenges free radicals in vitro 
Karapxa decoction (KD) is a Traditional Uighur Medicine used for hepatitis, cholecystitis, gastralgia, oedema, gout and arthralgia. Because of its purported effect in gout, its effects were tested in hyperuricemic mice models induced by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate, as well as its capacity to scavenge free radicals in vitro.
Hyperuricemia was induced in mice by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate. KD was given orally for 14 days at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, with Allopurinol 10 mg/kg/day as positive control. Serum uric acid (UA), and liver xanthine oxidase activity (XO) were measured. Scavenging activity of KD on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPP•), nitric oxide (•NO), superoxide (O2•-), efficiency against lipid peroxidation, and XO inhibition were determined in vitro.
KD inhibited liver XO activity and reduced serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. KD also showed noticeable antioxidant activity, scavenging free radicals (DPP•, •NO and O2•-). It was effective against lipid peroxidation and inhibited XO in vitro.
This study supports the traditional use of Karapxa decoction to treat hyperuricemia and gout.
PMCID: PMC4422554  PMID: 25906842
Karapxa decoction; Serum uric acid levels; Xanthine oxidase activities; Antioxidant; Potassium oxonate; Traditional Uyghur medicine
3.  Anti-carcinogenic effects of the phenolic-rich extract from abnormal Savda Munziq in association with its cytotoxicity, apoptosis-inducing properties and telomerase activity in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa) 
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment cancer. The polyphenol is main compounds contained in ASMq preparation responsible for anticancer effect of ASMq.
In this study,Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay, MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effect of polyphenol of ASMq on cell viability and the potential of the phenolic rich extracts of ASMq to induce apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells SiHa and its effects on telomerase activity were investigated. Cellular morphological change was observed by phase contrast microscopy. The MTT cell viability data revealed that treatment with phenolic rich extracts at 75 ~ 175 μg/ml significantly inhibited the viability and proliferation of cells, and these effects occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and time dependent manner (P < 0.01).
The phenolic rich extracts can induce apoptosis of SiHa cells, can increase the apoptosis rate in a concentration-dependent manner and time dependent manner (P < 0.01). Growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by phenolic rich extracts treatment on SiHa cells was associated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and telomerase (P < 0.05) and Survivin expression. In addition, phenolic rich extracts exerted a dose-dependent induction of FHIT expression.
These results suggest that phenolic rich extracts may have anti-tumor effects in human cervical cancer through cytotoxicity, apoptosis-inducing properties and telomerase activity.
PMCID: PMC4331379  PMID: 25880193
Phenolic rich extracts of ASMq; Human cervical cancer; SiHa cells; Apoptosis; Telomerase
4.  Identification of plasma protein markers common to patients with malignant tumour and Abnormal Savda in Uighur medicine: a prospective clinical study 
Traditional Uighur medicine shares an origin with Greco-Arab medicine. It describes the health of a human body as the dynamic homeostasis of four normal Hilits (humours), known as Kan, Phlegm, Safra, and Savda. An abnormal change in one Hilit may cause imbalance among the Hilits, leading to the development of a syndrome. Abnormal Savda is a major syndrome of complex diseases that are associated with common biological changes during disease development. Here, we studied the protein expression profile common to tumour patients with Abnormal Savda to elucidate the biological basis of this syndrome and identify potential biomarkers associated with Abnormal Savda.
Patients with malignant tumours were classified by the diagnosis of Uighur medicine into two groups: Abnormal Savda type tumour (ASt) and non-Abnormal Savda type tumour (nASt), which includes other syndromes. The profile of proteins that were differentially expressed in ASt compared with nASt and normal controls (NC) was analysed by iTRAQ proteomics and evaluated by bioinformatics using MetaCore™ software and an online database. The expression of candidate proteins was verified in all plasma samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
We identified 31 plasma proteins that were differentially expressed in ASt compared with nASt, of which only 10 showed quantitatively different expression between ASt and NC. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that most of these proteins are known biomarkers for neoplasms of the stomach, breast, and lung. ELISA detection showed significant upregulation of plasma SAA1 and SPP24 and downregulation of PIGR and FASN in ASt compared with nASt and NC (p < 0.05).
Abnormal Savda may be causally associated with changes in the whole regulation network of protein expression during carcinogenesis. The expression of potential biomarkers might be used to distinguish Abnormal Savda from other syndromes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0526-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4321703  PMID: 25652121
Uighur medicine; Abnormal Savda; Malignant tumour; Plasma proteomics
5.  Acceptance of Male Circumcision Among Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Western China 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2013;29(12):1582-1588.
To describe the acceptability of male circumcision (MC) and explore potential factors associated with MC acceptability among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China, a cross-sectional survey of MC acceptability was conducted with 1,904 subjects in three western provinces with high HIV prevalence (Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang) in China between June 2009 and November 2009. Through face-to-face interviews, the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographics, MC knowledge, willingness and reasons to accept or refuse MC, sexual behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with acceptability of MC were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the participants (n=1,904), 710 men were willing to accept MC (37.3%); the reasons included promotion of the partners' genital hygiene (54.9%), redundant prepuce or phimosis (43.1%), enhancement of sexual pleasure (40.6%), prevention of penile inflammation or cancer (35.5%), and protection against HIV and sexual transmitted diseases (STDs)(31.1%). A multivariable logistic regression showed that four factors were associated with acceptability of MC, including education level (OR=1.286, 95% CI=1.025∼1.614), redundant prepuce or phimosis (OR=13.751, 95% CI=10.087∼18.745), having one or more circumcised friends (OR=2.468, 95% CI=1.953∼3.119), and having sexual intercourse with a temporary partner in the past year (OR=1.543, 95% CI=1.101∼2.162). Compared with previously published data among the general population in China or worldwide, the acceptability of MC (37.3%) was low among the male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Nevertheless, appropriate education could greatly improve the acceptability of MC. More public campaigns and health education on MC are needed to increase the rate of MC in China.
PMCID: PMC3848437  PMID: 23931654
6.  Metabolomic changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with abnormal Savda syndrome 
The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic biomarkers for abnormal Savda syndrome in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Based on Traditional Uyghur Medicine (TUM) theory, a total of 103 patients with COPD were classified into abnormal Savda and non-abnormal Savda syndrome groups and 52 healthy volunteers acted as the control group. Blood samples from the three groups were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis. NMR tests showed that the regional distributions of the patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome, those with non-abnormal Savda syndrome and the control group were completely separate (P>0.05). The patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome exhibited relatively low levels of amino acids, glycoproteins and unsaturated lipids (P<0.05) but significantly higher levels of lactic acid, carnitine, acetone and acetoacetate (P<0.05) compared with the healthy controls. Abnormal Savda syndrome was one of the main types of syndrome among the patients with COPD; increased age, a longer duration of illness and a higher disease severity were characteristic of this type of syndrome. In addition, the present study provided biochemical evidence for the TUM theory-based classification of patients with COPD; these biomarkers can be used in the clinic for the diagnosis of COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome. The study also demonstrated that the plasma metabolic disorder in patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome was more serious than that in the control and COPD with non-abnormal Savda syndrome groups. The plasma metabolic disorder was also associated with a low immune function of the body and endocrine and energy metabolism disorders.
PMCID: PMC4280916  PMID: 25574210
biomarkers; Traditional Uyghur Medicine; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; abnormal Savda syndrome
7.  Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Drug Users in Western China: Implications for HIV Transmission 
The prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among drug users in western China and the implications for HIV transmission in this population are described. A cross-sectional survey of male drug users was conducted in methadone maintenance therapy clinics and detoxification centers in three western provinces of China between September 2009 and December 2010. Participants in the study completed a questionnaire about demographics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, drug use history, sexual risk behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 1,304 drug users surveyed, nearly 54% never used condoms during sexual intercourse with a spouse or cohabitant, and this behavior was associated with coming from Chongqing (OR=1.86, p<0.05), being aged 36 and older (OR=5.03, p<0.05), being married or cohabiting (OR=1.68, p<0.05), having first taken drugs at age 30 and above (OR=1.80, p<0.05), and having received AIDS advice or detection from authorities in the past year (OR=1.95, p<0.05). Twenty-six percent had had sex with casual sexual partners in the past year, and this behavior was associated with being married or cohabiting (OR=0.30, p<0.05), first taking drugs at age 31 and above (OR=0.42, p<0.05), and receiving AIDS advice or HIV detection from authorities in the past year (OR=0.70, p<0.05). About 34% never used a condom when having sex with casual sexual partners, and this behavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=2.81, p<0.05) or Chongqing (OR=2.73, p<0.05). Almost 14% had had commercial sex in the past year, and this behavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=6.26, p<0.05) or Chongqing (OR=5.44, p<0.05) and having exchanged needles or received clean needles from the Needle Exchange Centers in the past year (OR=2.76, p<0.05). Nearly 23% had never used condoms when having commercial sex, and this behavior was associated with having received free condoms from authorities in the past year (OR=0.26, p<0.05). Sexual risk behaviors among drug users in Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang are common. Additional intervention strategies are needed to control the spread of HIV in this population.
PMCID: PMC3607904  PMID: 23210514
8.  Investigation into the Toxicity of Traditional Uyghur Medicine Quercus Infectoria Galls Water Extract 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90756.
Quercus infectoria galls (QIG) is being widely used in Traditional Uyghur Medicine. To gather preclinical safety information for the aqueous extract of QIG, a toxicity study was performed.
Subject animals were randomized, and devided into exposure and control groups. In the acute toxicity phase, three different doses—5, 7.5, and 10 g/kg, respectively—were administered via enema to imprinting control region (ICR) mice. An experiment using the maximum tolerance dose (MTD) i.e.10 g/kg was also performed. Data were gathered for 14 days, and study parameters were clinical signs, body weight, general behavior, adverse effects and mortality. At the day 14, major organs of the subjects were examined histologically. Chronic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats for over 180 consecutive days. The rats were divided into three groups with different doses of 0.2 g/kg, 0.8 g/kg, and 2 g/kg, QIG. Furthermore, observations were carried out in rabbits to investigate if there were signs of irritation.
In comparison to control group, acute, chronic toxicity and mortality were not significantly increased in exposure group.
Study result suggests that the aqueous extract of QIG is unlikely to have significant toxicity and that clinical trials may proceed safely.
PMCID: PMC3946586  PMID: 24608135
9.  Association study of gene polymorphisms and depression with abnormal humor in traditional Uighur medicine 
According to the humor theory of Traditional Uighur Medicine (TUM), a same disease is classified into different abnormal humor types and corresponding methods are applied to treat the diseases according to the type of abnormal humor characteristics. To date the biological foundation of classification of diseases by humor theory has been little studied and the mechanism of action is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between some related gene polymorphisms and depression with abnormal humor in TUM.
201 cases of depression patients in a Uighur population were divided into two groups as: 107 cases of depression patients with abnormal black bile (ABB), 94 cases of depression patients with none abnormal black bile (nABB), and 50 healthy people were served as control group. Venous blood was used to isolate DNA samples, and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Polymorphisms in the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor gene, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene were investigated in each groups, respectively.
The 5-HT2A A-1438G, 5-HT2A T102C, BDNF Val66Met, and 5-HT1A C-1019G gene polymorphisms showed significant association with ABB. However, no difference between nABB and controls was found for those genotype distribution and allele frequency. Moreover, the T102C and A1438G SNPs in the 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium. In addition, the OR associated with the combination of Val66Met-Val/Val genotype plus the presence of -1019C allele was 8.393 for ABB compared with controls (OR 8.393; 95% CI 1.807 ~ 38.991; P= 0.003). Moreover, the OR associated with the presence of -Met plus -1019C alleles was 12.194 for ABB compared with controls (OR 12.194; 95% CI 1.433 ~ 103.776; P= 0.005). The OR associated with the presence of -1438C/C plus Val/Val genotypes was 7.738 for ABB compared with controls (OR 7.738; 95% CI 1.566 ~ 38.241; P= 0.005).
It was concluded that there were significant relationship between the gene polymorphisms and classification of depression with abnormal humor in TUM. The 5-HT2A A-1438G, 5-HT2A T102C, BDNF Val66Met, and 5-HT1A C-1019G gene polymorphisms might predict the incidence of depression with ABB.
PMCID: PMC4222500  PMID: 24274373
Traditional Uighur medicine; Depression; 5-HT2A; BDNF; 5-HT1A
10.  Association of the Plasma and Tissue Riboflavin Levels with C20orf54 Expression in Cervical Lesions and Its Relationship to HPV16 Infection 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79937.
Riboflavin deficiency can cause a variety of metabolic problems that lead to skin and mucosal disorders. Limited evidence suggests that high intake of riboflavin may reduce overall risks of cancer. However, association of this deficiency with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions are still not definitively known. In this study, we characterized the relationship between plasma and tissue riboflavin levels and C20orf54 protein expression in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) as well as the relationship of these levels with human papillomavirus virus 16, 18 (HPV16/18) infections. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure blood riboflavin levels in patients with CIN and CSCC, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine tissue riboflavin levels in patients with CSCC and matched normal mucous epithelia. The expression of C20orf54 in fresh CSCC and matched tissues were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. And it was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded CIN and CSCC. An HPV genotyping chip was used to analyze HPV infection and typing. The results showed that patients with CIN and CSCC had decreased plasma riboflavin levels as compared with normal controls. There was also significantly decreased riboflavin in tissues from CSCC patients, when compared with normal cervical epithelia. C20orf54 expression were significantly up-regulated in CSCC compared to matched control on both mRNA and protein level. Tissue riboflavin levels were significantly lower in HPV16/18 positive tissue compared with HPV16/18-negative tissue, and an inverse association was found between tissue riboflavin levels and C20orf54 mRNA and protein expression in CSCC. Additionally, C20orf54 was significantly correlated with tumor stages. In conclusion, C20orf54 tend to play a protective role in Uyghur cervical carcinogenesis of which modulating riboflavin absorption, and it is also related with HPV infection.
PMCID: PMC3832395  PMID: 24260322
11.  Comparison of Three Intervention Models for Promoting Circumcision among Migrant Workers in Western China to Reduce Local Sexual Transmission of HIV 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e76107.
Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC) as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China.
A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits.
All three models significantly increased the participants’ knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670) of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002) compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12) or three-stage model (P=0.10).
A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models.
PMCID: PMC3786908  PMID: 24098770
12.  Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations in Breast Cancer Women of Multiple Ethnic Region in Northwest China 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2013;16(1):50-54.
The aim of this study is to further understand the status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation among Chinese high-risk breast cancer patients in multiple-ethnic regions of China.
A total of 79 blood samples of high-risk breast cancer patients from Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region were analyzed by PCR-DHPLC sequencing analysis.
Analysis with full length of the two genes identified a total of 6 deleterious mutations (2073delA, 2394C-T [Q759X] and IVS16+1G>A in BRCA1; 1627A-T [K467X], 6873delCTCC and 9481delA in BRCA2) in this cohort. The prevalence of BRCA1/2 germline mutation was about 7.6% (6/79) in the Xinjiang multiple ethnic region of China. Among them, 3 novel deleterious mutations, 2073delA in BRCA1 (Han ethnic Chinese) and BRCA2 variants 6873delCTCC and 9481delA (both are Kazakh ethnic Chinese), were identified and they had never been reported in breast cancer information core (BIC) database before. 2394C-T (Q759X) and IVS16+1G>A, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants 1627A-T were previously reported in other populations but not Chinese. Among 6 of the BRCA-related tumors, three BRCA1- and one BRCA2-associated tumors were in triple negative (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 negative expressed) status and exhibited a high tumor grade. So far none of these 6 deleterious mutations were reported in ethnic Han Chinese.
BRCA germline mutation in Chinese multiple ethnicity region may exhibit different genotypes compared to ethnic Han Chinese in other regions. These differences may arise from interaction of genetic background and environmental factors.
PMCID: PMC3625769  PMID: 23593081
BRCA1; BRCA2; Breast neoplasms; Chinese; Ethnic groups; Genetic variation
13.  Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of abnormal Savda Munziq on S180 tumour-bearing mice 
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq), a traditional uyghur medicine, has shown anti-tumour properties in vitro. This study attempts to confirm these effects in vivo and measure effects on the immune system.
Kunming mice transplanted with Sarcoma 180 cells were treated with ASMq (2–8 g/kg/day) by intra-gastric administration compared to model and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg/day). After the 14th day post tumour implant, thymus, liver, spleen and tumours were removed, weighed, and processed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were also taken for haematological and biochemical analyses including TNF-α , IL-1 β and IL-2. Splenic lymphocyte function was measured with MTT; lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry.
ASMq treated animals had reduced tumour volume compared to model and increased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2 compared to untreated and to cyclophosphamide-treated animals. No histopathological alterations were observed. The absence of viable S180 cells and the presence of necrotic cells and granulation tissue were observed in tumour tissue of treated animals. The effect on T lymphocytes was unclear.
ASMq confirmed in vivo anti-tumour effects observed in vitro, which may be at least in part mediated by increased immune activity.
PMCID: PMC3489790  PMID: 22978453
14.  Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice 
Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and β-endorphin (β-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems.
PMCID: PMC3419564  PMID: 22919413
15.  The impact of the Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq on antitumor and antioxidant activity in a S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mouse tumor model 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2012;8(30):141-148.
This study was designed to study the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq (ASMq) in the S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mice tumor model.
Materials and Methods:
The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), and glutathione-catalase (GSH-PX) were analyzed, and the mice were also subjected to a hypoxia tolerance test. Their climbing ability was also analyzed.
The findings of the study revealed that ASMq-treatment leads to an increase in blood serum SOD and GSH-PX levels but a decrease in blood serum MDA levels. Moreover, ASMq-treatment enhanced the survival time of mice maintained under hypoxic conditions and improved their mice climbing ability.
The results of this study indicate that ASMq has obvious antitumor and antioxidative effects.
PMCID: PMC3371436  PMID: 22701288
Abnormal savda munziq; antioxidant; antitumor
16.  Towards Modernization of the Formulation of the Traditional Uighur Medicine Herbal Preparation Abnormal Savda Munziq 
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500 mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80), with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5 L per day) of ASMq decoction for cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3152965  PMID: 21837249
17.  Epidemiological Survey on the Prevalence of Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus in Uyghur Adults from Rural Hotan Area in Xinjiang 
Experimental Diabetes Research  2011;2012:758921.
Background and Aims. This study was designed to explore the relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Uygur adults from Xinjiang. Methods and Results. Data were obtained using questionnaire and oral examination. Participants (48.87 ±13.72 yr) were categorized into periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups in accordance with the chronic periodontitis diagnostic criteria. Based on gum inflammation, bleeding on probing, periodontal pocket depth and attachment loss, patients were further divided into mild, moderate and severe periodontitis groups. Among 962 subjects, 453 (47.1%) suffered from chronic periodontitis with a prevalence of type 2 DM and impaired fasting glucose of 9.5% and 11.4%, respectively. In the periodontitis group, the prevalence of type 2 DM was 75.6% compared with 22.4% in the non-periodontitis group. Likewise, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 71.3% and 28.7% in periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed moderate and severe periodontitis as risk factors for DM (OR = 3.4, OR = 2.9). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that moderate periodontitis is independently associated with DM (OR = 4). Conclusions. Our data revealed that prevalence of DM is overtly higher in periodontitis patients than in individuals without periodontitis. Furthermore, moderate periodontitis is considered an independent risk factor for type 2 DM.
PMCID: PMC3150776  PMID: 21826136
18.  Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq, a Herbal Preparation of Traditional Uighur Medicine, Inhibits Caco-2 Cells Proliferation via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis 
Aims. Study the effect of Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) ethanol extract on the proliferation, apoptosis, and correlative gene, expression in colon cancer cells (Caco-2) to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anticancer property of Abnormal Savda Munziq. Materials and Methods. ASMq ethanol extract was prepared by a professional pharmacist. Caco-2 cells were treated with different concentration of ASMq ethanol extract (0.5–7.5 mg/mL) for different time intervals (48 and 72 h). Antiproliferative effect of ASMq ethanol extract was determined by MTT assay; DNA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis assay; cell cycle analysis was detected by flow cytometer; apoptosis-related gene expression was detected by RT-PCR assay. Results. ASMq ethanol extract possesses an inhibition effect on Caco-2 cells proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 phase, and downregulation of bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax gene expression. Conclusion. The anticancer mechanism of ASMq ethanol extract may be involved in antiproliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and regulation of apoptosis-related gene expression such as bcl-2 and Bax activity pathway.
PMCID: PMC3138059  PMID: 21785650
19.  Inhibition of Cell Growth and Cellular Protein, DNA and RNA Synthesis in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells by Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq of Traditional Uighur Medicine 
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uighur medicinal herbal preparation, commonly used for the treatment and prevention of cancer. We tested the effects of ethanol extract of ASMq on cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) to explore the mechanism of its putative anticancer properties, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide, neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays, testing the incorporation of 3[H]-leucine and 3[H]-nucleosides into protein, DNA and RNA, and quantifying the formation of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid (MDA) adducts. ASMq ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and cell viability, increased the leakage of LDH after 48 hours or 72 hours treatment, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). Cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis were inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). No significant MDA release in culture medium and no lipid peroxidation in cells were observed. The results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ASMq ethanol extract might be related to inhibition of cancer cell growth, alteration of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis.
PMCID: PMC3136333  PMID: 18955370
20.  Abnormal Savda Munziq, an Herbal Preparation of Traditional Uighur Medicine, May Prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-Induced Rat Colon Carcinogenesis 
The study tried to assess the chemoprotective effect of abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Male F344 rats were randomized into eight groups: Group 1 was served as control, no DMH injection was given and treated daily with normal saline. Rats in Groups 2–8 were given a single intraperitoneal injection of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) at the beginning of the study. Group 2 was served as negative control, administered with normal saline until the end of the experiment after the single DMH injection. Groups 3–5 were served as pretreatment group, administered with ASMq ethanol extract at 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg body weight, respectively, until the 45th day, continued by normal saline administration for another 45 days. Groups 6–8 were served as the treatment group, administered with normal saline for the first 45 days from the day of DMH injection, ASMq ethanol extract at three different doses to be administered until the end of the second 45th day. All rats were sacrificed at 91st day and the colons were analyzed for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and crypt multiplicity. Results showed that ASMq ethanol extract reduced the number of ACF, AC and crypt multiplicity significantly (P < .05). It suggested that ASMq ethanol extract had chemoprotective effects on DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis, by suppressing the development of preneoplastic lesions, and probably exerted protection against the initiation and promotion steps of colon carcinogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3136791  PMID: 19561161
21.  Anti-Inflammatory, Immunomodulatory, and Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibitory Activities of Ravan Napas, a Formulation of Uighur Traditional Medicine, in a Rat Model of Allergic Asthma 
Ravan Napas (RN) is a traditional formula used to treat pulmonary symptoms and diseases such as coughing, breathing difficulty, and asthma in traditional Uighur medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, and immuno-modulatory activity of RN in a well-characterized animal model of allergic asthma. Rats were sensitized with intraperitoneal (ip) ovalbumin (OVA) and alum, and then challenged with OVA aerosols. The asthma model rats were treated with RN; saline- and dexamethasone- (DXM-) treated rats served as normal and model controls. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cellular differential and the concentrations of sICAM-1, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α, INF-γ, and IgE in serum were measured. Lung sections underwent histological analysis. The immunohistochemistry S-P method was used to measure the expression of ICAM-1 and HO-1 in the lung. RN significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and lung tissues, decreased sICAM-1, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α, and IgE in serum, and increased serum INF-γ. There was a marked suppression of ICAM-1 and HO-1 expression in the lung. Our results suggest that RN may have an anti-inflammatory and immuneregulatory effect on allergic bronchial asthma by modulating the balance between Th1/Th2 cytokines.
PMCID: PMC2952321  PMID: 20953388
22.  Determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by HPLC method 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2010;6(22):116-119.
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate, binary-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in the Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with short run time. Chromatographic separation is achieved by using HPLC system consisting of a Shimadzu LC-6AD and Kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 10 μm, with pre-column), the mobile phase consists of methanol and 0.03 M phosphate buffer (pH = 3, 90:10). Detection wavelength is 214 nm. The speed of flow is 0.5 ml/min. The specimen handing quantity is 10 μl. The oleanolic acid's linearity range is 0.4 ~ 1.2 mg/ml (r = 0.9996). The ursolic acid's linearity range is 0.6 ~ 1.8 mg/ml (r = 0.9996), and the linear relationship is accurate. The average recovery (n = 6) of oleanolic acid is 99.5% (RSD = 1.19%) and ursolic acid is 102.3% (RSD = 1.25%). The content of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in Ziziphora clinopodioides are 0.76 mg/g and 1.176 mg/g, respectively. The developed HPLC method can therefore be applied to both in vitro studies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid formulations as well as drug estimation in biological samples.
PMCID: PMC2900058  PMID: 20668577
HPLC; oleanolic acid; ursolic acid; Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam

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