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author:("ueno, Yih-hue")
1.  Protective effect of guggulsterone against cardiomyocyte injury induced by doxorubicin in vitro 
Background
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antineoplastic drug; however, clinical use of DOX is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in the pathological process of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. For this study, we evaluated the protective effects of guggulsterone (GS), a steroid obtained from myrrh, to determine its preliminary mechanisms in defending against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells.
Methods
In this study, we used a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release measurements, and Hoechst 33258 staining to evaluate the protective effect of GS against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. In addition, we observed the immunofluorescence of intracellular ROS and measured lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis-related proteins by using Western blotting.
Results
The MTT assay and LDH release showed that treatment using GS (1–30 μM) did not cause cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GS inhibited DOX (1 μM)-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Hoechst 33258 staining showed that GS significantly reduced DOX-induced apoptosis and cell death. Using GS at a dose of 10–30 μM significantly reduced intracellular ROS and the formation of MDA in the supernatant of DOX-treated H9C2 cells and suppressed caspase-3 activity to reference levels. In immunoblot analysis, pretreatment using GS significantly reversed DOX-induced decrease of PARP, caspase-3 and bcl-2, and increase of bax, cytochrome C release, cleaved-PARP and cleaved-caspase-3. In addition, the properties of DOX-induced cancer cell (DLD-1 cells) death did not interfere when combined GS and DOX.
Conclusion
These data provide considerable evidence that GS could serve as a novel cardioprotective agent against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-138
PMCID: PMC3493356  PMID: 22920231
Guggulsterone; Doxorubicin; Cardiotoxicity; Cytokines; Reactive oxygen species
2.  Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone, in vitro inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(3):541-547.
The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 and WiDr. Colon carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of aloe-emodin for different durations. Cell viability was measured by sodium 3′-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate assay. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Nuclear shrinkage was visualized by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blotting was used to indicate the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria and the phosphorylation of Bid. Caspase-3 and casein kinase II activities were measured by the respective assays. Cell viability analyses showed that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the WiDr cells were more sensitive to aloe-emodin than the DLD-1 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by activation of caspase-3 leading to DNA fragmentation, nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure of colon carcinoma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These findings showed that the inhibition of casein kinase II activity, the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c, and the caspase-3 activation are involved in aloe-emodin-mediated apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000096
PMCID: PMC3436217  PMID: 22966340
aloe-emodin; apoptosis; colon carcinoma cells
3.  Clinical and Prognostic Implications of Transcription Factor SOX4 in Patients with Colon Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67128.
Colon cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide but the current therapeutic approaches for advanced colon cancer are less efficient. This study investigated associations between the expression of nuclear transcription factor SOX4 and various clinicopathologic parameters as well as patients’ survival. Expression levels of nuclear SOX4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry; the data comprised colon tissues from 263 patients with colon cancer. Paired t tests were used to analyze the differences in nuclear SOX4 expression between tumor and non-tumor tissues from each patient. Two-tailed Χ2 tests were performed to determine whether the differences in nuclear SOX4 expression and clinicopathologic parameters were significant. Time-to-event endpoints for clinicopathologic parameters were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and statistical significance was determined using univariate log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis to determine the independence of prognostic effects of nuclear SOX4 expression. Overexpression of nuclear SOX4 was significantly correlated with depth of invasion (P = 0.0041), distant metastasis (P<0.0001), and stage (P = 0.0001). Patients who displayed high expression levels of nuclear SOX4 achieved a significantly poorer disease-free survival rate, compared with patients with low SOX4 expression levels (P<0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that overexpression of nuclear SOX4 was a clear prognostic marker for colon cancer (P = 0.001). Overexpression of nuclear SOX4 may be used as a marker to predict the outcome of patients with colon cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067128
PMCID: PMC3694951  PMID: 23826209
4.  Clinical and Prognostic Association of Transcription Factor SOX4 in Gastric Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52804.
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular process by which this disease develops and progresses. This study investigated correlations between the expression of nuclear transcription factor SOX4 and various clinicopathologic parameters as well as patients' survival. Expression levels of nuclear SOX4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry; the data comprised gastric tissues from 168 patients with GC. Paired t tests were used to analyze the differences in nuclear SOX4 expression between tumor and non-tumor tissues from each patient. Two-tailed Χ2 tests were performed to determine whether the differences in nuclear SOX4 expression and clinicopathologic parameters were significant. Time-to-event endpoints for clinicopathologic parameters were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and statistical significance was determined using univariate log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis to determine the independence of prognostic effects of nuclear SOX4 expression. Overexpression of nuclear SOX4 was significantly correlated with depth of invasion (P<0.0001), nodal status (P = 0.0055), distant metastasis (P = 0.0195), stage (P = 0.0003), and vascular invasion (P = 0.0383). Patients who displayed high expression levels of nuclear SOX4 achieved a significantly poorer disease-free survival rate, compared with patients with low SOX4 expression levels (P = 0.003). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that overexpression of nuclear SOX4 was a clear prognostic marker for GC (P = 0.004). Overexpression of nuclear SOX4 can be used as a marker to predict the outcome of patients with GC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052804
PMCID: PMC3527618  PMID: 23285187
5.  Overexpression of Nuclear Protein Kinase CK2 α Catalytic Subunit (CK2α) as a Poor Prognosticator in Human Colorectal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e17193.
Background
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies but the current therapeutic approaches for advanced CRC are less efficient. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches are badly needed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the involvement of nuclear protein kinase CK2 α subunit (CK2α) in tumor progression, and in the prognosis of human CRC.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Expression levels of nuclear CK2α were analyzed in 245 colorectal tissues from patients with CRC by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We correlated the expression levels with clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis in human CRC patients. Overexpression of nuclear CK2α was significantly correlated with depth of invasion, nodal status, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging, degree of differentiation, and perineural invasion. Patients with high expression levels of nuclear CK2α had a significantly poorer overall survival rate compared with patients with low expression levels of nuclear CK2α. In multi-variate Cox regression analysis, overexpression of nuclear CK2α was proven to be an independent prognostic marker for CRC. In addition, DLD-1 human colon cancer cells were employed as a cellular model to study the role of CK2α on cell growth, and the expression of CK2α in DLD-1 cells was inhibited by using siRNA technology. The data indicated that CK2α-specific siRNA treatment resulted in growth inhibition.
Conclusions/Significance
Taken together, overexpression of nuclear CK2α can be a useful marker for predicting the outcome of patients with CRC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017193
PMCID: PMC3040762  PMID: 21359197

Results 1-5 (5)